Social Problems Final-Study Guide

What term describes a large number of individuals who share the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations?
The ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.
What best describes C. Wright Mills sociological imagination?
actions or practices of dominant group members that have a harmful impact on members of subordinate groups
According to the text what is the definition of discrimination?
small-group relations and social interaction among individuals
Where is the focus of micro level analysis?
Regarding research methods, what is a theoretical framework, overall approach, or viewpoint towards some subject?
A living organism, just as muscles tissues and organs of the human body perform specific functions that maintain the body as a whole, the various parts of society contribute to its maintenance and preservation
August Comte, the founder of sociology compared society to what?
Latent functions
What term refers to unintended consequences of an active or social process?
survey research
What type of research is used most by social scientists?
To teach people of all ages to engage in nonviolent conflict resolution where they learn how to deal with frustrating situations
What is the symbolic interactionist solution to violence?
macro level
At what sociological level would the study of social problems involving the economy or the government take place?
Working class is composed of people who work as semiskilled machine operators in industrial settings and unionized workers in goods-producing industries. Also routine, semiskilled positions such as day care workers, checkout clerks, cashiers, and counter help in fast food.
According to the text, who make up the working class?
That the average family must spend about one third of its total income on food
The poverty line is based on what assumption?
The culture of poverty hypothesis
What best describes Oscar Lewis’s idea that some poor people develop a separate and self-perpetuating system of attitudes and behaviors that keeps them trapped in poverty?
the media frames stories to invoke sympathy for children, elderly or persons with illness or disability, shows the societal and individual problems associated with poverty
What is sympathetic framing and when is it most likely used with social problems in the media?
Which of the following perspectives asserts that poverty related problems can be reduced by strengthening our major social institutions?
symbolic interactionist
What theoretical approach involves making us aware that social change must occur at both the micro and macro level to reduce poverty?
wage squeeze
What is the term used to describe the decrease in take home pay of workers since the 1980s?
What term describes actions or practices of dominant group members that have a harmful impact on members of subordinate groups?
Amalgamation or melting-pot model
What is the process whereby the cultural attributes of diverse racial ethnic groups are blended together to form a new society incorporating the unique contributions of each group?
Conflict theorists
Which sociological theorists explain racial and ethnic inequality in terms of economic stratification and access to power?
De jure segregation, the passage of laws that systematically enforced the physical and social separation of African Americans from whites in all areas of public life, including schools, churches, hospitals, cemeteries, buses, restaurants, water fountains, and restrooms
What term describes the “Jim Crow” laws designed to enforce the physical and social separation of African Americans from whites in all areas of public life after 1863?
What is the largest subordinate racial-ethnic group in the U.S.?
Which sociological theorists view families, schools, and churches as being key institutions that should encourage minority acceptance of dominant U.S. cultural patterns?
conflict theorists
Which sociological theorists emphasize that solutions to the problem of inequality will be found only through government programs that specifically attack racial inequality and actively reduce patterns of discrimination?
symbolic interactionists
Which sociological theorists maintain that prejudice and discrimination are learned and can be unlearned?
gender roles
What term do sociologists use to refer to the rights, responsibilities, expectations, and relationships of women and men?
Title IX
Which federal statute prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any educational program or activity receiving financial assistance from the U.S. government?
Gendered-segregated work
What term do Sociologists use to refer to the extent to which men and women are concentrated in different occupations and places?
Pink—collar occupations
According to the text, where are the majority of clerical workers, food service workers, and medical assistants employed?
symbolic interactionists
Which sociological perspective focuses on micro level processes in reducing or eliminating gender inequality?
conflict theorists
Which sociological theorists use a Marxist approach to explain gender inequality?
Biological division of labor and that what individuals earn is based on choices they have made including choices about the kinds of training and experience they accumulate, or if they choose to have children
According to functionalist analysts, what are the primary causes of gender inequality?
The view that males should be more direct and independent than women is a difference based on what?
What is life expectancy at birth in the U.S.?
At what age have most people left paid employment?
age stratification
How do Sociologists refer to inequalities, differences, segregation, or conflict between age groups?
disengagement theory
What aging related theory suggests that older people want to be released from societal expectations as they grow older?
That activity is important for older people because it provides new sources of identity and satisfaction later in life
What does the interactionist perspectives on aging and inequality suggest?
Disengagement of older people from their jobs and other social positions may be functional for society because it allows the smooth transfer of roles from one generation to the next.
What does the functionalist perspectives on aging and inequality suggest?
Estimate of the average (mean) lifetime of people born in a specific year
Life expectancy is calculated based upon what mathematical concept?
That people can be exploited, double standard that women need to look youthful and that people take advantage of older people, and the problem isn’t the problem, it’s the inadequate societal conditions that older people face such as income and housing
What can be inferred based on the conflict perspective on aging and inequality?
The practice in which partners live together in a sexual relationship where they assume the same responsibilities as a married couple but are not considered by law to have all of the rights and privileges of those who are considered to be legally married
How is cohabitation defined?
ENDA Employment Non-discrimination act provides legal protection for LGBT persons in the workplace
Which federal bill introduced in 2011 sought to ban workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity?
sex industry
What term is used by social scientists to refer to prostitution, pornography, the adult-film and adult-video trade, escort services, massage parlors, and strip and table dancing clubs?
That it was evil, but encouraged tolerance toward it, that it served a basic need that if unmet would result in greater harm than prostitution itself.
How did early Christian leaders such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas view prostitution?
In the United States, legal brothels (houses of prostitution) are located where?
that it is functional for society, it provides a sexual outlet and protects the family as a social institution and creates jobs for low skilled people
What is the view of prostitution according to functionalists?
That it’s a victimless crime involving a willing buyer and a willing seller, that should be decriminalized
Using a liberal feminist framework, what do conflict theorists believe about prostitution?
White Americans had the highest percentage of drug use and Mexican Americans had the lowest
How does race play a part in prescription drug abuse?
in the first 3 months of pregnancy
At what time does the greatest risk of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) occur?
chinese railroad workers
According to conflict theorists, opium was outlawed in the United States because it was associated with what?
What is the most widely abused narcotic
a local anesthetic in medical practice and a mood-enhancer in patent medicines
According to the text, cocaine was introduced to the U.S. as?
A psychological and or physiological need for a drug to maintain a sense of well-being and avoid withdrawal symptoms
What is drug addiction?
mentally ill
How have homosexuals historically been psychologically classified?
What are relatively minor crimes punishable by a fine or less than a year in jail?
Which perspectives explain strain theory and control theory?
According to Robert Merton, which of the following accept society’s goals, but use illegitimate means to achieve them?
symbolic interactionist
Which sociological perspective explain both differential association theory and labeling theory?
symbolic interactionist
Which sociological approach to solving violence might include having police officers work with school children to teach them about the importance of abiding by the law?
A criminal who enters a home through an open window and steals jewelry, cash, and electronics has committed what kind of crime?
Drug trafficking, prostitution, and money laundering are typically related to which kind of crime?
White women
According to life expectancy rates, which demographic group has the longest life expectancy?
A restricted or total lack of ability to perform certain activities as a result of physical limitations or the interplay of these limitations, social responses, and the social environment
What is a disability?
Primarily through bodily fluids such as semen or blood, also by blood transfusions, and by infected mothers before or during birth or while breast feeding
How is AIDS transmitted?
Mental disorder is a condition that makes it difficult or impossible for a person to cope with everyday life, mental illness is a condition that requires extensive treatment with medication, psychotherapy, and sometimes hospitalization
Although most social scientists use the terms mental illness and mental disorder interchangeably, many medical professionals distinguish between the two. How do medical professionals make this distinction?
18-25 (females)
The highest rate of serious mental illness among U.S. adults is for persons of what age group?
Medicare is a federally funded medical entitlement program for older people, it is funded largely by workers payments into the system throughout their working lives
How does Medicare relate to public health insurance?
That stresses associated with lower class life lead to greater mental disorders
What do analysts using the social stress framework to examine mental disorders believe?
People become depressed when they think they have no control over their lives
According to the text, what is the learned helplessness theory?
Group of people who are related by blood, marriage, adoption; live together, economic unit, bare and raise children
According to the text, what is the definition of the traditional family?
African American men have higher rates of mortality than African women, more African women are college educated, African men have less to offer because of discrimination limited educational opportunities and job prospects, homosexuality is higher in African men than women, and African American men more than women marry members of other racial ethic groups
What has contributed to the lower marriage rate of African Americans compared to Latinos/as and whites?
Dual earner marriages
What term describes marriages where both spouses work in the labor force?
Second shift
What term is used to describe the domestic work that many employed women perform at home after completing their work day on the job?
Marriage at early age, shoft acquaintanceship before marriage, disapproval of the marriage by relatives and friends, limited economic resources and low wages, high school education or less, parents who are divorced, presence of children at the start of the marriage
What factors contribute to the likelihood of becoming divorced?
The family into which a person is born and in which early socialization takes place
What is the definition of the family of orientation?
Emile Durkheim (functionalist)
Which sociological theorists believe that a division of labor in families contributes to greater efficiency in marriage and families?
Which social institution responsible for transmitting knowledge, skills, and cultural values in a formally organized structure?
Functionalists believe that education contributes to the smooth functioning of society when it fulfills its manifest functions.
What is the Functionalists view of education?
That schools which are supposed to reduce inequality in society actually perpetuate inequalities based on class race and gender. Also that elites manipulate the masses and maintain their power in society through a hidden curriculum that teaches students to be obedient and patriotic and thus perpetuates the status quo in society
What do conflict theorists believe about education?
Study classroom dynamics and how practices such as labeling affect students self-concept and aspirations
What is the interest of symbolic interactionist regarding education?
That separate but equal schools are unconstitutional because they are inherently unequal, racial segregation or desegregation appears to be increasing in education rather than decreasing.
What did the Supreme Court rule in Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas?
What is the practice of assigning students to specific courses and educational programs on the basis of their test scores, previous grades, or both?
Much higher functional illiteracy among minority groups
What is the rate of functional illiteracy among minority groups compared to other groups?
some believe that giving taxpayer money to parents so that they can spend it at private schools violates some state’s constitutions in regard to separation of church and state or that they are less effective in educating children than public schools
What affect does school voucher systems on public funding?
The social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by certain individuals and groups.
What is the definition of politics?
Capitalism, socialism, and mixed economies-combines elements of both capitalism (a market economy) and socialism (a command economy)
According to the text, what are the three major economic systems present in modern societies?
Which economic system is characterized by private ownership of the means of production, from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without government intervention?
Which economic system characterized by public ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of collective goals, and centralized decision making?
(preindustrial economies)-the extraction of raw materials and natural resources from the environment
What is the definition of the primary sector of production?
(industrial economies) -the processing of raw materials (from the primary sector) into finished products
What best defines secondary sector production?
What is a situation in which a small number of companies or suppliers control an entire industry or service?
the top tier civil service bureaucrats who have a strong power base and play a major role in developing and implementing government policies and procedures
Which are characteristics of the federal bureaucracy?
Which sociological perspective argue that problems in politics and the economy can be remedied by repairing the specific elements of the system that are creating the problems?
What is the melding of communications, computers, and electronics industries that has occurred in the United States?
Cathartic effect hypothesis
What hypothesis explains the idea that television shows, videos, motion pictures, and other forms of media offer people a vicarious outlet for their feelings of aggression, and therefore, may reduce the amount of violence engaged in by the media consumer?
theory of limited effects
What states that the media have a minimal effect on the attitudes and perceptions of individuals (symbolic interactionist)?
Overemphasis on media and spending only omitted amounts of face-time with people who are physically present is dysfunctional because it contributes to a lack of social stability in families and weakens the larger social institution of family
According to the functionalist approach, when does the media become dysfunctional?
Conflict theorist
Hegemony theory as it relates to the media can best be categorized under which sociological perspective?
Hypodermic needle theory
What is the theory that posits audiences are made of passive individuals who are equally susceptible to the messages of the media?
Social learning theory
What is the theory that is based on the assumption that people are likely to act out the behavior they see in role models and media sources?
Theory of limited effects
What theory is being demonstrated when a person carefully evaluates information from the media and disregards bad information?
Gender stereotyping
What is being demonstrated when the working-class male character on a prime-time sitcom is portrayed as rude and uneducated?
What term describes the study of the size, composition, and distribution of populations?
crude birth rate
The number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year?
Number of deaths that occur in a specific population?
What is the movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of changing residency?
Symbolic interactionist
Which sociological perspective explains that environmental problems are made worse by people’s subjective assessment of reality?
Legal permanent resident
What term describes a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United States?
What is the process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cites rather than in rural areas?
What term describes a continuous concentration of two or more cities and their suburbs that have grown until they form an interconnected urban area?
dominant capitalist centers characterized by high levels of industrialization and urbanization
What are “core” nations?
What framework for examining urban problems explain mass migration from rural to urban areas, large-scale immigration in the late nineteenth and twentieth century, and mass suburbanization?
Emile Durkheim
Who introduced the concepts of mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity?
The housing act of 1949
What factors contributed to the postwar suburban boom?
What is the use of calculated, unlawful physical force or threats of violence against a government, organization, or individual to gain some political, religious, economic, or social objective?
Collective violence
What involves organized violence by people seeking to promote their cause or resist social policies or practices that they consider oppressive?
A struggle between good and evil
According to Tamotsu Shibutani, what do prolonged conflicts turn into?
Social movement
What is the term for an organized group that acts collectively to promote or resist change through collective action?
When social institutions do not fulfill the functions they are supposed to or when dysfunctions occur; therefore, social institutions need to be made more effective, and social change needs to be managed carefully
According to a functionalist perspective, when do social problems arise?
Social problems arise out of the major contradictions inherent in the way societies are organized
According to the critical-conflict perspective, why do social problems arise?
religious movements
seek to renovate or renew people through inner change. Emphasize inner change, religious movements are often linked to local and regional organizations that seek to bring about changes in the individual’s life.
reform movements
seek to improve society by changing some specific aspect of the social structure, examples are environmental groups and disability rights groups
resistance movements
seek to prevent change or undo change that has already occurred
grassroots groups
organizations started by ordinary people who work in concert to change a perceived wrong in their neighborhood, city, state, or nation