Social Epidemiology Final

The definition of epidemiology involves all of the following except
all of the above
descriptive epi involves identifying and quantifying associations, testing hypothesis, and identifying causes of heath-related states and events
true
completing the clinical picture involves all of the following except
identification of the efficacy of the public health program
Efficacy
Refers to the benefits of a treatment, procedure, or service among those who use it compared to those who do not
We sometimes classify epidemics by how they spread through a population. Which of the following is not an example of a point source epidemic
influenza
public health surveillance includes all of the following except
public health action
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a primary case is the same as an index case
false
the term agent in the epidemiological triangle is equivalent to
pathogen
which of the following best describes a fomite
clothing
humans can serve as all of the following except
fomites
which of the following is an example of active primary intervention
immunization
who advanced useful treatment and remedies including exercise, fresh air, and a healthy diet, which other physicians also rejected at the time
Thomas Sydenham
who used experimental approach to determine that dietary factors were influential in treating and preventing scurvy
james lind
the chinese observed that getting weaker strain of smallpox was protective against encountering a stronger form. what is this called
variolation
who invented a vaccine against small pox based on careful observation
jenner
who developed a modern vital statistics system
Farr
whose report set forth the importance of establishing state and local boards of health in the united states
shattuck
who investigated the relationship between smoking and lung cancer using a cohort study design
doll and hill
the framingham study was a
prospective cohort study
contains, spreads, or harbors in infectious organism
carriers
epidemiology originally involved the study of what types of diseases
communicable
epidemiology includes the study of what
all of the above
infectious disease is best defined as
disease caused by an invaded pathogen
which of the following best defines pathogen
organisms capable of causing disease
the capacity and strength of the disease to produce severe and fatal cases of illness is
virulence
an organism os only pathogenic if it is able to enter a host
true
the capacity of a microorganism to enter into and grow in or upon tissues of the host is called
invasiveness
antibiotics are toxic
true
which of the following stages is associated with the incubation period
stage of pre symptomatic disease
which of the following is not a type of immunity
transfer
a description of communicable disease prevention and control may include all of the following except
all of the above
chronic diseases and conditions are not typically caused by pathogens
true
which of the following best defines limitation of activity
difficulties an individual may have in executing actives
which of the following is not a descriptive study design
cross-sectional
which of the following involve the population as the unit of analysis
ecologic study
which of the following study designs have been associated with prevalence data
cross-sectional
a dichotomous variable involves what type of data
nominal
how does a proportion differ from a rate
a rate is a proportion with the added dimension of time
the attack rate is associated with which of the following
cumulative incidence rate
suppose a highly effective new drug is discovered for treating a form of cancer that previously had been rapidly fatal. Which of the following rates will be least affected by the widespread use of the drug
incidence rate for this type of cancer
an age-adjusted rate is weighted average of which of the following
age-specific rates
if the mean age group of people is 45 and the median age is 50, what do you know about the distribution of ages
the age distribution is skewed left
secular trends represents periodic increases and decreases in the occurrence of health-related states or events
false
evaluation cannot be effectively performed in descriptive studies because of confounding
false
a beehive-shaped pyramid indicates that the population is having low birth rates as well as low death rates
true
married individuals have been shown to experience lower mortality than non-married, regardless of whether the non-married persons were ever married, divorced, separated, or widowed
true
when the duration of a disease becomes short and the incidence is high, the prevalence becomes similar to the incidence
false
for a chronic disease of low incidence and long duration, prevalence of the disease increases relative to incidence
true
cohort studies enable the investigator to study cause and effect because the temporality of exposure and disease is known
true
the vital statistics registration system in the us collects data on all vital events including
a, b, and c
according to classes studies, morbidity rates by sex in the US show the following sex differences
females greater than males
the risk of acquiring a given disease during a given time period is best determined by
the incidence rate for that disease in a given period of time
which of the following terms is expressed as a proportion
female births/male+female births
describing health-related states or vents by person, place, and time allows us to do all of the following except
identify the extent of the public health problem
in 2005, the crude death rate was 800 per 100,000 in the US and 500 per 100,000 in malaysia. the life expectancy was 77.1 in the US and 72.2 in malaysia. how would the death rates compare if we age-adjusted the malaysia death rate using US 2005 pop as standarf
they would be more similar
which of the following is not a type of selection bias in cohort studies
neyman bias
which of the following is the most time consuming and costly study design
prospective cohort
which of the following is a nuisance variable to be controlled
confounder
attack rate
cumulative incidence rate
person-time rate
incidence density rate
berkson’s bias
results in underestimation of OR
Healthy worker effect
results in biased RR
a factorial design may be useful for all of the following reasons except
reduce feasibility
which of the following designs is potentially most useful for making a judgement about casualty
experimental
what effect does randomization in a large intervention study have
minimizes potential bias in the allocation of participants to treatment group
what is a limitation of using a run-in period in an intervention study
the study subjects may differ from the general population
investigation of the effectiveness of the poliomyelitis vaccine
preventative trial
assessment of the effectiveness of radiation versus surgery in prostate cancer patients
therapeutic trial
was the tuskegee syphilis study an experimental
no
a ___________ is defined as the effect on patient outcomes that may occur due to the expectation by a patient that a particular invention will have an effect
placebo effect
the within group design provides less control over confounders than the between-group design
false
experimental studies involving randomization are always preferred over nonrandomized studies
false
the experimental studies involving randomization are always preferred over nonrandomized studies
false
the experimental study is effective when the outcome of interest is rare.
false
selection of a high-risk population of developing the outcomes of interest is a primary strategy to ensure the accumulation of an adequate number of cases which will develop the end points
true
establishing a valid statistical association is a necessary part of establishing a cause-effect relationship
true
assessment of the clinical findings should be done to assure correctness and reliability of the findings
true
an unplanned type of experimental study where the levels of exposure to a presumed cause differ among population in a way that is relatively unaffected by extraneous factors
a natural experiment
underlying the estimation of sample size are all of the following except
all of the above
which is not associated with a phase II trial
all of the above
a valid statistical association in any analytic study design requires consideration of confounding. which is confounding
when an extrinsic factor influences the disease outcome and independent of that relationship also influences the exposure
a precipitating factor is best defined as
factors essential to the development of disease, conditions, injuries, disability, and death
among the causal criteria presented in the text, temporality was mentioned. of the following study designs, which is best for establishing temporality
none of the above
what is the most appropriate type of rate for investigating an outbreak
cumulative incidence rate
when is it appropriate to refer to an epidemic as an outbreak
when the epidemic is more localized
what is not an example of a common source epidemic
hiv/aids
cancer can be classified as
noninfectious, noncommunicable
which of the following is associated with all of the following: heart disease, stroke, cancer, accidents, homicide, diabetes
social
cancer has been associated with all of the following except
high blood pressure
osteoporosis
risk factor: lifetime exposure to estrogen
asthma
asbestos
dermatologic
nickel
leukemia
carcinogen: benzene
lung cancer
carcinogen: radon
liver cancer
carcinogen: vinyl chloride
bladder cancer
aaromatic amines, solvents
an increased risk of burkitts lymphoma has been associated with what type of virus
epstein-barr virus
validity
how well the test measures what it is suppose to measure
specificity
ability of the test to correctly ID those without the disease
yield
amount of screening the test can accomplish in a time period
reliability
how well the test performs in use over time (repeatability)
sensitivity
ability of the test to correctly ID those with the disease