social change and the environment

Social change
the alteration of culture and society over time, is a vital part of social life.
four social revolutions
Social change has included four social revolutions, a change from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft societies, capitalism and industrialization, modernization, and global
stratification
Theories of social change include 3 evolutionary theories
Theories of social change include evolutionary theories, cyclical theories, and conflict
theories.
William Ogburn
identified technology as the basis for social change. The
processes of social change are innovation, discovery, and diffusion
Cultural lag
refers
to the symbolic cultures lagging behind changes in technology.
social movements can be
classified as
social movements can be
classified as alterative, redemptive, reformative, or transformative
Social movements
involve a large number of people who are organized to promote or
resist social change
f
Because the mass media are the gatekeepers for social movements, their favorable or
unfavorable coverage greatly affects a social movement, and tactics are chosen with the
media in mind.
Social movements go through distinct stages:
Social movements go through distinct stages: initial unrest, mobilization, organization,
institutionalization, and finally decline.
f
The solutions to environmental problems
range from education, legislation, and political activism to ecosabotage
ecosabotage
sabotaging the efforts of people thought to be legally harming the environment.
Environmental sociologists
Environmental sociologists attempt to study the relationship between human societies and
the environment. Environmental sociologists are generally also environmental activists.
four social revolutions:
(1) the domestication of plants and
animals, from which pastoral and horticultural societies arose; (2) the invention
of the plow, leading to agricultural societies; (3) the industrial revolution; and (4)
the information revolution, resulting in postindustrial societies.
f
agricultural to industrial economic activity was accompanied by
a change from Gemeinschaft societies (daily life centers on intimate and personal
relationships) to Gesellschaft societies (people have fleeting, impersonal
relationships) societies
Gemeinschaft societies
(daily life centers on intimate and personal
relationships)
Gesellschaft societies
(people have fleeting, impersonal
relationships) societies
Karl Marx, Different explanations have been offered as to why societies changed from
Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft
identified capitalism as the basic reason behind the breakup
of feudal (agricultural) societies. As people were thrown off the land,
they moved to cities, where they were exploited by the owners of the
means of production.
Max Weber, Different explanations have been offered as to why societies changed from
Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft.
saw religion as the core reason for the development of
capitalism; as a result of the Reformation, Protestants no longer feltSOCIAL CHANGE
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assured that they were saved by virtue of church membership and
concluded that God would show visible favor to the elect. They believed
that prosperity was that visible sign.
f, Different explanations have been offered as to why societies changed from
Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft.
Modernization (the change from agricultural to industrial societies)
produces sweeping changes in societies. Modern societies are larger,
more urbanized, and subject to faster change. They stress formal
education and the future and are less religiously oriented. They have
smaller families, lower rates of infant mortality, and higher life
expectancy; they have higher incomes and more material possessions.
They are Gesellschaft societies with more formal social control and more
tolerance of differences.
f, Different explanations have been offered as to why societies changed from
Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft.
When technology changes, societies change. Today, the technology of
the industrialized world is changing traditional societies. For example,
the export of Western medicine to the Least Industrialized Nations
reduced death rates but did not affect high birth rates. Rapidly increasing
populations strain the resources of the Least Industrialized Nations,
leading to widespread hunger and starvation and the mass migration to
cities and to the Most Industrialized Nations.
Evolutionary theories of social change are
unilinear and multilinear.
Unilinear theories assume that all societies
follow the same path,
evolving from simple to complex through uniform sequences.
Multilinear theories assume that
different routes can lead to a similar
stage of development, thus, societies need not pass through the same
sequence of stages to become industrialized.
f
Both unilinear and multilinear theories assume the idea that societies
progress toward a higher state.
Cyclical theories
examine great civilizations, not a particular society; they
presume that societies are like organisms—that they are born, reach adolescence,
grow old, and die.
Toynbee
proposed that at first, a civilization is able to meet challenges,
yet when it has become an empire, the ruling elite loses its capacity to
keep the masses in line “by charm rather than by force,” and the fabric of
society is ripped apart
Oswald Spengler
proposed that Western civilization was on the wane;
some analysts think that the current crisis in Western civilization may
indicate that he was right.
William Ogburn
identified three processes of social change: (1) inventions,
which can be either material (computers) or social (capitalism); (2) discovery,
which is a new way of seeing things; and (3) diffusion, which is the spread of an
invention, discovery, or idea from one area to another. Ogburn coined the term
cultural lag to describe the situation in which some elements of a culture adapt to
an invention or discovery more rapidly than others.
tech. and changes
work, schools, capabilities, nature of business
ex proactive social movement
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
example of reactive social movements
Ku Klux Klan (KKK
Mayer Zald
suggests that a cultural crisis can give birth to a wave of
social movements. According to Zald, when a society’s institutions fail
to keep up with social changes, many people’s needs go unfulfilled,
massive unrest follows, and social movements come into being to bridge
the gap.
David Aberle classified social movements into four broad categories according
to the type and amount of social change they seek.
Two types seek to change people but differ in terms of the amount of
change desired: Alterative social movements seek to alter only particular
aspects of people (e.g., the Women’s Christian Temperance Union)
David Aberle classified social movements into four broad categories according
to the type and amount of social change they seek.
Two types seek to change people but differ in terms of the amount of
change desired,
redemptive social movements seek to change people totally (e.g., a
religious social movement such as fundamental Christianity that stresses
conversion).
David Aberle classified social movements into four broad categories according
to the type and amount of social change they seek.
Two types seek to change society but also differ in terms of the amount
of change desired: Reformative social movements seek to reform only
one part of society (e.g., animal rights or the environment)
David Aberle classified social movements into four broad categories according
to the type and amount of social change they seek.
Two types seek to change society but also differ in terms of the amount
of change desired:
transformative social movements seek to change the social order itself
and to replace it with their own version of the ideal society (e.g.,
revolutions in the American colonies, France, Russia, and Cuba).
Propaganda
simply means the presentation of information in an attempt to influence
people.
Dependency theory
asserts that because the Least Industrialized Nations
have become dependent on the Most Industrialized Nations, they are
unable to develop their own resources.
Institutionalization
occurs as the movement becomes bureaucratized and
leadership passes to career officials who may care more about their
position in the organization than about the movement itself.
acid rain:
rain containing sulfuric and nitric acid; the result of burning fossil fuels
alterative social movement:
a social movement that seeks to alter only particular aspects of
people (
corporate welfare:
benefits (such as tax breaks or stadiums) given corporations to locate or to
remain in an area
cultural lag
William Ogburn’s term for human behavior lagging behind technological
innovation
dialectical process
a view of history and power in which each arrangement, or thesis, contains
contradiction, or antithesis, that must be resolved; the new arrangement, or synthesis,
contains its own contradictions, and so on
diffusion:
the spread of invention and discovery from one area to another; identified by William
Ogburn as a major process of social change
discovery:
a new way of seeing reality; identified by William Ogburn as a major process of
social change
ecosabotage
actions taken to sabotage the efforts of people who are thought to be legally
harming the environment
environmental injustice
the greater impact of pollution on the poor and racial minorities
environmental sociology
a subdiscipline of sociology that examines how human activities affect
the physical environment and how the physical environment affects human activities
greenhouse effect
the buildup of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere that allows light to
enter but inhibits the release of heat; believed to cause global warming
invention
the combination of existing elements and materials to form new ones; identified by
William Ogburn as a major process of social change
metaformative social movement
a rare type of social movement that seeks to change the social
order not just of society but of the entire world (
modernization
the transformation of traditional societies into industrial societies
postmodern society
another term for postindustrial society
proactive social movement
a social movement that promotes social change
propaganda
in its broad sense, the presentation of information in the attempt to influence
people; in its narrow sense, one-sided information that may distort reality
public opinion
how people think about some issue
reactive social movement
a social movement that resists social change
redemptive social movement
a social movement that seeks to change people totally
reformative social movement
a social movement that seeks to reform some specific aspect of
society
resource mobilization
a stage at which social movements succeed or fail on the basis of their
ability to mobilize resources such as time, money, and people’s skills
social change
the alteration of culture and societies over time
social movement
large numbers of people who organize to promote or resist social change
social movement organization
an organization that is developed to further the goals of a social
movement
sustainable environment
a world system in which we use our physical environment to meet the
needs of humanity and leave a sound environment to the next generation
transformative social movement
a social movement that seeks to change society totally
transnational social movement
a social movement that seeks to change some social condition
throughout the world
Alfred and Elizabeth Lee
These sociologists found that propaganda relies on seven basic
techniques, which they labeled “tricks of the trade.”
Karl Marx
Marx analyzed the emergence of capitalism and developed the theory of dialectical
materialism
John McCarthy and Mayer Zald
These sociologists investigated the resource mobilization of
social movements and found that although there may be a group of angry and agitated
people, without this mobilization they will never become a social movement.
Lewis Henry Morgan
His theory of social development once dominated Western thought. It
said that societies pass through three stages: savagery, barbarism, and civilization.
William Ogburn
Ogburn identified three processes of social change: invention, discovery, and
diffusion. He coined the term cultural lag to describe a situation in which some elements
of culture adapt to an invention or discovery more rapidly than others
Oswald Spengler
Spengler wrote The Decline of the West, in which he proposed that Western
civilization was declining
Arnold Toynbee
This historian suggests that each time a civilization successfully meets a
challenge, oppositional forces are set up. Eventually, the oppositional forces are set loose,
and the fabric of society is ripped apart.
Max Weber
Weber argued that capitalism grew out of the Protestant Reformation.
Mayer Zald
In analyzing social movements, Zald suggested that they were like a rolling sea,
hitting society like a wave.