Social Behavior

Attitudes
Positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought
Attributions
Inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others’ behavior, and their own behavior
Bystander effect
People are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone
Channel
The medium through which the message is sent
Cognitive dissonance
Exists when related cognitions are inconsistent that is, when they contradict each other
Collectivism
Involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups one belongs to
Commitment
An intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise
Companionate love
Warm,trusting, tolerant effection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own
Conformity
Occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure
Defensive attribution
A tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way
Discrimination
Involves behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group
External attribution
Ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints
Foot-in-the-door technique
Involves getting people to agree to a small request the chances that they will agree to a larger request later
Fundamental attribution error
Refers to observers bias in favor of internal attributions in explaning others’ behavior
Group
Consists of two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent
Group cohesiveness
Refers to the strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself
Group polarization
Occurs when group dicussion strengthens a group’s dominant point treme decision in that direction
Groupthink
Occurs when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at decision
Illusory correlation
Occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmatins of an association between social traits than they have actually seen
Individualism
Involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups and belongs
Ingroup
A group that one belongs to and identifies with
Internal attributions
Ascribe the causes of behavior to persnal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings
Interpersonal attraction
Refers to positive feelings toward another
Intimacy
Refers to warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship
Lowball technique
Involves getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed
Matching hypothesis
Proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners
Message
The information transmitted by the source
Obedience
A form of compliance that occurs when peple follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
Outgroup
A group that one does not belong to or identify with
Passionate love
A complete absorption in another that includes sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion
Person perception
The process of forming impressions of others
Prejudice
A negative attitude held toward members of a group
Receiver
The person to whom the mesage is sent
Reciprocity norm
The rule that we should pay back in kind what we receieve from others
Self-serving bias
The tendency to attribute one’s successes to personal factors and one’s failures to situational factors
Social loafing
A reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when the work by themselves
Social psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others
Social roles
Widely shared expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave
Social schemas
Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people
Stereotypes
Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in particular group
Source
The person who sends a communication