Social Aspects of Deviance – Final Exam Study Guide

Reading Quiz #3
Chapter 8 – Mental Disorder
According to the author, which statement about mental disorder is TRUE?
Virtually all of us can be said to be mentally ill at one time or another.
What has been called “the common cold of mental ailments”?
depression
The public treats all forms of mental distress as a serious mental disorder because
there is a stigma attached to mental disorder.
Which of the following is NOT a neurosis?
manic depression
The most prominent feature of a personality disorder is
a blatant disregard for society’s rules.
Which of the following examples of mental problems would most likely be defined as a personality disorder?
a crooked politician
All of the following are reasons why the DSM-IV classification scheme falls short, EXCEPT that it
is too focused on the social causes of mental disorders.
Compared with women, men are less likely to have
anxiety attacks.
Many sociologists and psychiatrists assume that the urban environment is likely to induce mental problems through
an abundance of physical and social stresses.
All of the following are ways that cultural forces can shape mental disorder, EXCEPT that
some cultures have created ways of life where no symptoms of mental disorders exist.
Reading Quiz #4
Chapter 10 – Gays and Other Targets of Stigma
Which of the following persons has an unjustifiable stigma?
an obese person
Which of the following statements about the differences between sexual orientations is TRUE?
The difference between sexual orientation is actually a matter of degree.
The greater promiscuity among gay men has to do with their
male gender role.
Which of the following events has produced a significant shift from sexual promiscuity to monogamy among homosexuals?
the AIDS crisis of the early 1980s
Compared with male homosexuals, lesbians are generally
less promiscuous.
Research has documented that children raised by gay parents
are no more likely than children with heterosexual parents to become homosexual.
Which of the following statements about homosexuality and religion is TRUE?
Many religions consider homosexuality a sin.
In attempting to define what a homosexual is, Kinsey rejected the idea that
a person is either exclusively heterosexual or homosexual.
Trades, or men who often go to public restrooms for impersonal sex,
see themselves as straight and masculine.
Which of the following statements about the nature and extent of homophobia is not true?
A notable percentage of Americans practice discrimination against the sexual minority.
CHAPTER SIX TOPICS

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Outside of the police and the military, American society’s most violent institution is

a) sports.
b) schools.
c) the family.
d) the economy.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 118
Answer: c) the family.

2. Which of the following is an important reason why sociologists have a difficult time when studying family violence?

a) The family is the most cherished and intimate social institution in our lives.
b) Too few people today belong to formal families.
c) The great diversity of family life makes studying family violence too difficult.
d) The family is too private to study sociologically.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 118
Answer: a) The family is the most cherished and intimate social institution in our lives.

3. When it comes to family violence, all of the following are false EXCEPT which one?

a) Family violence hits the poor only.
b) Family violence and love cannot happen together.
c) Alcohol and drugs are involved in almost all cases of family violence.
d) The majority of child abuse victims do not grow up to abuse their children.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 118-119
Answer: d.) The majority of child abuse victims do not grow up to abuse their children.

4. The extent of family violence varies from one report to another because researchers

a) are unskilled in research methods.
b) use poor research methods.
c) utilize different definitions of family violence.
d) are often victims of family violence.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 119-120
Answer: c) utilize different definitions of family violence.

5. The real extent of family violence may be much higher than the reported figures because

a) people are generally reluctant to reveal their family problems to researchers.
b) the number of people experiencing abuse runs into the millions, despite the small percentages.
c) other types of violence such as financial exploitation, slapping and verbal abuse, widely occur.
d) All of the above are true.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 119-120
Answer: d) All of the above are true.

6. The most prevalent form of forced sex is

a) the rape of a woman by her husband.
b) the rape of a woman by a stranger.
c) rapes occurring in college fraternities.
d) rapes occurring along with a felony.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 120-121
Answer: a) the rape of a woman by her husband.

7. Which of the following factors is involved in most marital rapes?

a) money or the lack of it
b) drugs or alcohol
c) physical violence or threats of it
d) pornography

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 120-121
Answer: c) physical violence or threats of it

8. According to research, which of the following statements is true?

a) Most marital rape involves vaginal penetration.
b) Forced anal intercourse occurs more often than forced vaginal intercourse.
c) Most marital rape involves kinky sex acts such as bondage.
d) Marital rape never occurs after a woman has given birth to a child.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 121
Answer: b) Forced anal intercourse occurs more often than forced vaginal intercourse.

9. Which of the following is not a cause of rape listed in the text?

a) the husband’s use of rape to control his wife
b) the husband’s belief that he is entitled to any kind of sex with his wife
c) the existence of patriarchy
d) improper behavior on the part of the victim

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 121-122
Answer: d) improper behavior on the part of the victim

10. Which of the following statements about marital rape is true?

a) It is not a form of family violence.
b) It is considered a crime in most states.
c) It rarely causes harm to victims.
d) Many victims blame themselves for the rape.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 122
Answer: d) Many victims blame themselves for the rape.

11. One serious consequence of marital rape is

a) self-blame and guilt by the victim.
b) the furthering of the norms of matriarchy.
c) the culture’s condemnation of marital rape.
d) the sensitive involvement of the police.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 122
Answer: a) self-blame and guilt by the victim.

12. According to a definition of spouse abuse that includes both violent and nonviolent acts,
a) about 10 percent of all married persons in the U.S. assault their spouses.
b) about one-third of all U.S. couples assault their spouses.
c) the problem of spouse abuse largely disappears.
d) husbands are much more likely to be seen as victims of spouse abuse.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 122-123
Answer: b) about one-third of all U.S. couples assault their spouses.

13. After committing the violence, most abusive husbands

a) do not admit guilt.
b) freely admit guilt.
c) undergo counseling.
d) go to jail.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 123
Answer: a) do not admit guilt.

14. All of the following are ways that abusive husbands try to rationalize their violent acts, EXCEPT for

a) blaming the victim for provoking the offense.
b) minimizing the harm done to the victim.
c) attributing the violence to some problem beyond their control.
d) stating they do not remember carrying out the rape.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 123
Answer: d) stating they do not remember carrying out the rape.

15. Feelings of depression, anxiety, and helplessness such as those suffered by U.S. soldiers who served in Vietnam and victims of physical injury, are called

a) stress-induced mental illness.
b) posttraumatic stress disorder.
c) poststress syndrome.
d) stress depression.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 123
Answer: b) posttraumatic stress disorder.

16. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of the battered woman syndrome?

a) loss of self-esteem
b) expecting the terror of violence
c) passively submitting to more violence
d) feeling trapped

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 124-125
Answer: c) passively submitting to more violence

17. Research has shown that majority of abused women

a) continue to put up with the abuse.
b) leave abusive relationships.
c) attack or murder their husbands.
d) join women’s centers and fight against more abuse.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 123-124
Answer: b) leave abusive relationships.

18. Which of the following is a reason why most of the women who continue to live with abusive husbands do not leave?

a) They are pressured by religious and other groups to which they belong to stay.
b) They are waiting for the right moment to seek revenge against their husbands.
c) They fear their husbands will retaliate.
d) They fear leaving will harm their prospects for getting a good job.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 123-124
Answer: c) They fear their husbands will retaliate.

19. For feminists, a major cause of wife beating is

a) poor economic and social conditions.
b) the sexist, patriarchal nature of society.
c) some men’s lack of self-esteem.
d) men’s greater access to the means of violence such as guns.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 124
Answer: b) the sexist, patriarchal nature of society.

20. Men who have lost control of their lives due to poverty, unemployment, drug abuse, or alcoholism are

a) more likely to become abusive husbands.
b) less likely to become abusive husbands.
c) just as abusive as men who have control over their lives.
d) usually too depressed about life to act in a violent way.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 123-124
Answer: a) more likely to become abusive husbands.

21. Incest

a) is not considered self-serving if the child gives consent.
b) was permitted in many societies throughout history.
c) was assumed to be rare until 1974, when it became part of mandatory child abuse reporting laws.
d) is usually committed against boys.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 124-125
Answer: c) was assumed to be rare until 1974a when it became part of mandatory child abuse reporting laws.

22. All of the following are true about incest, EXCEPT that

a) stepfathers are much more likely than biological fathers to commit incest.
b) incestuous fathers are more isolated from others outside of the home.
c) there is no significant difference in incest rates among social classes or racial and ethnic groups.
d) young victims of incest usually forget about the past and lead normal sexual lives as adults.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 125-126
Answer: d) young victims of incest usually forget about the past and lead normal sexual lives as adults.

23. About __________ children are severely physically abused every year.

a) 100,000
b) 500,000
c) 3 million
d) 5 million

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 125
Answer: c) 3 million

24. Which of the following types of children would be at the highest risk for child abuse?

a) a teenage child
b) a very young child
c) a child in an upper-income family
d) an adult child

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 125-126
Answer: b) a very young child

25. According to research, children who have been abused

a) are unlikely to suffer continual problems later in life.
b) may or may not suffer continual problems, based on the individual.
c) are likely to suffer severe problems later in life.
d) seem predestined to become child abusers themselves.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 126-127
Answer: c) are likely to suffer severe problems later in life.

26. All of the following are reasons why large numbers of children are abused in American society, EXCEPT for

a) past experiences of being abused as a child.
b) the widespread acceptance of spouse abuse.
c) many parents’ lack of education and parenting skills.
d) the social acceptance of physical punishment to discipline children.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 126-127
Answer: b) the widespread acceptance of spouse abuse.

27. Many child abusers see abusive behavior as good and proper because they

a) have watched much violence on TV.
b) are among many who accept the rightness of physical punishment.
c) are victims of child abuse themselves.
d) are totally out of control.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 126-127
Answer: b) are among many who accept the rightness of physical punishment.

28. Problematic interaction between a parent and child is one cause of child abuse. All of the following are problems of interaction, except for

a) lack of parenting skills.
b) lack of knowledge of normal childhood behavior.
c) social approval of physical punishment.
d) unrealistic expectations for a child.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 126-127
Answer: c) social approval of physical punishment.

29. Older people are more likely to be abused if they live

a) in group homes.
b) alone.
c) with relatives.
d) in nursing homes.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 129
Answer: c) with relatives.

30. Which of the following statements about those who abuse the elderly is NOT true?

a) The abusers have severe personal problems such as drug addiction or alcoholism.
b) They are beset with money problems.
c) They are largely male.
d) They are stressed by the need to care for both children and an elderly parent.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 129-130
Answer: c) They are largely male.

31. The many women who are squeezed between raising children of their own and taking care of parents are called

a) the sandwiched generation.
b) generation X.
c) the stressed generation.
d) the mommy/daughter track.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 129-130
Answer: a) the sandwiched generation.

32. According to a famous study of a sample of the elderly in Boston, __________ of elder persons are more likely to become elder abusers.

a) daughters
b) spouses
c) institutional caregivers
d) social workers

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 129-130
Answer: b) spouses

33. All of the following are true about female genital mutilation, EXCEPT that it is

a) often called female circumcision.
b) usually done by ritual leaders, or respected women in the community.
c) relatively accepted today in most Western cultures.
d) often accepted by the victims of the mutilation.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 127-128
Answer: c) relatively accepted today in most Western cultures.

34. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that supports female genital mutilation in many African cultures?

a) the meaning of womanhood in many cultures that practice female genital mutilation
b) the overwhelming presence of patriarchy and the need to oppress women
c) the social and psychological benefits the practice provides the participant
d) the high social value of virginity and marriageability that are supported by genital mutilation

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 127-128
Answer: c) the social and psychological benefits the practice provides the participant

35. All of the following are part of the social profile of family abusers, EXCEPT that they are

a) younger husbands and parents.
b) members of the middle class.
c) men rather than women.
d) persons with stressful home lives.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 130-131
Answer: b) members of the middle class.

36. John experienced family violence as he was growing up. According to social learning theory, he is

a) more likely not to get married and have children.
b) more likely to experience stressful family relationships.
c) less likely to engage in family violence.
d) more likely to engage in family violence.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 132
Answer: d) more likely to engage in family violence.

37. According to the exchange theory of family violence, which of the following would be the reward of violence?

a) enjoyment of power and control over the victim
b) intense guilt over the hurting of a family member
c) fear of getting arrested
d) enjoyment of higher status and respect in the eyes of the larger community

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 134
Answer: a) enjoyment of power and control over the victim

38. All of the following are ways U.S. society has attempted to protect women from marital rape and abuse, EXCEPT for

a) the passage of new laws.
b) establishing counseling programs for abusers.
c) severely punishing men who sexually or physically abuse their wives.
d) the creation of a network of women’s shelters and safe houses.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 134-135
Answer: c) severely punishing men who sexually or physically abuse their wives.

39. Which of the following are criticisms of protective services efforts for children?

a) They fail to provide enough staff and resources to investigate all complaints of child abuse.
b) They sometimes haul innocent parents to court.
c) They leave a child with an abusive parent.
d) All of the above answers are criticisms.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 134-135
Answer: d) All of the above answers are criticisms.

40. The two types of services that seem most useful to abused elders are medical services and

a) extra funds for food and shelter.
b) social services.
c) legal services.
d) marital counseling.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 136-137
Answer : c) legal services.

CHAPTER SEVEN: SUICIDE

Multiple Choice Questions

1.0. Each year, about __________ Americans die by their own hands.

a) 50,000
b) 30,000
c) 70,000
d) 100,000

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 144
Answer: b) 30,000

2. The majority of depressed Americans do not kill themselves; those who do commit suicide do so because they have been under the influence of

a) defects in their personality.
b) certain social forces in their lives.
c) drugs and alcohol.
d) their bad health.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 144
Answer: b) certain social forces in their lives.

3. Those who threaten suicide

a) usually attempt suicide.
b) would rather live than die.
c) usually commit suicide.
d) are socially functional.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 145
Answer: b) would rather live than die.

4. If a person wanted to attempt suicide, but was not sure he or she wanted to die, which of the following methods would be the least favored?

a) wrist cutting
b) gas poisoning in a house
c) gas poisoning in a car
d) hanging or shooting

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 145-146
Answer: d) hanging or shooting

5. In the last two decades, the gender difference in suicide attempts has

a) widened substantially.
b) increase substantially.
c) narrowed significantly.
d) remained about the same.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 146
Answer: c) narrowed significantly.

6. Which of the following is a way suicide attempters differ from suicide committers?

a) They are more likely to be men than women.
b) They use different methods but with more skill.
c) They are much fewer in number than committers.
d) They are more likely to be young.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 145-146
Answer: d) They are more likely to be young.

7. From notes left by successful suicides and from reports given by suicide attempters, we can discern several types of suicidal feelings. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

a) feeling apologetic to their survivors
b) feeling excited about the prospect of seeing God
c) feeling vindictive toward their survivors or themselves
d) feeling suffused with surrealistic feelings

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 147
Answer: b) feeling excited about the prospect of seeing God

8. If a person kills him- or herself after murdering another, it is called __________ suicide.

a) revenge
b) surrealistic
c) apologetic
d) atonement

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 147
Answer: d) atonement

9. In general, cutters are

a) a unified deviant group.
b) all suicidal.
c) gun enthusiasts and collectors.
d) difficult to situate in a category of deviance.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 148-149
Answer: d) difficult to situate in a category of deviance.

10. Some countries with developing economies like China have high suicide rates because they

a) have widespread poverty.
b) practice forms of ritual suicide.
c) experience rapid social change.
d) have few formal religious institutions.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 165-166
Answer: c) experience rapid social change.

11. In the past, most researchers attributed the link between urbanization and suicide to

a) the city’s homogeneous population.
b) the slower pace of life in urban neighborhoods.
c) conflicting social norms.
d) economic inequality.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 152-153
Answer: c) conflicting social norms.

12. Generally, whites commit suicide

a) at the same rate as blacks.
b) twice as often as blacks
c) four times more than blacks.
d) mostly in the summer.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 154-155
Answer: b) twice as often as blacks

13. A strong religious identity and degree of religious conservatism is associated with a(n) _______ suicide rate.

a) higher
b) extremely higher
c) lower
d) unaffected

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 155-156
Answer: c) lower

14. Which of the following groups has the highest suicide rates?

a) divorced persons
b) married persons
c) widows
d) single parents with children

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 156-157
Answer: a) divorced persons

15. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

a) The elderly have a higher suicide rate than the young.
b) Whites have a higher suicide rate than blacks.
c) Women have a higher suicide rate than men.
d) Residents in sparsely populated states have higher suicide rates than residents in densely populated states.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 155-156
Answer: c) Women have a higher suicide rate than men.

16. Which of the following statements about the relationship between economic conditions and suicide is TRUE?

a) Suicide rates are higher in affluent societies than in poor ones.
b) Suicide rates are about the same from society to society, regardless of affluence or poverty.
c) African Americans, whose poverty rate is relatively higher, are more likely to kill themselves than are whites, who have a lower poverty rate.
d) Blacks and whites have about the same rate of suicide.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 158
Answer: a) Suicide rates are higher in affluent societies than in poor ones.

17. Which of the following statements about the suicide bombers who attacked the U.S. on 9/11/2001 is TRUE?

a) They were all psychotic and irrational.
b) They were from poor families and were paid to commit suicide.
c) They were more poorly educated than other from their respective countries.
d) They came from relatively well-off, middle-class families.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 159-160
Answer: d) They came from relatively well-off, middle-class families.

18. Over the last 20 years, teenage suicides have

a) increased dramatically.
b) decreased dramatically.
c) remained about the same.
d) not increased as much as suicides among the elderly.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 160
Answer: a) increased dramatically.

19. The high rise in youthful suicide over the last 20 years has resulted from

a) a great decline in social integration and regulation in teen life.
b) the worsening of the nation’s economy.
c) a dramatic increase in publicity about suicide.
d) a substantial increase in school pressure.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 160-161
Answer: a) a great decline in social integration and regulation in teen life.

20. College students in the United States have higher suicide rates than their non-college peers because they
a) are exposed to deviant ideologies, which sometimes support suicide.
b) experience substantial peer group influence.
c) use too much drugs and alcohol.
d) are single and experience much stress.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 161-162
Answer: d) are single and experience much stress.

21. At what point is an inmate” stay at prison most likely to result in suicide?

a) after several years of a long sentence
b) after denial of a parole
c) when transferred from a local to a state prison
d) during the initial phase of imprisonment

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 163-164
Answer: d) during the initial phase of imprisonment

22. One of the reasons why recently diagnosed, less-sick, HIV-infected patients are more suicidal than those dying of AIDS-related illnesses is

a) that HIV is more serious than AIDS.
b) the sudden transformation from being a totally healthy person to a seriously ill person.
c) that HIV is much more painful than AIDS.
d) the greater difficulty in living with the HIV virus.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 164-165
Answer: b) the sudden transformation from being a totally healthy person to a seriously ill person.

23. When a famous person commits suicide, the nation’s suicide rates

a) go up.
b) stay the same.
c) decline.
D) either go up or down.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 165
Answer: a) go up.

24. Research has documented that the greater the air time given to country music, the higher the suicide rate. Which of the following is a possible reason?
a) the relative boredom surrounding country music, which upsets its listeners
b) the presence of religious themes in country music
c) the lonely lifestyles of the urban residents who listen to country music
d) the themes of country music, many of which are suicide-related

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 165
Answer: d) the themes of country music, many of which are suicide-related

25. Research has shown a positive correlation between suicide rates and the air time of this genre of music.

a) classical
b) country
c) rock and roll
d) heavy metal

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 165
Answer: b) country

26. Suicide rates depend significantly on

a) biological predispositions.
b) psychological problems.
c) how society responds to suicide.
d) individual predispositions.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 165-166
Answer: c) how society responds to suicide.

27. In Western societies today, higher suicide rates are due in part to

a) increasingly permissive attitudes toward suicide.
b) increasing criminal penalties against suicide.
c) a growing intolerance toward state-assisted suicides.
d) a decline in religious beliefs.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 166
Answer: a) increasingly permissive attitudes toward suicide.

28. Which of the following is the most typical reaction of a suicide victim’s family and friends?

a) glee
b) resolve
c) depression
d) guilt

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 167
Answer: d) guilt

29. The Patient’s Self-Determination Act passed by Congress requires hospitals to

a) take every measure to prevent suicide.
b) inform patients of rights to control their treatment through living wills.
c) arrest any doctors who provide any suicide assistance.
d) instruct doctors to remove life support, regardless of the patient’s wishes.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 167-168
Answer: b) inform patients of rights to control their treatment through living wills.

30. All of the following are conditions under which doctors in the Netherlands can
carry out euthanasia, EXCEPT that

a) it must be requested by the patient.
b) the patient must be mentally competent.
c) it must be approved by a panel of government officials.
d) the patient must have a disease with no prospect for improvement.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 168
Answer: c) it must be approved by a panel of government officials.

31. Even though few persons have requested assisted suicide in Oregon, that state’s assisted suicide law has been gaining support throughout the U.S. because of growing
recognition of the patient’s

a) unbearable pain.
b) loss of quality of life.
c) right to privacy and to be left alone.
d) wishes to die for all of the above reasons.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 168
Answer: d) wishes to die for all of the above reasons.

32. In the last 20 years, during which the number of suicide prevention centers has increased tremendously, the suicide rate has

a) decreased substantially.
b) not declined substantially.
c) risen dramatically.
d) increased faster among the old than the young.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 169
Answer: b) not declined substantially.

33. Suicide prevention centers cannot substantially reduce suicide rates because

a) suicide is basically a psychological problem.
b) they cannot deal effectively with some individual types of potential suicides.
c) suicide is basically a sociological problem.
d) they rely too much on a social work perspective to guide their work.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 169
Answer: c) suicide is basically a sociological problem.

34. Psychological theories of suicide assume that suicide comes from

a) a defect in the person.
b) poor food and environmental pollution.
c) genetic factors.
d) major social problems.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 169
Answer: a) a defect in the person.

35. Durkheim theorized that there are two major forces shaping suicide, social integration and

a) social strain.
b) social inequality.
c) social regulation.
d) social change.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 170-171
Answer: c) social regulation.

36. The type of suicide that unmarried people are more likely than married ones to commit is called __________ suicide.

a) egoistic
b) coerced
c) altruistic
d) anomic

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 171
Answer: a) egoistic

37. The type of suicide that slaves are more likely than free people to commit is called __________ suicide.

a) egoistic
b) fatalistic
c) anomic
d) voluntary

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 171
Answer: b) fatalistic

38. According to Henry and Short’s theory, all of the following are factors that promote suicide, EXCEPT for the

a) sociological.
b) psychological.
c) economic.
d) cultural.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 172-173
Answer: d) cultural.

39. Phenomenological theories of suicide

a) deal with the causation of suicide.
b) are based heavily on official suicide statistics.
c) deal with the popular meaning of suicide.
d) are based on biological conceptions of human behavior.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 173-174
Answer: c) deal with the popular meaning of suicide.

40. In Douglas’s view, the specific meanings of suicide to individuals help to

a) obstruct the suicidal process.
b) facilitate the suicidal process.
c) change the suicide-prone’s mind.
d) create enormous guilt feelings in the suicide-prone person.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 173-174
Answer: b) facilitate the suicidal process.

CHAPTER EIGHT: MENTAL DISORDER
Multiple Choice Questions

1. According to the latest national survey, nearly __________ percent of all adult Americans have experienced at least one episode of psychiatric disorder during their lifetime.

a) 10
b) 20
c) 30
d) 50

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 180
Answer: d) 50

2. According to the author, which statement about mental disorder is TRUE?

a) Mental disorder is a relatively rare form of deviance.
b) Mental disorder is basically biological in origin.
c) Virtually all of us can be said to be mentally ill at one time or another.
d) About one-half of us have symptoms that could be categorized as a mental disorder.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 180
Answer: c) Virtually all of us can be said to be mentally ill at one time or another.

3. What has been called “the common cold of mental ailments”?

a) hallucination
b) paranoia
c) delusion
d) depression

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 180
Answer: d) depression

4. Which of the following is NOT a myth about mental illness?

a) Most persons experience depression during the summer months.
b) Mentally ill persons are extremely weird.
c) There is a sharp, clear distinction between “mentally ill” and “mentally healthy.”
d) Mental illness is hopeless, mostly incurable.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 181
Answer: a) Most persons experience depression during the summer months.

5. Most people suffer from depression during this season.

a) winter
b) spring
c) summer
d) fall

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 181
Answer: c) summer

6. The public treats all forms of mental distress as a serious mental disorder because

a) all mental disorders are severe.
b) every person has experienced a serious mental disorder at some time in their lives.
c) there is a stigma attached to mental disorder.
d) the public is very knowledgeable about mental disorders.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 180
Answer: c) there is a stigma attached to mental disorder.

7. In the psychosocially informed classification system, mental disorder is divided into two large categories, the organic and the

a) dysfunctional.
b) functional.
c) dangerous.
d) abnormal.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 182
Answer: b) functional.

8. Which of the following is NOT a cause of the organic type of mental illness?

a) head injuries
b) syphilis
c) lead poisoning
d) parental rejection

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 182
Answer: d) parental rejection

9. If deviant behavior cannot be classified as psychotic or neurotic, a psychiatrist will classify it as a __________ disorder.

a) psychotic
b) personality
c) neurotic
d) organic

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 182-183
Answer: b) personality

10. Which of the following does NOT belong in the category of functional disorders?

a) psychosis
b) neurosis
c) psychosomatic illnesses
d) personality disorders

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 185
Answer: c) psychosomatic illnesses

11. The most common type of psychosis is

a) manic-depressive behavior.
b) obsessive-compulsive behavior.
c) anxiety reaction.
d) schizophrenia.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 181
Answer: d) schizophrenia.

12. If a person experiences swings between two opposite extremes of mood, they might have

a) an organic disorder.
b) manic-depressive disorder.
c) a chemical imbalance.
d) schizophrenia.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 184
Answer: b) manic-depressive disorder.

13. Which of the following is NOT a neurosis?

a) manic depression
b) anxiety reaction
c) phobias
d) obsessions

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 184-185
Answer: a) manic depression

14. If neurotics can identify the specific object of their anxiety, they are said to experience

a) hysteria.
b) compulsion.
c) obsession.
d) phobia.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 184
Answer: d) phobia.

15. The most prominent feature of a personality disorder is

a) a blatant disregard for society’s rules.
b) feelings of sadness, dejection, and self-deprecation.
c) phobias and other fears.
d) thinking and talking in unconventional, illogical, or ambiguous ways.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 185-186
Answer: a) a blatant disregard for society’s rules.

16. Which of the following examples of mental problems would most likely be defined as a personality disorder?

a) a crooked politician
b) a person with severe headaches
c) someone with an acute fear of heights
d) a very anxious person

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 185-186
Answer: a) a crooked politician

17. The text reports that psychiatrists have criticized the traditional classification system of mental disorders because its classification is

a) largely inaccurate.
b) too broadly and ambiguously defined.
c) substantially reliable but not valid.
d) always a little out of date.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 174
Answer: b. too broadly and ambiguously defined.

18. According to the text, while DSM-IV can be reliable for describing symptoms of mental illness, it does not necessarily

a) help psychiatrists understand mental disorders.
b) follow ethical guidelines.
c) explain how disorders differ from each other in terms of their causes.
d) provide a trustworthy analysis.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 185-186
Answer: c) explain how disorders differ from each other in terms of their causes.

19. All of the following are reasons why the DSM-IV classification scheme falls short, EXCEPT that it

a) is merely descriptive.
b) is focused on symptoms and not on causes of problems.
c) is too focused on the social causes of mental disorders.
d) encourages the view that mental disorders are biologically caused diseases.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 176
Answer: c) is too focused on the social causes of mental disorders.

20. Joe was a sociologist who studied mental illness in a poor urban neighborhood whose residents have a high rate of mental illness. He discovered that many persons moving into the neighborhood had clear symptoms of mental illness, and that normal residents, when they could, moved out to a better neighborhood. His study would support the __________ explanation of the relations between class and mental illness.

a) social causation
b) organic
c) social drift
d) biomedical

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 188
Answer: c) social drift

21. Compared with women, men are less likely to have

a) paranoia.
b) anxiety attacks.
c) antisocial personality.
d) drug abuse disorder.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 188
Answer: b) anxiety attacks.

22. According to a recent studies, which group is the LEAST likely to become mentally ill?

a) teenagers
b) young adults
c) the middle-aged
d) the elderly

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 190
Answer: d) the elderly

23. Which of the following is NOT a cause of increased depression among the young in recent decades?

a) a shortage of psychiatric services
b) lack of parental love and affection
c) increases in social stress
d) reduced social resources for dealing with social stress

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 190
Answer: a) a shortage of psychiatric services

24. Many sociologists and psychiatrists assume that the urban environment is likely to induce mental problems through

a) overwhelmingly dirty air and water.
b) too many rules, leading to overly restrictive lifestyles.
c) support for acting-out disorders.
d) an abundance of physical and social stresses.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 192
Answer: d) an abundance of physical and social stresses.

25. All of the following are ways that cultural forces can shape mental disorder, EXCEPT that

a) mental disorders can vary from one culture to another.
b) some cultures have values like individualism that can lead to mental disorder.
c) some cultures have created ways of life where no symptoms of mental disorders exist.
d) the symptoms of a given mental disorder may vary from one culture to another.

Difficulty: 3
Page Reference: 193-194
Answer: c) some cultures have created ways of life where no symptoms of mental disorders exist.

26. How many veterans with PTSD seek treatment?

a) fewer than half
b) all of them
c) fewer than one-fourth
d) none of them

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 193
Answer: a) fewer than half

27. In 1793, Phillippe Pinel developed a new way of treating the mentally ill that urged mental patients to have hope and confidence in themselves. He called his approach

a) social work.
b) psychotherapy.
c) moral treatment.
d) mental hygiene.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 195-196
Answer: c) moral treatment.

28. According to a study, highly educated young people are __________ likely ________ uneducated old people to see the mentally ill as dangerous, dirty, unpredictable, and worthless.

a) as likely as
b) more likely than
c) much less likely than
d) extremely less likely than

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 195-196
Answer: a) as likely as

29. One consequence of the stereotypes the public and others hold of the mentally ill is that people with ordinary emotional problems
a) are more likely to resort to drugs.
b) get early and effective treatment from professionals.
c) are stigmatized as moral lepers.
d) do not seek help because it is too expensive.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 195-196
Answer: c) are stigmatized as moral lepers.

30. In order for a person to undergo involuntary hospitalization for an indefinite period, the person must first be

a) convicted of a crime.
b) charged with a crime.
c) arrested for a suspected crime.
d) judged by the court-appointed psychiatrist as dangerous to themselves or others.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 196-197
Answer: d) judged by the court-appointed psychiatrist as dangerous to themselves or others.

31. According to the _______, the accused are not guilty if they are mentally ill, because their crime is considered the “product” of their mental illness.

a) Rule of Thumb
b) M’Naghten Rule
c) Durham Rule
d) Goffman Rule

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 198
Answer: c) Durham Rule

32. Sociologist Erving Goffman has called the mental institution a
a) mental hospital.
b) total institution.
c) prison.
d) mental health center.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 199
Answer: b) total institution.

33. Which of the following is NOT a condition associated with “hospitalitis,” which patients tend to develop in mental institutions?

a) a deep sense of hopelessness
b) a strong desire to kill some hospital staff
c) a pervasive loss of initiative
d) a deterioration of social skills

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 199-200
Answer: b) a strong desire to kill some hospital staff

34. The unprofessional but effective method of treatment provided by friends and family within the context of a community mental health center is called

a) network therapy.
b) informal psychotherapy.
c) drug therapy.
d) family therapy.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 201
Answer: a) network therapy.

35. All of the following are types of evidence that support the medical model of mental illness, EXCEPT for

a) the study of identical and fraternal twins.
b) the effectiveness of antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs.
c) the advances in genetic theories of mental illness.
d) drugs’ ability to eliminate the cause of mental illness.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 202-203
Answer: d) drugs’ ability to eliminate the cause of mental illness.

36. Evidence shows that genetic vulnerability to mental illness cannot by itself lead to mental disorder, because it may have to be triggered by

a) a psychological disorder.
b) chemical imbalance.
c) a psychosocial force.
d) the misuse of an antipsychotic drug.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 203-204
Answer: c) a psychosocial force.

37. Joe is a psychiatrist who works with mental patients and searches for the cause in some unresolved conflict in the patient’s childhood. He is probably using __________ theory.

a) behavioral
b) psychoanalytic
c) labeling
d) biomedical

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 203-204
Answer: b) psychoanalytic

38. According to social stress theory, if persons do not have _____________, stress might lead to serious mental disorders.

a) resolved personality conflicts
b) a strong biological and genetic make-up
c) coping resources such as social support and self-esteem
d) coping resources such as a strong personality structure and rigid self-discipline

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 204-205
Answer: c) coping resources such as social support and self-esteem

39. Thomas Szasz has referred to mental illness as

a) a problem in living.
b) neurosis and psychosis.
c) a problem in role playing.
d) a type of supersanity.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 205-206
Answer: a) a problem in living.

40. According to Thomas Scheff, most mental illness is

a) the cause of labeling.
b) a type of moral disorder.
c) residual rule breaking.
d) psychological in nature.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 206
Answer: c) residual rule breaking.

CHAPTER NINE: HETEROSEXUAL DEVIANCE

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Women who make huge sums selling sex to men are sociologically categorized as

a) clever businesswomen.
b) feminist pioneers.
c) heterosexual deviants.
d) members of an exploited group.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 215-216
Answer: c) heterosexual deviants.

2. Teenage boys with high self-esteem generally

a) abstain from sex.
b) have sex.
c) are indifferent toward sex.
d) fear sex.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 216-217
Answer: b) have sex.

3. Teenage girls with high self-esteem generally

a) engage in sex.
b) abstain from sex.
c) are apathetic toward sex.
d) fear sex.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 216-217
Answer: b) abstain from sex.

4. In the eyes of U.S. society,

a) all premarital sex is seen as deviant.
b) teenage sex is seen as deviant.
c) teenage sex is considered normal.
d) only sex by those under the age of 15 is considered deviant.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 216-217
Answer: b) teenage sex is seen as deviant.

5. Which of the following statements reflects a conservative position on sex education?

a) Schools should not be involved in any kind of sex education.
b) Schools should teach both abstinence from sex and contraception.
c) Schools should teach about contraception only.
d) Schools should teach only abstinence from sex.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 216-217
Answer: d) Schools should teach only abstinence from sex.

6. Which of the following statements about extramarital sex is true?

a) Extramarital sex is equally popular with both men and women.
b) Most married Americans, especially men, wish at one time or another to have an extramarital affair.
c) Most men who have extramarital affairs found their experience very pleasurable.
d) Most people have affairs because they are oversexed.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 217-218
Answer: b) Most married Americans, especially men, wish at one time or another to have an extramarital affair.

7. Among the Kofyar of Nigeria, a woman who is unhappy with her husband but does not want to divorce may take an extra lover who lives openly with her in her husband’s house. This is an example of

a) legal adultery.
b) illegal adultery.
C) legitimate adultery.
d) deviant adultery.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 217-218
Answer: c) legitimate adultery.

8. According to the text, about __________ of adult American men have participated in extramarital sex.

a) 90 percent
b) 50 percent
c) 30 percent
d) 25 percent

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 217-218
Answer: d) 25 percent

9. Which of the following statements about adultery in other cultures is TRUE?

a) Adultery in other cultures, by definition, involves sexual intercourse.
b) The form of adultery in other countries strongly resembles America’s patterns.
c) Adultery is considered deviant in all cultures.
d) In some cultures, certain adulteries are legitimate.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 218-219
Answer: d) In some cultures, certain adulteries are legitimate.

10. The following are more likely to engage in extramarital sex, EXCEPT for

a) men.
b) the lower income.
c) those who have not experienced premarital sex.
d) the less religious.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 218-219
Answer: c) those who have not experienced premarital sex.

11. According to the text’s author, men participate in adultery more than women because of

a) a widespread belief that men should prove their masculinity.
b) an evolutionary need to create children.
c) the male role in all cultures that permits adultery.
d) the belief of women that men should be permitted to wander.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 218-219
Answer: a) a widespread belief that men should prove their masculinity.

12. After an affair, most often the husband and wife

a) divorce.
b) do whatever they can to save their marriage.
c) react violently to their spouse’s behavior.
d) continue the affair.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 218-219
Answer: b) do whatever they can to save their marriage.

13. For women, the major significance of an affair is

a) sex.
b) love.
c) money.
d) excitement.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 218-219
Answer: b) love.

14. Although pornography is considered deviant, and much of it is illegal, it is

a) widely used.
b) only popular with a few people.
c) a subject in which only a few sociologists or other scientists are interested.
d) always changing.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 221-222
Answer: a) widely used.

15. If you believe that pornography is dangerous to communal values such as marriage and the family, you agree with the __________ view of pornography.

a) liberal
b) feminist
c) radical
d) conservative

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 221-222
Answer: d) conservative

16. Which of the following aspects of pornography is considered most damaging, to a feminist?

a) its emphasis on sexual gratification and permissiveness
b) its undermining of monogamous relationships by producing sexual arousal outside the marital relationship
c) its direct and indirect link to violence and discrimination
d) its social benefit, such as helping consumers to shed sexual inhibitions

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 222-223
Answer: c) its direct and indirect link to violence and discrimination

17. The __________ view of pornography emphasizes its harmless impact on society.

a) liberal
b) conservative
c) radical
d) feminist

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 223-224
Answer: a) liberal

18. What do phone sex and nude dancing have in common?

a) The same women are involved in both businesses.
b) Both involve in-person contact with the customer.
c) Only talented and beautiful women work in either area.
d) Both result in very low wages for their workers.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 224-225
Answer: a) The same women are involved in both businesses.

19. If a caller to a phone sex operator sounds attractive and is able to arouse the operator’s personal or sexual interest, he is a ______ type of caller.

a) likable
b) sexually possessive
c) quick-sex
d) psycho

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 224
Answer: a) likable

20. Which of the following statements about nude dancers is true?

a) They generally make low wages.
b) Most of their customers are middle-class, married men.
c) Most find their work empowering.
d) Most publicly identify themselves as nude dancers.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 225
Answer: c) Most find their work empowering.

21. Which of the following definitions of sexual harassment was accepted by the Supreme Court in 1993?

a) any conduct leading to severe psychological injury
b) any conduct that involves actual sexual contact in the workplace
c) casual lewd remarks
d) any conduct that makes the workplace environment hostile or abusive

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 225-226
Answer: d) any conduct that makes the workplace environment hostile or abusive

22. According to the author of the text, sexual harassment

a) is no longer a serious problem in American society.
b) reflects men’s attempt to preserve their traditional dominance over women.
c) is a problem that affects as many men as it does women.
d) is more of a legal than a social problem.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 226-227
Answer: b) reflects men’s attempt to preserve their traditional dominance over women.

23. __________ is the exchange of sex for money.

a) Dating
b) Prostitution
c) Robbery
d) Homosexuality

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 227-228
Answer: b) Prostitution

24. All of the following are popular myths about prostitution, EXCEPT that

a) women become prostitutes because they are nymphomaniacs.
b) all prostitutes are sexually frigid.
c) it is the second oldest profession in the world.
d) most prostitutes are involved with drugs.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 228
Answer: c) it is the second oldest profession in the world.

25. Which of the following statements about prostitution is TRUE?

a) The different types of prostitutes are part of a highly stratified occupation.
b) The type of prostitutes who make the most money are streetwalkers.
c) Most children who are abused become prostitutes.
d) Most prostitutes make a very good living.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 228-229
Answer: a) The different types of prostitutes are part of a highly stratified occupation.

26. Compared with most other types of prostitutes, the streetwalker is

a) more attractive.
b) more educated.
c) less often arrested by the police.
d) less able to charge her customers high fees.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 229
Answer: d) less able to charge her customers high fees.

27. The highest status prostitute is the

a) call girl.
b) massage-parlor prostitute.
c) streetwalker.
d) gay prostitute.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 231-232
Answer: a) call girl.

28. Unlike other prostitutes, call girls

a) are routinely explicit in discussing their fees with clients.
b) seem to adhere to a professional code of ethics.
c) wear fantasy and other provocative clothing.
d) can give orders to their clients.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 231-232
Answer: b) seem to adhere to a professional code of ethics.

29. Roberta Perkins’s study of prostitutes in Australia discovered all of the following about most prostitutes, EXCEPT that they

a) resemble conventional women in desiring marriage and traditional family life.
b) have the same level of education as the general population.
c) have past family and social relations that do not differ from those of average women.
d) have been sexually assaulted as children.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 232-233
Answer: d) have been sexually assaulted as children.

30. Which of the following is the most common reason why women enter prostitution?

a) basic personal, social-psychological, and sexual difficulties
b) economic problems like unemployment and the need to support a family
c) addiction to drugs, especially crack
d) extreme poverty and low self-esteem

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 233-234
Answer: b) economic problems like unemployment and the need to support a family

31. Which of the following statements about the relation of AIDS to prostitution is TRUE?

a) Only long-term prostitutes have a chance of contracting AIDS.
b) A major negative aspect of prostitution is its role in creating the AIDS virus.
c) Relatively few prostitutes in the United States contract the AIDS virus.
d) Few prostitutes in America insist on condoms and therefore catch the AIDS virus from their clients.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 229-230
Answer: c) Relatively few prostitutes in the United States contract the AIDS virus.

32. To support their professional ideology, a number of prostitutes claim that their work does all of the following, EXCEPT for

a) preventing rape and other sex crimes.
b) saving marriages.
c) introducing women to a highly skilled profession.
d) providing the same services as social workers and psychiatrists.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 233-234
Answer: c) introducing women to a highly skilled profession.

33. The pimp is a man who

a) visits prostitutes and patronizes brothels with regularity.
b) simply lives off the earnings of one or more prostitutes.
c) is considered the “lowest of the low” by lower-class blacks.
d) is ranked much lower than prostitutes in the prostitute subculture.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 236
Answer: b) simply lives off the earnings of one or more prostitutes.

34. Which of the following is an example of a compulsive john?

a) a man who likes to beat up prostitutes
b) a man who wants to make friends with every prostitute
c) a man who wants to make friends with one special prostitute
d) a man who cannot keep away from prostitutes, from whom he wants sex only

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 237-238
Answer: d) a man who cannot keep away from prostitutes, from whom he wants sex only

35. All of the following are reasons why prostitution has become a fast-growing global industry, EXCEPT for

a) the collapse of the Soviet Union.
b) media exploitation of prostitution.
c) growing rural poverty in the Third World.
d) an increasing demand for prostitutes.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 239-240
Answer: b) media exploitation of prostitution.

36. Sociologist Kingsley Davis asserted that prostitution exists because

a) the economic system demands it.
b) genders are separate and unequal.
c) the moral system encourages it.
d) the police try to suppress it.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 240-241
Answer: c) the moral system encourages it.

37. All of the following are aspects of the feminist theory of prostitution, EXCEPT that

a) the moral system creates a need for prostitution.
b) the patriarchal system encourages prostitution by creating demand and supply for it.
c) prostitution reinforces patriarchy by subordinating women.
d) prostitution should become a legitimate women’s profession.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 235
Answer: d) prostitution should become a legitimate women’s profession.

38. The popular belief that a woman can earn a lot of money as a prostitute is one of the __________ factors that cause women to become prostitute.

a) predisposing
b) ideological
c) attracting
d) precipitating

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 241
Answer: c) attracting

39. The madam is one who

a) solicits customers for a prostitute in return for a share of the proceeds.
b) simply lives off the earnings of one or more prostitutes.
c) is considered the “lowest of the low” by lower-class blacks.
d) is ranked much lower than prostitutes in the prostitute subculture.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 235
Answer: a) solicits customers for a prostitute in return for a share of the proceeds.

40. According to the text, approximately ________ of American men do not participate in extramarital sex.

a) 90 percent
b) 80 percent
c) 75 percent
d) 60 percent

Page Reference: 217-218

CHAPTER TEN: GAYS AND OTHER TARGETS OF STIGMA

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Something a person has or does that others see as bad in some way is the definition of

a) a phobia.
b) an obsession.
c) a falsehood.
d) a stigma.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 248
Answer: d) a stigma.

2. Which of the following persons has an unjustifiable stigma?

a) an obese person
b) a murderer
c) a rapist
d) a child abuser

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 248
Answer: a) an obese person

3. All of the following are myths about homosexuality, EXCEPT that homosexuals

a) are typically effeminate.
b) have about as much sex as heterosexuals.
c) cannot have satisfactory sex lives.
d) are very promiscuous.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 248-249
Answer: b) have about as much sex as heterosexuals.

4. Which of the following statements about the differences between sexual orientations is TRUE?

a) People are either completely gay or completely straight.
b) If a person commits one or two homosexual acts, he or she is considered gay or lesbian.
c) The difference between sexual orientation is actually a matter of degree.
d) Sexual orientation is strongly related to being male or female.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 250-251
Answer: c) The difference between sexual orientation is actually a matter of degree.

5. According to a recent representative sample of the U.S. adult population, the percentage of American men that have ever engaged in same-sex behavior is about __________ percent.
a) 5
b) 9
c) 20
d) 30

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 250-251
Answer: b) 9

6. The greater promiscuity among gay men has to do with their

a) rejection of females.
b) homosexuality.
c) male gender role.
d) hormone levels.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 251-252
Answer: c) male gender role.

7. Which of the following events has produced a significant shift from sexual promiscuity to monogamy among homosexuals?

a) the AIDS crisis of the early 1980s
b) the outlawing of homosexual behavior in many states
c) the closing of homosexual bathhouses, men’s rooms, and gay bars
d) the realization by many gays that their lifestyle is sinful

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 252
Answer: a) the AIDS crisis of the early 1980s

8. Which of the following is a way that male couples differ from heterosexual couples?

a) They have a greater sensitivity to power imbalances.
b) They are far more sexually exclusive.
c) They take roles of husband and wife from traditional society.
d) They tend to shun marital roles.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 252-253
Answer: a) They have a greater sensitivity to power imbalances.

9. Compared with male homosexuals, lesbians are generally

a) less promiscuous.
b) equally promiscuous.
c) more promiscuous.
d) less faithful to their partners.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 252-253
Answer: a) less promiscuous.

10. All of the following are ways gay women are like heterosexual women, EXCEPT that homosexual women

a) can carry on a comfortable relationship with straight people.
b) were often tomboys in childhood.
c) are more interested in relationship and love.
d) have a desire to be mothers.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 253
Answer: b) were often tomboys in childhood.

11. The four stages whereby male homosexuals come to acquire their gay identity are sensitization, dissociation, coming out, and

a) homosexual affirmation.
b) public affirmation.
c) desensitization.
d) commitment.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 254-255
Answer: d) commitment.

12. Greg was about 17 when he realized that he wasn’t very interested in women. Instead, he was attracted to and wanted to have sex with men but hoped he would grow away from these feelings in time. He was in the __________ stage of acquiring a gay identity.

a) sensitization
b) dissociation
c) coming out
d) commitment

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 253-254
Answer: b) dissociation

13. Research has documented that children raised by gay parents

a) are much more likely to become gay themselves.
b) are no more likely than children with heterosexual parents to become homosexual.
c) rarely have any problems accepting their parents or being accepted by friends.
d) usually have psychological and school problems.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 255
Answer: b) are no more likely than children with heterosexual parents to become homosexual.

14. Today, if two gays truly fall in love, increasingly they will

a) get married.
b) continue to date others.
c) finally initiate sexual relations.
d) become domestic partners.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 256
Answer: a) get married.

15. Which of the following statements about homosexuality and religion is TRUE?

a) Many religions consider homosexuality a sin.
b) Gays rarely attend religious services because they are almost always discriminated against.
c) Gays agree that their homosexuality is a sin, but they feel they can’t do much about it.
d) Few, if any, pastors are willing to perform same-sex marriages.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 256-257
Answer: a) Many religions consider homosexuality a sin.

16. Studies that seem to support the biological theory of homosexuality

a) have clearly demonstrated that biological factors are a determinant of homosexuality.
b) strongly demonstrate that only biological factors can cause homosexuality.
c) conclude that social factors are actually more important than biological factors.
d) can only suggest that biological factors create a predisposition toward homosexuality.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 257-258
Answer: d) can only suggest that biological factors create a predisposition toward homosexuality.

17. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the genetic theory of homosexuality?

a) A genetic factor cannot be linked in any way to homosexuality.
b) Genetic studies are vague on what the “gay gene” is and where it might reside.
c) Subjects from twin and chromosome studies were not randomly selected.
d) The social environment might better account for why identical twins both become homosexual.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 257
Answer: a) A genetic factor cannot be linked in any way to homosexuality.

18. Since 1973, the American Psychiatric Association has referred to the problems that some homosexuals have with their sexual orientation as

a) variant sexual orientation.
b) special sexual preference.
c) sexual orientation disturbance.
d) abnormal sexual preference.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 258
Answer: c) sexual orientation disturbance.

19. Research has shown that if a mother has much more physical contact with her son and has less contact with her daughter,

a) her son is more likely to become gay while her daughter will more likely be heterosexual.
b) her daughter is more likely to become lesbian while her son will more likely be heterosexual.
c) her son is more likely to become gay and her daughter is more likely to become lesbian.
d) nothing much will happen because children are born with homosexual tendencies.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 258-259
Answer: c) her son is more likely to become gay and her daughter is more likely to become lesbian.

20. According to social constructionists, which of the following overall statements about the causes of homosexuality is true?

a) Genetic and other biological factors cause homosexuality.
b) The social environment causes homosexuality.
c) Homosexuality is simply a label that some persons place on others.
d) Competent scientists know what causes homosexuality.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 259
Answer: c) Homosexuality is simply a label that some persons place on others.

21. In attempting to define what a homosexual is, Kinsey rejected the idea that

a) a person is either exclusively heterosexual or homosexual.
b) the human mind invents categories about sexuality and tries to force all persons into those categories.
c) a person can have a wide variety of forms of sexual experience.
d) human experience, including sexual experience, is a continuum and varies in many ways.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 259
Answer: a) a person is either exclusively heterosexual or homosexual.

22. Trades, or men who often go to public restrooms for impersonal sex,

a) define themselves as homosexuals.
b) see themselves as straight and masculine.
c) have otherwise normal levels of sex with their wives.
d) are from the upper-middle class.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 260
Answer : b) see themselves as straight and masculine.

23. Which of the following is an example of the situational type of homosexual behavior?

a) a male prostitute hustling on the street
b) a call boy working for a gay escort service
c) a married woman who has sex with a girlfriend once a week
d) a stripteaser who rarely has time to date after work

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 260-261
Answer: d) a stripteaser who rarely has time to date after work

24. Which of the following norms is used to define homosexuality as deviant?

a) the norm of sexual exclusiveness
b) the norm that sex should involve people of different genders
c) the norm that married couples should produce children
d) the norm that love should precede sex

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 261-262
Answer: c) the norm that married couples should produce children

25. One reason why the reproductive norm is an illogical basis for opposing homosexuality is that

a) almost all couples have sex for pleasure, not reproduction.
b) this norm is a holdover from the past.
c) few people are currently having sexual relations.
d) sexuality and reproduction are two entirely different matters.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 262-263
Answer: a) almost all couples have sex for pleasure, not reproduction.

26. Which of the following statements about the nature and extent of homophobia is not true?

a) Most Americans do not believe we should deny the sexual minority the same rights enjoyed by the sexual majority.
b) U.S. society is deeply ambivalent about its sexual minority.
c) A majority of Americans practice discrimination against the sexual minority.
d) A majority of Americans condemn same-sex orientation as