What is the view that a society should be judged on its own terms, not in comparison with others, called?
When can ethnocentrism be functional for a society?
When it builds conformity and cohesiveness.
To a sociologist, what is culture?
A society’s ideas, values, beliefs, and technology
The most important set of symbols is pictures
The attitude that one’s culture is superior to other cultures is known as ethnocentrism.
Norms are consistent with, but not the same as, values.
What is social status?
It is a socially defined position of an individual in society
What is an ascribed status?
It is assigned at birth
What is a social role?
A set of expected behaviors
What is the major difference between primary and secondary groups?
The extent of personal intimacy
Secondary groups are impersonal, but primary groups can form within them
Reference groups give us an important source of information about ourselves.
Increasing the size of a group strengthens group cohesiveness
Groups are organizations with clearly stated goals
We learn human behavior by interacting with others.
Children develop through natural stages of learning whether or not they interact with others.
The presentation of self is a form of behavior always used to avoid exposure of the real self.
Goffman compared social interaction to _____.
Drama on a stage
An individual uses ________ to tell the audience or others that the self is not what it appears to be.
The __________ is considered the primary agency of socialization in the United States.
How does the dictionary define sociology?
The study of social relationships, social institutions, and society
What is sociology?
A social science
Anthropologists generally study society as a whole, while sociologists are likely to concentrate on only one aspect of a society.
Sociologists only study economic systems.
What is of interest to social geographers?
Distributions of people
What is the sociological imagination?
A conscious effort to question the obvious
What should a sociologist do when reading a table?
All of the above
Sociological knowledge is based on subjective opinion.
The American Sociological Association’s definition of sociology reflects the belief that people can only be understood in a social context.
Why do sociologists study social life?
To understand the regular recurrent patterns in social life
Structural functional theorists regard society in a state of equilibrium, while conflict theorists regard society in a constant state of competition and change
Stopping at a stop light demonstrates the human ability to use symbols.
What do contemporary conflict theorists believe about conflict?
Conflict is a permanent feature of social life
In exchange theory, what is the basis of social relationships?
Expectations of reciprocation
Early sociologists often equated evolution with
What do most sociologists rely on to understand social life?
The variable that causes an effect is the _____ variable.
When researchers try to find the cause of health problems, these problems are the _____ variable.
In any scientific study the causal variable is the independent variable.
One of the aims of descriptive research is to provide facts about the social world.
Where does deviance occur?
In all societies
What is deviance?
Behavior that violates norms
What is the affect of deviance on the system?
It helps maintain the system; it disrupts the system; it destroys trust in the system
According to the social pathological view of deviance, where does deviance originate?
An unhealthy society
What does “having a conscience” assume?
You have internalized certain ideas about deviant behavior
Any behavior that is considered deviant in a man would be considered deviant in a woman
Norms for proper behavior vary by class
Deviant behavior indicates that society is sick, lacking in morals, and without morals
In many ways deviance is good and useful for society
What is inequality
Unequal distribution of scarce resources
What are characteristics of hunting and gathering societies
Less stratification than exists in other societies
People generally feel most comfortable with people who are
People in their own social class
What does income, education, and occupation measure?
A person’s socioeconomic status
What is true of racial groups?
They are socially constructed categories of people who are distinguished from each other by selecting physical characteristics; definitions of race can include biological, physical, and social meanings; truly objective criteria of racial groups based on physical or biological characteristics do not seem to exist
Ethnicity is based on national origin, religion, and language
Race is a meaningful biological concept for physical anthropologists
Prejudice is an overt act of barring people from social institutions
Prejudice is, in part, sustained through stereotypes
Germany, Rwanda, Sudan, and the US have all, at one time or another, encouraged genocide
The practice of systematically destroying a whole race
is called genocide
According to conflict theorists, the elderly are
a minority group in a youth-based society
Men in all societies are more assertive than women
What is part of the reason women remain in low-paying jobs?
Their lack of experience in autonomy and authority
One major reason women earn less then men?
Wages in the secondary labor force, in which most working women are employed, are low
What is the difference between gender and sex
Gender pertains to the cultural concepts of masculinity and femininity
Stereotypes about older people can lead to prejudice and discrimination. This is referred to as
What is age?
An ascribed status
Structural functionalists maintain that the gender roles assigned by a society are functional to the society
Conflict theorists hold that the gender roles assigned by a society are functional for both men and women
Jobs in the secondary labor force are being moved to developing world countries where women work for low wages
Women hold high status occupations proportionate to their numbers in the work force which is about on par with men.
Stress among women who are housewives occurs more from lack of respect than from the nature of their work
Age is a status achieved by living a long time
A natural accompaniment to old age is poor health
The elderly are more likely to live in cities and less likely to live in the suburbs than are other age groups
Most old men are married while most old women are not
Medicare covers all medical costs of the elderly
Disengagement theory argues that the elderly want to be less involved in the activities of society
Modernization theory states that the more modern a society, the lower the status of the elderly
Retirement is functional for society, and every society has a system for retiring the elderly from the workforce