SOCA 101 – WVU Exam 4 (set 1)

The concept of __________ is at the heart of the study of social stratification.
__________ had the fewest opportunities for social inequality to emerge.
hunting and gathering societies
Under feudalism, the laborers who were obligated to work for landowners were called __________.
The dominant system of inequality prior to the advent of capitalism is known as __________.
The median family income in the United States in 2012 was approximately __________.
According to Forbes magazine, in 2014, the richest individual in the world was __________.
__________ refers to the receipt of money over a period of time, whereas __________ refers to the net value of assets that one has at a given point in time.
income; wealth
Before retirement, most people get most or all of their income from __________.
their jobs
Illegal or “underground” earnings from crime or from untaxed (undeclared) work or activity are __________.
considered as income
The primary way in which most Americans accumulate wealth is through __________.
home ownership
The study of the distinctions among different social classes is called __________.
class analysis
In Marxist terms, the important distinction in a capitalist society was between the __________ and the __________.
proletariat; bourgeoisie
__________ is a designation of class that considers income, occupation, and salary.
socioeconomic status
Which of the following countries is much less egalitarian than the others?
– brazil
– the US
– Sweden
– India
the United States
In general, technology __________ jobs that require higher levels of education while it __________ jobs that require middle and lower levels of education.
complements; replaces
The fact that Apple Computer manufactures all iPads and iPhones in __________ is an example of __________.
China; outsourcing
As a result of economic restructuring, average wages have __________ since the 1970s.
The premise of the __________ is that billionaires, millionaires, and all those at the top of the income ladder are expected to pay more in taxes than minimum-wage employees.
progressive tax system
The majority of minimum-wage employees are __________.
Most “one percenters” __________.
have jobs
Because there are no obvious ways of determining how much opportunity individuals really have, social scientists measure it indirectly by examining __________.
social mobility
In a meritocracy __________.
rewards are linked to personal ability
Sociologists refer to societies in which individuals experience no social mobility as

-status-consistent societies

-closed societies

-open societies

-caste societies

To measure __________ sociologists can use intergenerational correlations between parents’ and projected children’s __________.
social mobility; incomes
Lana, a single woman with no dependents, is unable to afford basic necessities, such as housing and healthcare. What type of poverty is she experiencing?
absolute poverty
The feminization of poverty is a term used to describe __________.
single-parent families in which the woman is the primary provider and caregiver
In 2012, the poverty line for a family of four was __________.
Labor markets and government policies are both important factors that influence __________.
social mobility
In general, countries with __________ inequality also tend to have __________ social mobility.
high; low
A true meritocracy would most likely be considered a(n) __________ society by sociologists.
__________ are much more likely than __________ to live in poverty in the United States.
racial minorities; whites
Who theorized that the critical divisions between classes were the result of the economic system?
Karl Marx
When did homelessness begin to grow into a serious problem in the United States?
Why is it difficult to get an accurate count of the homeless?
Many of the homelessness may temporarily live with friends and family.
Current research shows that there is a relationship between poverty, __________, and __________; this is particularly worrisome in the case of children.
stress; cognitive development
Patricia works as a sales manager and earns approximately $60,000 a year. She owns her own home and has $20,000 in the bank as an emergency fund. She also owns a rental property, from which she earns $12,000 a year. Which of the following responses best represents her wealth?

her rental property and the $12,000 income it produces

her two properties and her $12,000 rental-property income

her gross $60,000 income

her two properties and her $20,000 savings

Kenneth lives in a low-income, high-crime neighborhood. His home is poorly ventilated, which triggers asthma attacks. As a result of these stressors, he has high blood pressure. How would sociologists describe Kenneth’s cognitive development?

– as status impaired

– as consumptive

– as compromised

-as structurally immobile

Sandra is a corporate attorney. She graduated from Harvard Law School at the top of her class and earns $250,000 a year. Sociologists who evaluate Sandra’s social position based on the dimensions of her income, education, and occupation would describe her as __________.
having high SES
Ben was a bank teller at Goliath National Bank, until the tellers at Goliath were replaced by ATM machines. As a result, Ben decided to go back to school and update his computer skills. Ben’s scenario best represents a consequence of __________.
skill-biased technology change
Which of the following scenarios best represents outsourcing?
the opening of a call center for an American credit card company in the Philippines
The components of Nike tennis shoes are produced in different parts of the world. The final assembly of the shoes is completed in China. Thereafter the shoes are shipped to the United States, where David purchases a pair at a suburban mall in Denver. Of the following economic phenomena, which does this scenario best represent?
Remington is involved in the Occupy Wall Street movement. He camped out for weeks at a park opposite the statehouse in Columbus, Ohio, and was eventually arrested. Remington, like other protestors, has many concerns about his economic condition, but he likely joined the movement to protest __________.
the disparity in income and wealth between the top 1 percent of Americans and everyone else
Candace and Bill are married with two children. Bill works and earns minimum wage. Candace stays home to raise their two young children. Their annual household income in 2012 was below the poverty line. Given this scenario, you can accurately infer that __________.
their annual income is below $23,000
Karen is a home care aid. She earns about $10 an hour and works 40 hours a week. She is unable to save, and last month her car broke down. She cannot afford to fix her car, being already late in paying her bills for gas and electricity. From this description of Karen’s life, you conclude that she is a member of which class?
the working poor
A group of friends are discussing their salaries. Among them they earn the following per year: $40,000, $50,000, $65,000, $68,000, and $75,000. What is the median salary among this group of friends?
It is often better to use the __________, instead of the __________, to measure household income because it is a more stable calculation that is influenced less by outliers.
median; mean
The United States spends __________ on programs that directly alleviate poverty than other wealthy nations.
Don and Cal are high school friends from the same hometown. After high school, Don started to work full-time as an overnight cleaner at a floor cleaning business. Cal attended a public university nearby and earned a bachelor’s degree in marketing. At their 10-year reunion Don and Cal discuss the courses their lives have taken since they graduated from high school. Don has been working full-time for the whole 10 years and makes about $40,000 per year from the cleaning business. Cal has been working for 5 years as manager of the marketing department at a health insurance company in the area; he makes about $70,000 per year. What concept would a sociologist use to describe the differences between Don and Cal?
the college wage premium
Dawn works as a lawyer for a Fortune 500 company and recently bought her first home. She was the first person in her family to attend college. Even though while she was growing up her family was very busy working to pay rent and other bills—her dad worked as a janitor and her mother as a childcare assistant—her parents have always been supportive of her education and career goals. What sociological concept best describes Dawn’s life?
upward mobility
A sociologist would most likely conclude what about homeless individuals?
the homeless live in absolute poverty