SOC101 sux

sociological imagination
capacity to think systematically about how many things that we experience as personal problems are really social issues that are widely shared by others born in a similar time and social location as us
social contexts
People in our society tend to think of themselves in terms of their individuality, but we are also all products of our __________, such as the time and place we live and the family we were born into.
society
large group of people who live in the same area and participate in a common culture
sociology
study of societies and the social worlds that individuals inhabit within them
social interaction, social structure
2 key concepts to understanding social context
social theories
overarching frameworks that suggest certain assumptions about how the world works
stat analysis of data
quantitative research relies on?
words, observations, pictures
qualitative research relies on?
ethnographic observations
when research questions have more to do with how people interact and less with how they say they interact, what research method is best?
spurious relationship
an apparent relationship between two factors that has the appearance of linkage, but in reality, does not
civil inattention
strangers ignore each other to an appropriate degree when their paths cross in public spaces
we see ourselves as we imagine others see us
What part does the looking-glass self play in our determination of identity and self-worth?
socialization
process by which we come to understand the expectations, rules, and norms of the society in which we live
status
positions in society
roles
expected behaviors for those statuses
impression management
processes through which we manage our settings, dress actions, and gestures to correspond with the impression we are trying to make
slowly over time
how quickly does social structure tend to change?
social hierarchy, social institutions
what 2 components make up social structure?
agency
capacity of individuals to make free choices and exert free will
true
T or F: social hierarchies in the US include race, class, gender, and sexual orientation
false
T or F: culture is relatively constant throughout time
true
culture is an aspect of social life different from biology
ethnocentrism
leads to incorrect assumptions about other cultures based on our own experience
cultural relativism
the idea that cultural meanings and practices must be evaluated in their own social contexts
culture
symbols, language, rituals, norms, and values
3d view of power
conflict is not necessary for power to exist; powerless embrace ideas of the powerful even when it is not in their interest to do so
2d view of power
one party prevents conflict
1d view of power
one party prevails because other party has few resources to win open conflicts
true
T or F: in comparison with other countries, US employers have fewer employment regulations to adhere to and relatively weaker labor unions with whom conditions of work have to be negotiated
organizational isomorphism
the process by which similar organizations adopt similar rules and procedures
structural inertia
A strong resistance to change.
true
T or F: a general critique of the urban ecology perspective is that it fails to consider the role of political and economic forces that affect the development of cities
global cities
key locations for leading industries, centers of production and centers of innovative financial services from which business and organization exercise global command and control
social capital
resources available to individuals through their relationships and networks
social stratification
study of social inequality and the distribution of goods, resources, and power
food insecurity
25% children in the US live in a household that receives food stamps
too low
the federal poverty line is too high or low?
race
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits
ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share cultural traditions.
social construct
race is a social phenomenon created by individuals and shaped by social forces
assimilation
Adopting the traits of another culture. Often happens over time when one immigrates into a new country.
disproportionate
The percentage of black men who have been incarcerated is ______ to their percentage representation in the pop at large
transgender
people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex
heteronormativity
treating heterosexual behaviors as the only “normal” or “correct” way to behave sexually. ignores/erases LGBTQ experiences
gender
A socially and culturally constructed set of distinctions between male and female sets of behaviors that is promoted and expected by society
sex
how males and females differ in terms of anatomy, chromosomes, and hormones