Soc Test #3

Which of the following would most likely be characteristic of a society with a more open system of social stratification?
social stratification based only on ascription

endogamous marriage practices

greater emphasis on meritocracy

norms that reinforce the view that some groups of people are “purer” than others

greater emphasis on meritocracy
A caste system is _________ than a class system.
less open

found in industrial societies more often

found in agrarian societies less often

more open

less open
Which of the following would be considered a source of income?
debts

earnings from work

real estate

stocks and bonds

earnings from work
How do sociologists define the concept of wealth?
the value of income, all other assets, minus the value of all outstanding debts

the value of potential intergenerational inheritance, and salary

the value of charitable contributions, occupation, and home value

how much income a person earns

the value of income, all other assets, minus the value of all outstanding debts
According to Davis and Moore, what benefits come from social stratification?
Stratification encourages the oldest people to have more power and wealth.

No one benefits from social stratification, in their opinion.

Only egalitarian societies experience productive efficiency.

Linking rewards to the functional importance of positions promotes a society’s productivity and efficiency.

Linking rewards to the functional importance of positions promotes a society’s productivity and efficiency.
Why is health closely related to social standing?
Poorer people are more likely to describe their health as excellent.

Because poorer people live in less stressful environments, they live longer.

Richer people live healthier and longer because they eat more nutritious food and receive better medical care.

Fewer babies are born to wealthy people, so they experience lower infant mortality.

Richer people live healthier and longer because they eat more nutritious food and receive better medical care.
What makes defining classes in U.S. society so difficult?
Although people believe the United States does not have a caste system, it does in fact have a very rigid one.

The controlling class does not want to be classified for fear of sparking political revolt.

U.S. society has a relatively low level of status consistency so the boundaries between class levels are not very clear.

People believe themselves to be in a higher class than they really are.

U.S. society has a relatively low level of status consistency so the boundaries between class levels are not very clear.
Over the past several decades, what has happened to the level of economic inequality in the United States?
Economic inequality has increased slightly.

Economic inequality has increased dramatically.

Economic inequality has declined.

Economic inequality has remained about the same.

Economic inequality has increased dramatically.
Max Weber viewed social stratification as involving three distinct dimensions of inequality: class, status, and power.
True
False
True
Compared to high-income people, working-class people tend to be __________ controversial patterns of behavior in others.
less tolerant of

more tolerant of

indifferent to

encouraging of

less tolerant of
Karl Marx believed that a __________ system would replace __________ and provide for the needs of all people rather than just the needs of an elite few.
communist; democracy

socialist; capitalism

capitalist; communism

democratic; socialism

socialist; capitalism
Manufacturing jobs lost in the United States since 1960 have largely been replaced by __________ jobs.
service

professional

farming

technical

service
Which of the following social classes accounts for the largest percent of the U.S. population?
the upper class

the lower class

the middle class

the upper middle class

the middle class
In 2011, women in the United States who worked full time earned __________ as much as men who worked full time.
87 percent

57 percent

97 percent

77 percent

77 percent
All systems of social inequality create ________, the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more.
absolute poverty

affluence

wealth

relative poverty

relative poverty
A change in social position that occurs during a person’s lifetime is known as _________.
lateral social mobility

status inconsistency

intragenerational social mobility

intergenerational social mobility

intragenerational social mobility
In high-income societies, when people switch from one job to another, they typically experience __________.
downward mobility

horizontal mobility

intergenerational mobility

upward mobility

horizontal mobility
Ramone’s parents graduated from high school and worked for a local hotel. Ramone graduated from college and teaches high school biology. Ramone has experienced __________.
structural social mobility

no social mobility

upward social mobility

downward social mobility

upward social mobility
How would the Davis-Moore thesis explain the fact that physicians earn far more money than do bus drivers?
Physicians tend to be part of a dominant social elite and they limit the access of minority members to the resources needed to become a physician. In so doing, physicians are able to maintain the income, power, and prestige that accompany their occupation for members of the dominant group.

The occupation of physician carries with it a great deal of stress, which means that physicians have a much shorter life span than do bus drivers and hence a much shorter period of time in which to earn money. The large amount of income that doctors earn therefore compensates them for their shorter work life.

People tend to develop much closer relationships with their physicians than they do with bus drivers. Because patients tend to like, respect, and trust physicians, they are willing to pay them large amounts of money to maintain these relationships.

The occupation of physician is more highly valued than that of bus driver and requires much more ability and sacrifice in terms of education and training. Providing physicians with greater rewards draws talent to that position and ensures that some people will be willing to make the sacrifices needed to become physicians.

The occupation of physician is more highly valued than that of bus driver and requires much more ability and sacrifice in terms of education and training. Providing physicians with greater rewards draws talent to that position and ensures that some people will be willing to make the sacrifices needed to become physicians.
Michelle Johansen, a single mother living just outside of Chicago, Illinois, earns approximately $36,000 a year from her blue-collar job as an auto mechanic. Michelle is proud that the modest home in which she lives is in the same neighborhood where she grew up. Although she enjoys her work, she finds the constant supervision of her bosses to be stifling and worries because the job does not provide a pension. Compounding her troubles is how to tell her daughter that she will not be able to afford the university her daughter has talked about for the past year. Into which social class does Michelle Johansen most likely fall?
the lower class

the working class

the average-middle class

the upper-middle class

the working class
Jasmine is a single mother, making just above minimum wage at her job, trying to support her two children after having run through her social assistance benefits the year before. The fact that women such as she are at high risk of being poor reflects the trend called __________.
intragenerational social mobility

losing cultural capital

the feminization of poverty

the new middle class

the feminization of poverty
After studying the ideas of ________ in her political science class, Lakeisha felt that private ownership of property and class structures are oppressive.
Davis and Moore

Spencer

Plato

Marx

Marx
What evidence exists to suggest that horizontal social mobility (such as changing from one job to another that is similar) is more characteristic of society than other forms of social mobility?
The overall social standing of most people remains much the same over the course of their lifetime.

Social standing tends to reflect personal talent and effort.

Most children achieve a higher social standing during their lifetime than that held by their parents.

Wealth is always easier to achieve than power or prestige.

The overall social standing of most people remains much the same over the course of their lifetime.
Sociologists use the term “feminization of poverty” to describe __________.
the increasing earnings gap between men and women

the trend by which women make up an increasing proportion of the poor

the disproportionate number of female sociologists who conduct research on issues surrounding poverty

the disproportionate number of women who work as social caseworkers for the poor

the trend by which women make up an increasing proportion of the poor
The Census Bureau reports that, in 2011, $60,974 was the
poverty level for a family of four.

lowest amount of income needed to be in the richest 20 percent of all families.

annual amount a worker on minimum wage could make.

median U.S. family income.

median U.S. family income.
What argument did Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore present to support their beliefs that social inequality has beneficial consequences for the operation of society?
Some form of social stratification has been found in every known society.

Later generations always progress further toward equality than earlier generations.

It always takes time for nonmaterial culture to catch up with material culture.

All people in a society have a psychological need to judge themselves better than those around them.

Some form of social stratification has been found in every known society.
The town of Durkheim, New Hampshire, creates a new youth baseball league for teenagers aged 13 through 17, and the response is tremendous. Because the emphasis of the league’s creators is on fun rather than competition, none of the games played by the teams during their four-month season is scored. At the end of the season, all of the players on the league’s twelve teams receive a small trophy with the inscription, “You’re #1!” Following the Davis-Moore thesis, which of the following would be the most likely result of the town’s new youth baseball program?
Far fewer of the best teenagers sign up to play baseball the following year for this team, looking elsewhere for a chance to excel; those that do sign up are the first season’s weaker players, leading the league’s creators to rethink their procedures.

Many of the town’s best players in its youth soccer and youth football leagues leave their leagues to play baseball.

A majority of the players show a remarkable improvement in their baseball skills by the end of the season.

The officials of the town’s soccer and football leagues restructure their procedures to resemble those of the baseball league.

Far fewer of the best teenagers sign up to play baseball the following year for this team, looking elsewhere for a chance to excel; those that do sign up are the first season’s weaker players, leading the league’s creators to rethink their procedures.
Even though a caste system has a fairly negative image in the eyes of individuals who don’t live in one, how do the elements of a caste system that exist in a meritocracy actually provide benefits to a more open class system?
Caste elements provide more equitable reward for performance.

Caste systems encourage significantly greater productivity.

Caste systems encourage social mobility among the entire range of stratification.

The norms of caste system instill a certain amount of order and social integration within society.

The norms of caste system instill a certain amount of order and social integration within society.
A high level of mobility is what we would expect in a(n)
a static stratification system.

a “closed” stratification system.

industrial class system.

caste system.

industrial class system.
What happens when intragenerational social mobility occurs?
An expansion of the U.S. economy pushes up living standards for everyone.

Individuals change their social position during their own lifetimes.

Children are upwardly or downwardly socially mobile in relation to their parents.

Long-term changes in society occur that affect young people.

Individuals change their social position during their own lifetimes.
What was Marx’s main criticism of capitalist laws that define property ownership?
Capitalist societies did not do enough to ensure that wealth and power stay in the hands of a few as “a law of the marketplace.”

They ensure that money stays within the same families from one generation to the next.

They did not consider any form of inequality as just.

They did not do enough to limit the meritocratic aspects of capitalist societies.

They ensure that money stays within the same families from one generation to the next.
What evidence exists to indicate that wealth is distributed more unequally in the United States than income?
The percentage of wealth owned by the poorest 20 percent of families is roughly equivalent to the percentage of all U.S. income earned by this group.

The richest 20 percent of U.S. families own a much larger percentage of the nation’s wealth than they earn of the nation’s income.

The richest 20 percent of U.S. families own a much smaller percentage of the nation’s wealth than the percentage they earn of the nation’s income.

The percentages of wealth and income attributable to the richest 20 percent of U.S. families are far lower than the percentages attributable to the remaining 80 percent of U.S. families.

The richest 20 percent of U.S. families own a much larger percentage of the nation’s wealth than they earn of the nation’s income.
Compared to white-collar jobs, blue-collar jobs typically require ________ schooling.
more

about the same amount of

less

no

less
Which of the following factors explains why lower-class families tend to be larger than middle-class families?
Lower-class couples tend to marry earlier and women make less use of birth control.

Lower-class families are less likely to conform to conventional norms.

Lower-class families have greater cultural capital.

Lower-class couples tend to be more egalitarian in all aspects of life and to express greater intimacy.

Lower-class couples tend to marry earlier and women make less use of birth control.
__________ is to the upper-upper class as achievement is to the lower-upper class.
Conspicuous consumption

Income

Birth

Opportunity

Birth
Some people would argue that teachers actually contribute more value to society than does someone like Kim Kardashian, and yet teachers are paid significantly less than Kardashian. These people would be critical of
the Davis and Moore thesis.

increased opportunities for everyone to develop their abilities.

the idea of meritocracy.

the social conflict approach.

the Davis and Moore thesis.
Yelena grew up as a rural peasant in the Soviet Union, but with the country’s rapidly expanding industry, Yelena, along with thousands of other peasants, found a job working in a factory. What do sociologists call this type of shift in the social position?
meritocracy

caste

wealth redistribution

structural social mobility

structural social mobility
According to Max Weber’s analysis of social stratification, the single, most important dimension of difference between people in industrial societies is __________.
age

prestige

power

class or economic inequality

class or economic inequality
Winning the lottery is to upward social mobility as __________ is to downward social mobility.
birth

winning a spelling bee

losing a best friend

losing a job

losing a job
The movement of many high-paying industrial jobs overseas has been accompanied here in the United States by an expansion of low-paying jobs in the __________.
sales industry

service industry

manufacturing industry

trades industry

service industry
Frieda, who was raised in a middle-class family, has just dropped out of college midway through her freshman year, and now she is living in a rundown apartment, working the third shift at a convenience store. This move is an example of
horizontal mobility.

structural mobility.

downward mobility.

upward mobility.

downward mobility.
When it comes to the means of production, Marx believed most people either own the means of production or they
are better off than those owners.

believe that private ownership of property is wrong.

will refuse to participate in production.

provide labor for those who do.

provide labor for those who do.
As a member of the average-middle class, Aiden has built up a small amount of wealth. What would be the typical form this wealth would take?
income-producing investments and rental properties

real estate and precious metals such as gold

a house and a retirement account

stocks and bonds

a house and a retirement account
Defining social categories in fluid class systems is much more difficult than the rankings in a rigid caste system. Why is this so?
The inequality in income levels is much less pronounced in a caste system than in a class system.

Caste systems have only two levels, whereas a class system has infinite levels.

A person’s standing on one dimension may differ from other dimensions within a class system, making class boundaries unclear.

Social status within a class system is unchangeable during a person’s life, whereas a person’s status may vary throughout life in a caste system.

A person’s standing on one dimension may differ from other dimensions within a class system, making class boundaries unclear.
A meritocracy would be characterized by
little change in social position.

endogamous marriages.

ascribed jobs.

extensive social mobility.

extensive social mobility.
How does a caste system set people’s social standing?
A caste system lets people earn their own standing.

A caste system has no social differences at all.

A caste system includes individual achievements in social standing.

A caste system ascribes social status to people at birth.

A caste system ascribes social status to people at birth.
In India, families in each caste—Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Sudra—perform one type of work, as priests, soldiers, barbers, leather workers, street sweepers, and so on. Which caste would a farmer be in?
A farmer could be in almost any caste because farming work is open to members of many castes.

A farmer is an “untouchable,” who is not a member of any caste.

A farmer must be of the Vaishya caste.

A farmer must be of the Brahman caste.

A farmer could be in almost any caste because farming work is open to members of many castes.
The most common pattern of social mobility in the United States is __________.
downward social mobility

horizontal social mobility

upward social mobility

vertical social mobility

horizontal social mobility
Which of the following variables was the most important factor affecting the probability of who survived the sinking of the Titanic?
marital status

swimming ability

social class

age

social class
Rita grew up in a working-class family, went to college, graduated from medical school, and married a U.S. senator’s son. With each change in her life, her social status improved. In what type of system would this scenario happen relatively often?
agrarian society

a class system with considerable meritocracy

caste system

aristocratic system

a class system with considerable meritocracy
__________ are to the working class as __________ are to the upper middle class.
Smaller families; larger families

Expressions of greater intimacy; fewer expressions of intimacy

Traditional gender roles; more egalitarian gender roles

Friendships based on shared leisure pursuits; friendships based on mutual material assistance

Traditional gender roles; more egalitarian gender roles
Dawn breaks, and a sleepy nine-year-old girl rolls off the mat she shares with her sisters in the family’s tiny hut. Stepping outside, she glances at the mountains that are a familiar sight in this South American landscape and wonders again if there might be anything beyond them. She smiles, thinking of the fun she will have this morning helping her mother and sisters gather nuts and wild berries for the family’s mid-day meal. She waves as she sees her father and brothers gather their hoes and digging sticks to tend to the family’s crops, then runs back inside to see if they have left her any breakfast. According to Gerhard Lenski’s model of sociocultural evolution, this girl most likely lives in a(n) __________ society, which has __________.
horticultural; more pronounced social stratification than that found in hunting and gathering societies

pastoral society; an intensity of social stratification higher than that found in agrarian societies

hunting and gathering; the highest intensity of social stratification

agrarian; the lowest intensity of social stratification

horticultural; more pronounced social stratification than that found in hunting and gathering societies
Amanda teaches high school chemistry and earns about $60,000 a year, is building up her retirement account, and is paying off a mortgage for her home. Into what stratus of the U.S. class system would Amanda most likely fall?
lower-upper class

average-middle class

upper-middle class

working class

average-middle class
Any particular system of social stratification typically continues over long periods of time due to the effects of
class struggle.

changes in productive technology.

cultural values and beliefs that operate as supporting ideology.

downward mobility.

cultural values and beliefs that operate as supporting ideology.
Harold works as a medical transcriptionist working in an office in a local hospital. What type of worker is Harold?
stockholder

self-employed professional

white-collar worker

blue-collar worker

white-collar worker
What is the main reason that some people engage in conspicuous consumption?
to support the growth of the U.S. economy

to make a statement about one’s social position

to find an outlet for disposable income

to buy better products

to make a statement about one’s social position
Which of the following is recognized as a category of the U.S. class system?
the meritorious class

the unemployed class

the untouchable class

the working class

the working class
Why do people with lower social standing experience less confidence in everyday interactions?
Poor people are younger.

They are more likely to have grown up in an atmosphere of strict supervision and discipline.

They tend to be extremely tolerant of controversial behaviors.

Others tend to view them as having greater importance.

They are more likely to have grown up in an atmosphere of strict supervision and discipline.
Most of the wealth owned by the average family in the United States consists of __________
stocks and bonds

investments

inherited money and property

a home and an automobile

a home and an automobile
When looking at a map of the United States, in what region of the country do you find the greatest density of low-income counties?
the upper Midwest

New England states

the Deep South

the Pacific Coast states

the Deep South
People in the United States tend to view the working poor in a more favorable light than they do other individuals who live in poverty.
True
False
t
Social stratification is a system in which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy and which is
supported by widely-held values and beliefs about what is fair.

the same everywhere in the world.

always completely controlled by the oldest people.

almost always based on simply the amount of money a person has.

supported by widely-held values and beliefs about what is fair.
Which of the following people best represents a category of the U.S. population whose rate of poverty has greatly decreased over the last fifty years?
people over the age of sixty-five

ten-year-old children

female heads of household

low wage workers

people over the age of sixty-five
An analysis guided by the __________ approach would likely include the following statement: “Endogamy is an important feature of caste systems because it helps to ensure that members of a particular caste have limited interaction with other castes.”
structural-functional

symbolic-interaction

sociobiology

social-conflict

structural-functional
Why are parents of higher social standing more likely to encourage children to develop their creativity?
The odds are that more privileged children will have jobs that require them to follow rules.

They tend to value traditional gender roles more.

They pass along a “cultural capital” that encourages their children to express their individuality because the jobs they are likely to have require creativity.

The more children that parents have, the more they can develop their children’s talents and abilities.

They pass along a “cultural capital” that encourages their children to express their individuality because the jobs they are likely to have require creativity.
Which of the following factors explains why the middle class has a tremendous influence on our culture?
They control the most wealth in the United States.

They have a larger share of the U.S. population than any other category.

They are the most cohesive and least ethnically varied of the four categories of the U.S. class system.

The other classes simply defer to them because of their social confidence and power.

They have a larger share of the U.S. population than any other category.
Families that are members of the upper class earn at least $205,000 a year. According to data provided by the U.S. Census Bureau, upper-class families represent about what percentage of the total U.S. population?
5 percent

20 percent

10 percent

1 percent

5 percent
Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the symbolic-interaction approach to social stratification?
Social position is a matter of meanings, which reflect the quantity and quality of products that we consume.

Social position is a reflection of the way in which society divides valued resources.

Social position is a reflection of individual talents and abilities in a competitive economy.

Social position is a reflection of a system that rewards some people and punishes others.

Social position is a matter of meanings, which reflect the quantity and quality of products that we consume.
What did Kai Erikson claim based on his study of the Massachusetts Bay Puritans?
Deviance is a result of powerlessness.

Deviance is relative.

Deviance depends on a relative opportunity structure.

Deviance is a necessary resource for the operation of society.

Deviance is a necessary resource for the operation of society.
According to feminist theory, gender influences how we define deviance because people commonly __________.
see women in a more powerful role

use different standards to judge the behavior of males and females

use similar standards to judge the behavior of males and females

see women as requiring less control compared to men

use different standards to judge the behavior of males and females
Which of the following individuals is the most likely to engage in deviance, according to Travis Hirschi’s control theory?
Russell, a married man who works 14 hours a day to support his family

Blake, an angry boy with few friends who has lived with his older sister since his parents divorced

Monique, a young girl who comes from a wealthy home and wants to get into a good college

Kelsey, a teenage girl who lives with her mother and plays in the marching band after school

Blake, an angry boy with few friends who has lived with his older sister since his parents divorced
Why is only a small share of property crime reported to the police?
Because it costs money to report property crimes.

Because police discourage reporting.

Because the victim’s loss is often relatively small.

Because people have limited time.

Because the victim’s loss is often relatively small.
Which explains a limitation of the biological approach to deviance?
It focuses on society as a whole, ignoring the individual.

Most deviant behaviors, including crimes, are carried out by biologically normal people.

The range of deviance cannot be correlated to a specific biological signature.

None of the other responses is correct.

Most deviant behaviors, including crimes, are carried out by biologically normal people.
All crimes are composed of two elements: the act itself and __________.
the context

the perpetrator

the victim

criminal intent

criminal intent
The problem of illegal drugs in the United States is an issue of _________.
price fixing

supply and demand

little importance.

national security

supply and demand
From the symbolic-interaction point of view, definitions of deviance and conformity are __________.
one and the same

rigid

highly variable

based on conformity

highly variable
Emile Durkheim’s basic insight was that __________.
deviance is much more common than most people think

deviance blurs the line between right and wrong

deviance does not cause as much suffering as we tend to think

there is nothing abnormal about deviance because all societies create it and it has positive functions for the operation of society

there is nothing abnormal about deviance because all societies create it and it has positive functions for the operation of society
Thoughts and actions become deviant __________.
when the criminal justice system becomes involved

only in relation to the norms of a particular setting, group, or society

just by being observed

only when the actions are harmful

only in relation to the norms of a particular setting, group, or society
Interpreting someone’s past in light of some present deviance is a process sociologists call __________.
stigmatizing

projective labeling

retrospective labeling

prospective labeling

retrospective labeling
By 2012, the federal government and _____ states had enacted legislation that increased penalties for crimes motivated by hatred.
45

just one

all 50

9

45
The strategy in which a judge orders a convicted offender to prison for a short time but then suspends the remainder of the sentence in favor of probation is called __________.
shock probation

parole

probation

recidivism

shock probation
According to the social-conflict approach, deviance is ___________.
socially constructed

highly variable

shaped by power

universal

universal
Researchers use __________ to ask people whether they have been the victims of crime.
small group surveys

victimization surveys

police reports

online surveys

victimization surveys
The attempt by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior is called __________.
conformity

social control

mind control

behavioral regulation

social control
A legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendant’s admission of guilt is called __________.
protective bargaining

deterrence

plea bargaining

retribution

plea bargaining
According to victimization surveys, the overall crime rate is _________ official reports indicated.
more than twice as high

ten times higher than

considerably lower than

the same as

more than twice as high
The rate of handgun deaths in the United States is about _____ times higher than the rate in Canada.
seven

two

five

three

seven
“An eye for an eye” describes this justification for punishment.
rehabilitation

retribution

societal protection

deterrence

retribution
According to Steven Spitzer, who is at the most risk of being labeled “deviant”?
rich people who commit white-collar crimes

people with weak consciences and a low tolerance for frustration

people who play along with “the system”

poor people who threaten the livelihood of the rich

poor people who threaten the livelihood of the rich
In the __________, people began to think of humans as calculating and rational individuals who will not break the law if they think the pain of punishment will outweigh the pleasure of the crime.
19th century

21st century

18th century

20th century

18th century
Changes in U.S. attitudes toward the death penalty are reflected in the fact that __________.
rates of capital punishment have risen steadily since 1990

there have been no executions in the past five years

the number of executions has been decreasing in recent years

the death penalty is now outlawed in all but five states

the number of executions has been decreasing in recent years
According to Italian physician and prison worker Cesare Lombroso, a person with a low forehead, prominent jaw and cheekbone, protruding ears, a hairy body, and unusually long arms is noted in the chapter as an example of __________.
an adulterer

a highly sensitive individual

a criminal

an abused child

a criminal
Which of the following is an example of white-collar crime?
bank robbery

shoplifting

selling marijuana on the campus

embezzlement

embezzlement
In 2009, people between the ages of ________ represented just 14 percent of the U.S. population but were responsible for 38 percent of all arrests for violent crimes and 46 percent of arrests for property crimes.
25 and 34

35 and 44

12 and 15

15 and 24

15 and 24
Which of the following is an example of informal social control?
arresting a woman for driving under the influence

teasing a friend because he listens to Justin Bieber’s music

sentencing an innocent man to 10 years in prison

giving a driver a ticket for speeding

teasing a friend because he listens to Justin Bieber’s music
The biological and psychological approaches have limited value in explaining deviance because
psychological factors are hard to define.

wrongdoing has more to do with the organization of society.

wrongdoing results from individual moral failing.

biological factors are difficult to measure.

wrongdoing has more to do with the organization of society.
Regarding the death penalty, which country carries out the most executions annually?
the United States

China

Saudi Arabia

Iran

China
According to Merton’s strain theory, an alcoholic who chooses to live by himself, quits his job, and stops talking to his friends would fall into which category of deviance?
ritualism

rebellion

retreatism

innovation

retreatism
According to __________, the widespread belief that norms and laws are natural and good masks their political character.
the structural-functional approach

the social-conflict and feminist approaches

subcultural theory

labeling theory

the social-conflict and feminist approaches
The idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions is the basis of
labeling theory.

strain theory.

feminist theory.

conformity theory.

labeling theory.
According to Steven Spitzer, which of the following would most likely be considered deviant in our society?
a corrupt businessman

a landlord charging high rents to poor tenants

a corrupt politician

a labor organizer opposing efforts to keep workers from forming unions

a labor organizer opposing efforts to keep workers from forming unions
Robert Merton asserts that the type of deviance categories of people engage in depends upon
whether society provides the categories of people with means to achieve cultural goals.

their exposure to stressful life conditions.

the perceived role of conflict, or strains, in their life.

their upbringing and family structure.

whether society provides the categories of people with means to achieve cultural goals.
Attachment, opportunity, involvement, and belief are the four different types of
labeling advocated by Szasz.

advantages offered by medicalization theory.

social control to which Hirschi links conformity.

social control to which Sutherland links differential association.

social control to which Hirschi links conformity.
Which of the following is an example of deterrence?
Sandy is arrested for DUI but goes to court and is acquitted of the charge.

A teacher disciplines Colin in front of the class to make an example out of him.

Andy is shoplifting but is not caught.

Amelia backs into her neighbor’s car and has to pay him the cost of the damage.

A teacher disciplines Colin in front of the class to make an example out of him.
According to Albert Cohen, people typically form delinquent subcultures because they
want to show their personal toughness.

are frustrated with themselves.

have rejected conformist behavior.

are cut off from legitimate opportunity to gain success.

are cut off from legitimate opportunity to gain success.
A 2003 study of 400 boys conducted by researchers at the University of Wisconsin concluded that __________ are strong predictors of adult crime and violence.
personality factors

a combination of genetic and environmental factors

physical features

especially large body types with prominent facial features

a combination of genetic and environmental factors
White-collar crime is best represented by which of the following?
gun running

breaking and entering

securities fraud

armed robbery

securities fraud
Instruments used by researchers to collect information about people’s experiences with crime are called
FBI crime statistics.

victimization surveys.

open-access online surveys.

police reports.

victimization surveys.
____________ is a legal negotiation where a defendant receives a lesser charge in exchange for admitting guilt.
Retribution

Plea bargaining

Shock probation

Deterrence

Plea bargaining
Kyle, who is a member of a street gang, has had frequent conflicts with teachers and the police. This situation is example of Walter Miller’s delinquent subculture characteristic of
trouble.

a belief in fate.

a desire for freedom.

toughness.

trouble
According to Erving Goffman, people who acquire __________ may develop a deviant career involving stronger commitment to deviant behavior.
a stigma

differential associations

retribution

social control

a stigma
Which of the following approaches states that even when the powerful engage in deviant activities, they still have the resources to resist deviant labels?
social-conflict

structural-functional

labeling theory

symbolic-interaction

social-conflict
Gary is angry to find that a coworker took his food out of the office fridge. In retaliation, he takes the coworker’s lunch. Gary is engaging in an act of
deterrence.

retribution.

societal protection.

rehabilitation.

retribution
Which of the following is an example of secondary deviance?
Sanjay was arrested for child molestation and spent 10 years in prison. Now that he is free, he has to register as a sex offender wherever he lives.

Carol is 15, and most of her friends have children. She wants a child of her own and begins having unprotected sex with her boyfriend.

Elliot is an honor student at school. After he is caught using recreational drugs by his father, he stops going to school, loses many of his friends, begins to take drugs every day, and is hostile toward members of his family.

Jake sees his high school friends drinking at a party and joins in. Driving home, he crashes his car into a tree and vows never to drink again.

Elliot is an honor student at school. After he is caught using recreational drugs by his father, he stops going to school, loses many of his friends, begins to take drugs every day, and is hostile toward members of his family.
Hirschi’s control theory states that social control leading to conformity depends on
people anticipating and caring about the consequences of their behavior.

differential association, or peer group pressure.

strong enforcement of laws.

individuals’level of social privilege.

people anticipating and caring about the consequences of their behavior.
__________ is a tactic used by a judge to show a convicted offender the seriousness of his or her crime by initially imprisoning the offender but ultimately issuing probation.
Capital punishment

Parole

Recidivism

Shock probation

Shock probation
Which of the following countries has the highest violent crime rate?
India

Germany

Japan

the United States

the United States
In what way does labeling theory distinguish how gender influences the way we define deviance?
We use similar standards to judge the behavior of males and females.

We see women in a more powerful role.

We see women as less deviant.

We use different standards to judge the behavior of males and females.

We use different standards to judge the behavior of males and females.
What is one important reason that crime rates have fallen in the United States since the 1980s?
More criminals have been sent to prison in the last 30 years than ever before.

The younger population has increased in size since 1985.

The popularity of street drugs such as crack cocaine has increased.

The practice of community policing faded out in the 1990s.

More criminals have been sent to prison in the last 30 years than ever before.
Ali is sent to prison for car-jacking and released two years later. Statistically speaking, is he likely to repeat his crime?
Yes; recidivism rates are about 70 percent in the United States.

No; the United States has one of the lowest recidivism rates in the world, at a mere 7 percent.

No, only about 30 percent of people released from prison are arrested again within three years.

No; only major crimes such as first-degree murder are likely to be repeated.

Yes; recidivism rates are about 70 percent in the United States.
As odd as it seems, snowball fights are legally banned in Topeka, Kansas. This is an example of
variationin norms and deviance based on cultural differences.

powerful members of the community setting the standards for society.

cultural norms that shape societal inequality.

universal moral boundaries that affect definitions of deviance.

variationin norms and deviance based on cultural differences.
The violation of a society’s formally enacted law is called
delinquency.

social control.

crime.

deviance.

crime
Why have many states moved away from seeking sentences of capital punishment?
There is a high financial cost to the states of prosecuting capital cases.

In 2008, the Supreme Court ruled that a life sentence without possibility of parole should be substituted in most cases.

There is a lack of public support, as about 63 percent of people now oppose the death penalty.

A 2008 Supreme Court decision classified all executions as unconstitutional.

There is a high financial cost to the states of prosecuting capital cases.
In his classic study of the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay, Kai Erikson discovered that even though the offenses changed, the proportion of people the Puritans defined as deviant __________ over time.
declined

increased

dramatically increased

remained steady

remained steady
Which of the following is an example of a hate crime?
beating a spouse out of anger

drawing swastikas on Jewish gravestones

breaking a neighbor’s mailbox

embezzling money from clients

drawing swastikas on Jewish gravestones
______ now incarcerates a larger share of its population than any other country in the world.
Germany

The United States

China

India

The United States
As of 2012, the federal government and ______ of the states had enacted legislation that increased penalties for crimes motivated by hatred.
25

only one

all 50

45

45
What do critics argue is the downside to hate crime legislation?
It reaffirms the majority’s power over the criminal justice system.

It fails to take into account the motives behind these types of crimes.

It punishes people for their beliefs, not just their actions.

It divides people into categories, when all should be equal under the law.

It punishes people for their beliefs, not just their actions.
For every one handgun death in Canada, there are ____________ in the United States.
four

two

seven

five

seven
“Young people are more likely to engage in behavior, including delinquency, if they believe their peers encourage it.”
The previous statement closely supports the
Sutherland’s differential association theory.

Goffman’s concept of a deviant career.

Hirschi’s control theory.

process of projective labeling.

Sutherland’s differential association theory.
Which of the following theoretical approaches takes a micro-level approach to the issues of deviance?
feminist

social conflict

structural-functional

symbolic interaction

symbolic interaction
Armed robbery is an example of a __________ crime.
property

victimless

violent

senseless

violent
Bob learns that his coworker was arrested for car theft. Now that he thinks about it, he swears he once saw his coworker eyeing his car in the parking lot and feels relieved that he always kept his car locked. Bob is engaging in the process of
retrospective labeling.

prospective labeling.

stigmatizing.

projective labeling.

retrospective labeling.
To avoid labeling people as mentally ill when they are simply engaging in behavior we don’t agree with, the psychiatrist Thomas Szasz advocates
increasing the availability of psychoactive medications.

taking the time to do a lengthy psychiatric profile.

employing different methods for psychological analysis.

abandoning the idea of mental illness.

taking the time to do a lengthy psychiatric profile.
What do all instances of deviance have in common?
They involve a negative behavior.

They involve intentional action.

They involve a violation of society’s laws.

They are characterized by a differencethat causes the deviant person to be viewed as an outsider.

They are characterized by a differencethat causes the deviant person to be viewed as an outsider.
What was Karl Marx’s perception of the law?
Law is used to ensure justice.

Law exists to protect the interests of powerful people.

Law exists to establish norms.

Law is used to give men greater power than women.

Law exists to protect the interests of powerful people.
What is the basic circumstance under which any thought or action may become deviant?
when it is discovered by many people

whensome audience concludes that it violates particular norms

when it results in harmful consequences

when the criminal justice system becomes involved

whensome audience concludes that it violates particular norms
Which sociologist argued that deviance performs essential social functions, such as clarifying boundaries and encouraging social change?
Karl Marx

Jean Piaget

Emile Durkheim

Max Weber

Emile Durkheim
_________ is a form of punishment that renders an offender incapable of further offenses through imprisonment or execution.
Rehabilitation

Deterrence

Retribution

Societal protection

Societal protection
The illegal distribution of alcohol during Prohibition was an example of
street crime.

organized crime.

a hate crime.

a victimless crime.

organized crime.
According to social-conflict analysis, the people we tend to label as deviant are typically those who are
relatively powerless in society

biologically abnormal

discouraged by peers from conforming

the most harmful to society

relatively powerless in society
The two major types of crime that make up the FBI’s “crime index” are
violent crimes and victimless crimes.

crimes with complaint and crimes without complaint.

violent crimes and crimes without complaint.

violent crimes and property crimes.

violent crimes and property crimes.
According to the symbolic-interaction approach, the definitions of deviance and conformity are
applied uniformly and rigidly.

variable from situation to situation.

one and the same.

based on a society’s moral code.

variable from situation to situation.