SOC Test 1

________ is something scientists strive for and is defined as “personal neutrality in conducting research.”

Objectivity

Reliability

Accuracy

Validity

Objectivity
What is positivism?

an approach to knowledge that is based on science

the belief that society is a reflection of God’s will

the belief in the supernatural

the belief that society is a reflection of human nature

an approach to knowledge that is based on science
If Rosa is using the sociological approach that takes the micro-level of analysis, then she is using the ________ approach to sociology.
racial-conflict

structural-functional

symbolic-interaction

social-conflict

Symbolic-interaction
A sociologist who takes the critical approach sees society as __________.
a representation of objective reality

an orderly system

unequal and in need of social change

ongoing interaction

unequal and in need of social change
Sociologists look for __________.
biological causes of our behavior

how each person is unique

evidence of human free-will

general social patterns in the behavior of
particular people

general social patterns in the behavior of particular people
Caroline and several of her coworkers were let go as a result of outsourcing their work to India. Now, Caroline is unemployed for the first time in 15 years. C. Wright Mills would see Caroline’s situation as a result of __________.
her lack of dedication to the job

personal failing

a positive consequence of outsourcing

the operation of society

The operation of society
One criticism made of the social-conflict approach is its __________.
ignoring the large picture and focusing on individuals

ignoring of how shared values unify members of society

its inability to clearly identify cause-and-effect relationships between conflict and social change

its focus on how people are joined by society

ignoring of how shared values unify members of society
Positivist researchers claim that only by controlling ________ can researchers study the world as it is rather than tell us how they think it should be.
all dependent variables

personal values and biases

all independent variables

peer response to work

personal values and biases
To determine the value of a variable in a specific case, a procedure called _______ is used.
positivism

validation

pre-testing

measurement

measurement
The race-conflict approach takes a point of view that focuses on __________.
how race helps organize society and keeps it operating in a stable and orderly way

inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories

the everyday interaction of individuals and the resulting society that is established

inequality and conflict between women and men of the same race

inequality of conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
Applying the sociological perspective can help people __________.
assess the truth of “common sense”

explain how we all are unaffected by the operation of society

turn public issues into private concerns

in the United States see our way of life as better than those of other nations

assess the truth of ‘common sense’
A social-conflict analysis of sports points out __________.
how sports promote physical fitness and provide a stress release

how different people interpret the rules of games slightly differently

that the games people play reflect their social standing

that sports provide a social setting and create thousands of jobs

that the games people play reflect their social standing
Which are the three major sociological research orientations?
positivist, interpretive, and critical

reliable, valid, and spurious

structural-functional, social-conflict, and symbolic-interaction

conceptual, variable, and statistical

positivist, interpretive, and critical
For which category of people have researchers found a rising rate of extramarital sex over the course of recent decades?
older men

younger women

older women

younger men

younger women
When a sociologist specifies exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable, he or she is said to ________ the variable.
operationalize

conceptualize

validate

test

operationalize
Winnie is a sociological researcher who participates and interacts with her research subjects. She looks deeper than outward behavior, analyzing why people behave the way they do. Winnie embraces the _______ orientation of sociological research.
critical

interpretive

structural-functional

positivist

interpretive
Kareem writes an essay in which he quotes Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, and Herbert Spencer. Kareem is most likely writing about the ________ theoretical approach.

gender-conflict

structural-functional

social-conflict

symbolic-interaction

structural-functional
Seeing the general in the particular is one way to describe __________.
the sociological perspective

the future

how people look at their marriage partners

the global perspective

the sociological perspective
Generating an idea for social research begins with __________.
correlation and causation

experimenting and collecting data

being curious and using the sociological perspective

theory and its application

being curious and using the sociological perspective
Because Claudia’s interview subjects believed it was improper for an unmarried woman to speak privately with a man, the information she gathered was skewed by her gender. This is an example of the research error of __________.
androcentricity

interference

double standards

overgeneralization

interference
To establish ________, scientists examine the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable and conclude that the first causes the second.
spurious correlation

validity

cause and effect

correlation

cause and effect
Joyce is a clinical sociologist. She would most likely work to improve the lives of her troubled clients by focusing on __________.
personality disorders

difficulties in social relationships

poor physical health

people’s personal issues

difficulties in social relationships
The concept of a distinct category of people called “homosexuals” ______.
was first introduced by the Kinsey studies in the 1940s

did not exist until about a century ago

originated during the sexual revolution of the 1960s

dates back to ancient Greece

did not exist until about a century ago
How would the structural-functional approach explain the presence of the incest taboo in all societies?
The regulation of sexual patterns is one of the ways in which men control and dominate women.

The meanings people attach to sexuality are socially constructed and not subject to change.

Sexuality is linked to social inequality; since incest is more common among the poor, society has deemed it taboo.

Society regulates sexual behavior in order to maintain social order.

Society regulates sexual behavior in order to maintain social order
According to the social-conflict approach, sexuality __________.
is both a cause and an effect of inequality

has become less socially controlled over time

has a different meaning in every culture

is tied to the concept of reproduction

is both a cause and an effect of inequality
Marty believes that, by defining heterosexuality as “correct” and homosexuality as “incorrect,” society effectively devalues and controls gays and lesbians. Which of sociology’s theoretical approaches is Marty taking?
social-conflict

structural-functional

feminist

symbolic-interaction

Social-conflict
Sexual attraction is not the same thing as sexual behavior.
True
False
True
What is the difference between sex and gender?
Gender refers to a person’s biological traits, while sex refers to a person’s sexual orientation.

Sex is cultural, while gender is biological.

Gender is cultural, while sex refers to biological traits.

Gender refers to a person’s sexual orientation, while sex refers to a person’s biological traits.

Gender is cultural, while sex refers to biological traits
The theoretical approach that explores ways in which sexuality is important for the operation of society is the __________ approach.
structural-functional

social-conflict

feminist

symbolic-interaction

structural-functional