Soc final 2

The highest-paid 20 percent
During the last twenty years, which category of the U.S. population has experienced the largest gains in average income?
increasing.
Based on what you have read, as the United States develops a postindustrial economy, economic inequality is ________
lower-middle class.
Working class people might also be described as ________
entire families
One-third of all homeless people are ________
little improvement for millions of poor, black people.
The ending of apartheid in South Africa has led to ________
women make up an increasing percentage of the poor.
The concept “feminization of poverty” refers to the fact that, in the United States ________
Herbert Spencer
Who coined the concept “survival of the fittest”?
class conflict.
According to Karl Marx, social stratification in a capitalist society always involves ________
The working class
According to Karl Marx, which class forms the core of the industrial proletariat?
Latin America
Looking around the world today, income inequality is greatest in which region?
$63,815.
In 2013, the median income for U.S. families was ________
white-collar
Olga works as a district sales manager for a small corporation. This category of work can be described as ________
twelve
Based on income statistics in the chapter, it is correct to say that the richest 20 percent of the population earns more than _____ times as much as the poorest 20 percent.
more important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them.
According to the Davis-Moore thesis ________
Hunting and gathering
Which of the following types of societies comes closest to being egalitarian?
India.
A category of people defined as “untouchable” because they perform work that is viewed as “unclean” has been part of social stratification in ________
social stratification is important and can sometimes be a matter of life and death.
The point of the story about passenger deaths that accompanied the sinking of the ocean liner Titanic is that ________
social-conflict approach.
The idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with the ________
a new set of social classes is gradually emerging.
In the People’s Republic of China ________
too few available jobs.
Sociologist William Julius Wilson suggests the cause of poverty lies in ________
could exist, but only if people are willing to allow anyone to perform any job.
Davis and Moore point out that an egalitarian society ________
ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.
Social stratification is a concept that refers to ________
40 percent
Based on what you have learned in this chapter, about what percentage of all U.S. families have little or no wealth?
economic class, degree of social status, and amount of power.
Max Weber claimed that social position was based on a person’s ________
Income
Which concept refers to earnings from work or any investments?
Gender
__________ refer(s) to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs and practices associated with “femininity” and “masculinity.”
instrumental; expressive
Talcott Parsons explained that males tend to exhibit ________ behavior, while females are more ________.
mathematical; verbal
On average, young men show greater _______ ability than young women; young women show greater ________ ability than young men.
women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance.
The “beauty myth” refers to the idea that ________
limiting sexual freedom
Feminists do not support ________
the barrier that prevents women from reaching the top.
The concept of “glass ceiling” refers to ________
78 cents
In the United States in 2013, women in the labor force working full time earned __________ to every dollar men earned.
Radical feminism
Which type of feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the idea of gender itself?
women are concentrated in several categories of jobs.
In today’s U.S. work force, ________
the type of work men and women do.
The factor which accounts for the greatest share of the difference in the earnings of working women and men in the United States is ________
since colonial times.
Women have served in the U.S. armed forces ________
growing gender equality.
Structural-functional analysis points out that industrialization encourages ________
women outlive men by about five years.
On average, do women or men live longer?
Matriarchy
What is the form of social organization in which females dominate males?
directed mostly at socialist and radical feminism.
Opposition to feminism is ________
people should be paid according to the level of skill and responsibility involved in the work.
The concept of “comparable worth” means that ________
Liberal feminism
Which type of feminism accepts the basic organization of U.S. society, but seeks to give women the same rights and opportunities as men?
Africa.
Most cases of female genital mutilation occur in ________
many tasks that were considered masculine by some societies were viewed as feminine by others.
In his global study of how societies view gender, George Murdock found ________
60
Approximately what percentage of U.S. women are working for income today?
women have been closing the gap with men in most athletic performances.
Comparing the performances of female and male athletes over time shows ________
1840s
When did feminism begin as a social movement in the United States?
Women are seen as nurturers rather than people who kill.
What is at the heart of the controversy over women’s participation in the military?
90
In about what percentage of rapes and attempted rapes on college campuses does the woman know her attacker?
gender, race, and class
According to intersection theory, ___________ is a source of social disadvantage.
socially constructed reality
Today, sociologists emphasize that race is a ____________________________, not a biological one.
set apart by that society and subordinated or disadvantaged.
A minority is defined as a category of people who are ________
concentrated in the West, Southwest, and southern Florida.
The Hispanic population of the United States is ________
minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
Assimilation refers to the process by which ________
Ethnicity
Which of the following concepts refers to a shared cultural heritage?
assimilation.
The adoption of the English language by Mexican immigrants in the United States is an example of ________
England, Scotland, Wales
People who are called “WASPs” have ancestors from which country?
below the national average.
The overall social standing of Native Americans is ________
1960, with the election of John F. Kennedy.
Historically, WASPs dominated social life in the United States until about ________
Texas, New Mexico, California, and Hawaii
Four states currently have a “minority majority.” Which are they?
People of Hispanic descent
Which of the following is the largest minority category within the U.S. population?
maintaining traditional culture, forming kinship networks, or clans, reducing their chance to learn English, which limited job opportunities
For Chinese immigrants, one result of living in Chinatowns was _____.
13.2
According to the most recent data, African Americans accounted for about what percentage of the U.S. population?
a socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important.
Sociologists define the concept of “race” as ________
Chinese
The largest category of Asian Americans in the United States is people of _____ ancestry.
frustration among disadvantaged people.
Scapegoat theory states that prejudice is created by ________
Miscegenation
Which of the following concepts refers to biological reproduction by people of different racial categories?
genocide.
The killing of people in the Darfur region of Africa is a recent example of ________
Prejudice involves prejudgments, Prejudice treats everyone in some category the same way, Prejudice can be positive or negative.
Which of the following statements about prejudice is true?
Mexican Americans
Which of the following categories of Hispanics in the United States is largest in terms of population size?
the Thomas theorem.
The claim that defining members of some minority as inferior will make them inferior is one application of ________
Korean Americans
Which of the following categories of the U.S. population is most likely to own and operate a small business?
Every society’s population contains a lot of genetic mixture, Various racial categories are genetically very much alike, The skin color of Caucasian people ranges from very light to very dark.
Why do sociologists consider the “scientific” racial types of Caucasian, Mongoloid, and Negroid to be misleading and even harmful?
view society as naturally hierarchical.
According to Theodor Adorno’s authoritarian personality theory, prejudiced people ________
are less prejudiced than students were fifty years ago, see less difference between minority categories than students did fifty years ago, express greater prejudice toward Arabs than African Americans.
Based on research using the social distance scale, you can correctly say that U.S. college students today ________
intensifying global inequality.
Dependency theorists see large corporations as ________
more productive.
Contrasted with socialist economic systems, capitalist economic systems are typically ________
domination of a market by a few producers.
The concept “oligopoly” refers to ________
North Korea
Which of the following nations comes closest to having a political system that is “totalitarian”?
Production technology
Over the course of human history, revolutionary changes in which of the following have brought great transformation to the economy?
trying to meet the basic needs of all in an equal manner.
In a socialist economic system, “justice” amounts to ________
generate more economic inequality.
Contrasted with socialist economic systems, capitalist economic systems typically ________
meeting the basic needs of all.
Socialist societies base their claim to democracy on ________
Hispanic people
Which of the following categories of the U.S. population is LEAST likely to vote in national elections?
Agrarian societies
The economy first became a distinct social institution during which historical stage of technological development?
Primary sector
Which sector of the economy generates raw materials directly from the natural environment?
private ownership of property
Capitalism is an economic system in which there is ________
freedom to pursue their self-interest; freedom from basic want
Concerning the issue of personal freedom, capitalist systems emphasize people’s ________, while socialist systems emphasize people’s ________.
the use or threat of violence as a political strategy by an individual or group.
Terrorism refers to ________
85
In the United States, about what percentage of the labor force performs tertiary sector work?
Monarchy
Which of the following concepts refers to a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation?
unleashing the productive power of capitalism to speed development in poor nations.
Modernization theorists see large corporations as ________
Democracy
Which of the following concepts refers to a political system in which power resides in the hands of the people as a whole?
people having personal liberty.
Capitalist societies base their claim to democracy on ________
it lacks clearly stated objectives and is not about controlling territory.
Terrorism has been called a new kind of warfare because ________
Most high-income nations
Which nations in the world today claim to be democratic?
Welfare capitalism
Which of the following concepts refers to a political and economic system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs?
59
In the United States about what share of the population aged sixteen and older is in the paid labor force?
collective control of production
Socialism is an economic system in which there is ________
economic activity that moves across national borders.
The concept of “global economy” refers to ________
The historical decline in the importance of the sacred
Secularization refers to which of the following?
beliefs and practices concerning what is sacred.
Religion is a social institution that is best defined as involving ________
an extended family.
A family that includes parents, children and other kin is called ________
a serious, often criminal problem.
In the United States, family violence is ________
sect
In the United States, the Amish would be an example of a ________
supporting spiritualism, but away from formal denominations.
The claim that the United States is a post-denomination society is based on a movement ________
older people; younger people
women; men
members of sects; members of churches
In the United States, ________ are more religious than ________.
at high risk for poverty.
Regardless of race, families headed by single women are ________
formal, ceremonial behavior.
Ritual is a matter of ________
profane.
Following Emile Durkheim, the ordinary elements of everyday life are correctly considered to be ________
Bilateral descent
Typically, industrial societies make use of which of the following systems to trace ancestry?
about three times higher.
Compared to what it was a century ago, the U.S. divorce rate is now ________
religious values and beliefs, especially those associated with Calvinism.
Max Weber carried out historical analysis of the rise of the Industrial Revolution and capitalism that linked this change to ________
remarry within five years.
Most people in the United States who divorce ________
State church
As the official Church of England, the Anglican Church is correctly described as which of the following?
Islam
Christianity
Judaism
Which of the following religious organizations began as a cult?
conviction or belief in things unseen.
Faith is a way of knowing based on ________
90 percent
On national surveys, about what percentage of people in the United States claim to believe in a divine power?
stressed duty and hard work, boosting economic production and fostering the rise of capitalism.
In his analysis of Protestantism and the rise of capitalism, Max Weber stated that Protestantism ________
polyandry.
A system of marriage that unites one woman with two or more men is called ________
Reducing social inequality and, especially, poverty
Supporters of liberation theology hope that this social movement will achieve which of the following goals?
They were abused themselves as children.
Almost all adults who abuse children typically have what in common?
church
A religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society is called a ________
Social-conflict approach
An analysis of how religion supports the interests of a society’s elites would fall under which of the following theoretical approaches?
may actually discourage marriage.
Mounting research suggests that cohabitation ________