Soc Chapter 8 (Semester Test)

How is poverty measured in the United States?
by setting an annual base level income for a family of four
people who work at low-skill jobs and have an income below the poverty line
working poor
a fairly large group of people with professions that range from upper level managers and professionals to non-retail salespeople
middle class
people who are poor, unemployed, and frequently come from families that have a history of not working regularly
a large segment of society, composed of hourly workers whose income is somewhat below average
working class
a small, elite group based on heritage rather than accomplishment
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Rates of infant mortality, access to clean water, and life expectancy are indicators that are often used to measure poverty. (t/f)
What occurs when an agrarian society experiences industrialization?
Urbanization increases.
Which of the following best describes how social class is related to social stratification?
Each layer of social stratification constitutes a social class.
Cambodia, Afghanistan, and Somalia are examples of middle-income countries. (t/f)
Which of the following is an indicator that is used to measure poverty?
infant mortality rate
A skilled plumber would most likely be a member of the
working class.
What is one reason that many Americans today risk downward mobility?
the globalization of business
People who do not earn enough money to pay for a safe place to live and for food
live in absolute poverty.
Karl Marx believed that the only thing of value that the proletariat had was
its labor.
One effect of globalization is that it may limit the economic development of poor nations. (t/f)
Which of the following is true of middle-income nations?
Living standards among these countries vary greatly.
Which of the following refers to the different layers of people who possess varying amounts of scarce resources
social stratification
According to symbolic interactionism, a person’s self-concept helps preserve the existing stratification structure. (t/f)
Which of the following best describes how Americans regard class consciousness?
less important than other markers of identity
Which of the following best describes the functionalist theory of social stratification?
The inequality of social classes helps assure that the most qualified people fill the most important positions.
Which of the following is true about a caste system?
A caste system is a closed-class system.
Which of the following statements is true of prestige?
What might be considered prestigious by one social class may not be considered prestigious by another.
Which of the following best characterizes an open-class system?
from rags to riches
Which of the following describes rates of poverty for African Americans and Latinos?
much higher than rates for whites
Irina moves from a job as a computer programmer to a job as a Webpage designer. This is most likely an example of
horizontal mobility.
Some sociologists believe that many poor nations are poor because
powerful nations took control of their resources.
Which of the following is an example of intergenerational mobility?
a surgeon’s son becomes a lawyer
According to conflict theory, social stratification exists because
some people are willing to exploit others.
How does horizontal mobility differ from vertical mobility?
Horizontal mobility does not involve a change in class.
Which of the following people would most likely be a member of the working poor?
a man with few marketable skills who comes from a family in which people typically worked only enough to get by
change in class that takes place over a generation
intergenerational mobility
changing occupations within the same class
horizontal mobility
changing from one social class to another
vertical mobility
development of an increasingly integrated world economy
each layer in a stratification system
social class
group that labors without ownership
the state in which one is unable to secure life’s necessities
absolute poverty
the group that owns the means of production
movement from an economy based on agriculture to one based on manufacturing
measure of poverty by economic disparity
relative poverty
Global stratification refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and resources among countries. (t/f)
Which of the following is least likely to live in poverty in the United States today?
a 30-year-old white man
What is one reason that industrialization enables nations to develop?
Science, technology, and learning develop more rapidly.
A person who has power will also have prestige.
One criticism of globalization is that it
exploits the conditions of poor nations.
When Karl Marx spoke of false consciousness, he was referring to the working class’s acceptance of capitalist ideas. (t/f)
Each layer in a stratification system is a social class. (t/f)
A position such as being a high-school teacher is likely to have more prestige than
Individuals and groups are able to use power only when others allow them to do so. (t/f)
Which of the following is characteristic of low-income nations?
decreased life expectancy
Which of the following is characteristic of middle-income nations?
Income levels vary greatly among them.
Which of the following best explains why women have a higher risk of being poor?
Women earn about 80 cents for every dollar earned by men.
The process of industrialization has prevented many low-income countries from developing a higher level of income. (t/f)
When you add up all the economic resources a person has, such as her savings, home, personal property, etc., you have determined that person’s