Soc Ch1

Sociological perspective
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
Society
people who share a culture and a territory
Social location
the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society
Scientific method
the use of objective systematic observations to test theories
Positivism
the application of the scientific approach to the social world
Sociology
the scientific study of society and human behavior
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Class conflict
Marx’s term for the struggle between capitalists and workers
Bourgeoisie
Marx’s term for capitalists, those who own the means of production
Auguste Comte
who is credited as the founder of sociology, began to analyze the bases of the social order. Although he stressed that the scientific method should be applied to the study of society, he did not apply it himself.
Herbert Spencer
sometimes called the second founder of sociology, coined the term “survival of the fittest”; he thought that helping the poor was wrong, that this merely helped the “less fit” survive.
Karl Marx
believed that the roots of human misery lay in class conflict, the exploitation of workers by those who own the means of production. Social change, in the form of the overthrow of the capitalists by the workers(proletariat), was inevitable from Marx’s perspective. Although Marx did not consider himself a sociologist, his ideas have influenced many sociologists, particularly conflict theorists.
Proletariat
Marx’s term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
Social integration
the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social cohesion
Emile Durkheim
contributed many important concepts to sociology. His comparison of the suicide rates of several countries revealed an underlying social factor; people are more likely to commit suicide if their ties to others in their communities are weak. His identification of the key role of social integration in social life remains central to sociology today
Max Weber
was another early sociologist who left a profound impression on sociology. He used cross-cultural and historical materials to trace the causes of social change and to determine how social groups affect people’s orientations to life.
W.E.B. Du Bois
spent his lifetime studying relations between African Americans and whites. Like many early North Americans sociologists, Du Bois combined the role of academic sociologist with that of social reformer. He was also the editor of Crisis, an influential journal of the time.
Applied sociology
the use of sociology to solve problems- from the micro level of family relationships to the macro level of global pollution
Theory
a statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another
Symbolic interactionism
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
Functional analysis
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism
Conflict theory
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources
Macro level
an examination of large-scale patterns of society
Micro level
an examination of small-scale patterns of society
Social interaction
What people do when they are in one another’s presence
Nonverbal interaction
communication without words through gestures, use of space, silence, and so on
Hypothesis
a statement of how variable are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory
Variables
a factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary (or change) from one case to another
Operational definitions
the way in which a researcher measures a variable
Research method
one of seven procedures that sociologists use to collect data: surveys, participant observation, case studies, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures
Validity
the extent to which an operational definition measures what it is intended to measure
Reliability
the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results
Survey
the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions. determines peoples attitudes/beliefs about something.
Population
a target group to be studied
Sample
the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied
Random sample
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
Stratified random sample
a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research
Respondents
people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self-administered questionnaires
Closed-ended questions
questions that are followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent
Open-ended questions
questions that respondents answer in their own words
Rapport
a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying
Participant observation
research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
Case study
an analysis of a single event, situation, or individual
Secondary analysis
The analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers
Documents
written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of any sort, including photographs, movies, CDs, DVDs, and so on
Experiments
the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation
Experimental group
The subjects in a study who are exposed to the independent variable.
Control group
the subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable
Independent variable
a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
Dependent variable
a factor in an experiment that is changed by an independent variable
Unobtrusive measures
ways of observing people so they do not know they are being studied
Value free
the view that a sociologist’s personal values or biases should not influence social research
Values
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
Objectivity
value neutrality in research
Replication
the repetition of a study in order to test its findings
Public sociology
sociology being used for the public good; especially the sociological perspective (of how things are related to one another) guiding politicians and policy makers
Globalization
the extensive interconnections among nations due to the expansion of capitalism
Sociological Imagination
indicates the link/relationship between an individuals “personal” problems and aspects of the larger society
Intra Psychic Variables
are variables within
Psychiatric Explanation
psychologists evaluation
Behavior is a function of…
a combo between personality and environment
Self fulfilling prophecy
if you believe it is the nature of things, then you will try to do anything to change it
Egoistic Suicide
married or un-married, how social or anti-social they are
Altruistic Suicide
give their lives for religion or country
Anomic Suicide
normalness, war people losing their minds
Must collect _________ ________ to be a scientific study
imperial data
Functionalism
interrelationship of the different parts of society. A change in one affects the other parts.
Conflict Perspective
between classes, sexes, racial/religion and ethnic groups
Symbolic Interactionist
symbols must have SHARED MEANINGS in order for communication to occur. Meanings of symbols are learned through the socialization process
Types of surveys:
-Questionnaire
-Interviews
The survey sample must be __________ of the population
representative
Random Sample
is when EVERYONE in the population or universe has an equal chance of being selected for the sample
Sociodemographic variables
age, sex, income, race, religion, area of residence