soc ch 8

caste system
a system in which people are born into a social standing that they will retain their entire lives.
class system
social standing based on social factors and individual accomplishments.
class traits
also called class markers, the typical behaviors, customs, and norms that define each class.
class
a group who shares a common social status based on factors like wealth, income, education, and occupation
conspicuous consumption
buying and using products to make a statement about social standing
Davis-moore thesis
thesis that argues some social stratification is a social necessity
downward mobility
a lowering of one’s social class
endogamous marriages
unions of people within the same social category.
exogamous marriages
unions of spouses from different social categories
global stratification
a comparison of the wealth, economic stability, status, and power of countries as a whole
income
the money a person earns from work or investments
intergenerational mobility
a difference in social class between generations of a family
intragenerational mobility
a difference in social class between different members of the same generation.
meritocracy
an ideal system in which personal effort-or merit-determines social standing
primogeniture
a law stating that all property passes to the firstborn son
social mobility
the ability to change positions within a social stratification system
social stratification
a socioeconomic system that divides society’s members into categories ranking from high to low, based on things like wealth, power and prestige
standard of living
the level of wealth available to acquire material goods and comforts to maintain a particular socioeconomic lifestyle
status consistency
the consistency, or lack thereof, of an individual’s rank across social categories like income, education, and occupation
structural mobility
when societal changes enable a whole group of people to move up or down the class ladder
upward mobility
an increase-or upward shift-in social class
wealth
the value of money and assets a person has from, for example, inheritance
What factor makes caste systems closed?
People cannot change their social standings.
What factor makes class systems open?
They allow for movement between the classes.
Which of these systems allows for the most social mobility?
class
Which person best illustrates opportunities for upward social mobility in the United States?
First-generation college student
Which statement illustrates low status consistency?
A college dropout launches an online company that earns millions in its first year.
Based on meritocracy, a physician’s assistant would:
earn a pay raise for doing excellent work
In the United States, most people define themselves as:
middle class
Structural mobility occurs when:
a large group moves up or down the class ladder due to societal changes
The behaviors, customs, and norms associated with a class are known as:
class traits
Which of the following scenarios is an example of intergenerational mobility?
An executive belongs to a different class than her parents.
Occupational prestige means that jobs are:
not equally valued
Social stratification is a system that:
ranks society members into categories
Which graphic concept best illustrates the concept of social stratification?
pyramid
The GNI PPP figure represents:
the average annual income of a country’s citizens
The basic premise of the Davis-Moore thesis is that the unequal distribution of rewards in social stratification:
serves a purpose in society
Unlike Davis and Moore, Melvin Tumin believed that, because of social stratification, some qualified people were _______ higher-level job positions.
denied the opportunity to obtain
Which statement represents stratification from the perspective of symbolic interactionism?
After work, Pat, a janitor, feels more comfortable eating in a truck stop than a French
restaurant.
When Karl Marx said workers experience alienation, he meant that workers:
do not feel connected to their work
Conflict theorists view capitalists as those who:
get rich while workers stay poor