SOC Benokraitis – Chapter 8

intergenerational mobility
moving up
or down the class hierarchy relative to the position
of one’s parents.
intragenerational mobility
moving up
or down the class hierarchy over one’s lifetime.
vertical mobility
moving up or down the
class hierarchy.
horizontal mobility
moving from one
position to another at the same class level.
social mobility
a person’s movement up or
down the class hierarchy.
feminization of poverty
the higher
likelihood that female heads of households will
be poor.
poverty line
the minimal level of income
that the federal government considers necessary
for basic subsistence.
relative poverty
not having enough money
to maintain an average standard of living.
absolute poverty
not having enough
money to afford the most basic necessities of
life.
life chances
the extent to which people
have positive experiences and can secure the
good things in life because they have economic
resources.
underclass
people who are persistently
poor and seldom employed, segregated residentially, and relatively isolated from the rest of the population.
working poor
people who work at least
27 weeks a year but receive such low wages
that they live in or near poverty.
conspicuous consumption
lavish spending
on goods and services to display one’s social
status and to enhance one’s prestige.
socioeconomic status (SES)
an overall
ranking of a person’s position in the class
hierarchy based on income, education, and
occupation.
power
the ability of individuals or groups
to achieve goals, control events, and maintain
influence over others despite opposition.
prestige
respect, recognition, or regard attached
to social positions.
wealth
the money and other economic
assets that a person or family owns, including
property and income.
social class
a category of people who have
a similar standing or rank in a society based on wealth, education, power, prestige, and other valued resources.
closed stratification system
a system
in which movement from one social position to
another is limited by ascribed statuses such as
one’s sex, skin color, and family background.
open stratification system
a system that
is based on individual achievement and allows
movement up or down.
social stratification
the hierarchical ranking
of people in a society who have different
access to valued resources, such as property,
prestige, power, and status.
meritocracy
a belief that individuals are
rewarded for what they do and how well rather
than on the basis of their ascribed status.
Davis-Moore thesis
the functionalist view
that social stratification benefits a society.
proletariat
workers who sell their labor for
wages.
bourgeoisie
those who own the means of
production and can amass wealth and power
corporate welfare
an array of direct
subsidies, tax breaks, and assistance that the
government has created for businesses.