College students who are drunk when they assault other people may claim they were suffering from a mental impairment that prevented them from understanding the harmfulness of their acts. They are using what type of defense?
the interactionist view
The perspective that views crime as the reflection of the preferences and opinions of people who hold social power in a particular legal jurisdiction is:
social control mechanisms
Criminal law is shaped by all but which of the following?
Criminal law constantly evolve to reflect social and economic conditions.
The intent to commit the criminal act is known as:
The consensus view states that criminal laws are acts created to protect the haves from the have-nots.
departs from social norms
Those laws that set out the basic rules of practice in the criminal justice system are procedural criminal laws
Theories are based on social facts that are observed and can be consistently quantified and measured.
Duress, self-defense, and entrapment are defenses in which the individual usually admits committing the criminal act but maintains that he or she should not be held criminally liable. These are what type of defense?
Shifting definitions of deviant behavior are closely associated with our concepts of crime.
mala in se
Murder, rape and other crimes deemed inherently evil are also referred to as _________________ crimes.
The interactionist perspective holds that the definition of crime evolves according to the moral standards of those in power.
Research conducted on the links between different crimes and criminals is known as _____________.
Under this view, groups able to assert their political power use the law and criminal justice system to advance their economic and social positions. Criminal laws are viewed as acts created to protect the haves from the have-nots.
The branch of the law that defines crimes and their punishment is known as ___________.
Criminologists use ________ methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
This type of law is used to resolve, control, and shape such personal interactions as contracts, wills and trusts, property ownership, and involves tort law.
______________ law governs the regulation of city, county, state, and federal government agencies.
Statutory crimes are referred to as:
strict liability crimes
Public welfare offenses, such as traffic offenses, are crimes that do not require mens rea to prove legal guilt because they endanger public welfare or violate safety regulations. They are also referred to as:
Which of the following is illegal but is not necessarily deviant?
A battered wife who kills her mate might argue that she acted out of duress – committing her crime to save her own life. She would be using the defense of:
Deviant behavior is behavior that departs from social norms.
Conspiracy, solicitation, and attempted crimes are also known as:
Studying the correction and control of known criminal offenders is:
Criminal justice explains the etiology, extent, and nature of crime in society.
Mala in se crimes are those crimes that reflect existing social conditions and are enacted through legislation.
When selecting subjects for research studies, criminologists should ensure they are selected in what manner?
The subarea of criminal statistics involves measuring the amount and trends of criminal activity.
divine forces would not allow an innocent person to be harmed
Trials by ordeal were based on the principle that:
The consensus view of crime links illegal behavior to the concept of:
According to early victimologists, victim behavior is very rarely a key determinant of crime.
The evolution of criminal law has created and eliminated many laws. Among those currently recognized is __________, which is the “the willful, malicious and repeated following and harassing of another person.”
on the first day of the month
Crime rates may be higher:
Police are more likely to use their discretion to help females.
Which of the following statements is not a potential explanation for the marked increase in crimes committed by females?
measure the nature and extent of criminal behavior
Criminologists conduct research to:
When researchers want a survey to focus on a particular group of people or to be representative of all members of society they conduct:
a self-report survey
A research approach that asks participants to describe their recent and lifetime criminal activity is termed:
The “missing cases” phenomenon is a validity concern for which type of crime measurement?
Individuals in the US without documentation
Official crime data indicate that minority group members are involved in a disproportionate share of criminal activity. Which of the following does not explain race-based differences in the crime rate?
Monitoring the Future (MTF) data indicate that the number of people who break the law is far greater than the number projected by official statistics.
The Uniform Crime Report reports serious violent crimes and federal crimes.
Self-report surveys can provide information on the personal characteristics of offenders, such as their attitudes, values, beliefs, and psychological profiles.
Among the factors that influence crime trends are the availability of legalized abortion, firearms, and quality health care.
Observing a group of people who share a like characteristic, over time, is termed:
Instrumental crimes are committed by those who are unable to obtain desired goods and services through conventional means.
suggest arrest rate differences are an artifact of justice system bias
Official arrest records indicate that African Americans are arrested at a higher rate than members of other racial groups. Self-report data:
The relationship between class and crime is an important one for criminological theory. The weight of recent evidence seems to suggest that serious, official crime is more prevalent:
The relationship between class and crime is an important one for criminological theory. The weight of recent evidence seems to suggest that serious, official crime is more prevalent:
The “missing cases phenomenon” is a validity concern present within the Uniform Crime Report.
parental supervision, average grades, average school attendance
Which of the following sets of factors would not predict chronic offending?
The true relationship between class and crime is difficult to determine because economic conditions and social opportunities may obscure effects.
Many times it is difficult to randomly select subjects or manipulate conditions of a study. When this occurs, criminologists must rely on what type of design?
Most self-report surveys focus on juvenile delinquency and youth crime.
juveniles who started their delinquent careers early and who committed serious violent crime during adolescence
One of the most important findings from cohort studies is the concept of persistence or the continuity of crime. Who is most likely to persist in a criminal career?
reporting practices, methodological problems, and law enforcement practices
Validity issues impact the UCR. Which of the following represents a validity concern/s for this data collection method?
season and climate
The phrase “the ecology of crime” refers to such factors as:
Official crime data indicate that minority group members are involved in a disproportionate share of serious criminal activity.
the masculinity hypothesis
What theory or hypothesis focused attention on the social and economic role of women in society and its relationship to female crime rates?
declined significantly during the past 30 years
According to the NCVS, reported victimizations have:
law enforcement practices
Self-report data supports the notion that ________________________ may account for the lower-class’s overrepresentation in official statistics and the prison population.
the Uniform Crime Report
The best known and most important source of official crime data is:
Longitudinal or cohort research involves observing a group of people, who share like characteristics, over a period of time.
Most reported crimes occur during the warm summer months of July and August.
Most criminologists agree that crime peaks when a person reaches middle-age and declines rapidly thereafter.
Females are supervised less by their parents than males.
All but which of the following explanations might account for the variance between male and female crime rates?
the greater willingness of police to arrest females
While the “emancipation of women” has had relatively little influence on female crime rates, there has been an increase in the number of females arrested. According to Steffensmeier’s research, what might account for this increase?
In the 1970s, liberal feminist theory focused attention on the social and economic role of women in society and its relationship to female crime rates.
If criminologists want to see the direct effect of one factor on another, they conduct:
Like the violent crime rate, the property crime rate has decreased.
What is known about the trend in property crime rates?
Meta-analysis involves gathering data from:
The Bureau of Justice Statistics compiles the Uniform Crime Report.
Violent crimes are more likely to be solved than property crimes because police devote more resources to these more serious acts.
Age is inversely related to crime – younger people commit more crime
How is age correlated with crime?
In routine activities theory, a large number of unemployed teenagers would be an example of:
Criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims refer to themselves as _______________.
victim-witness assistance programs
Local programs designed to assist victims and witnesses with medical bills, transportation, loss of wages, counseling, and other needs caused by the crime are called
Except for the crimes of rape or ____________ , males are more likely than females to be victims of crime.
routine activities theory
In _________________, three variables which must exist for crime to occur are: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presence of motivated offenders.
___________________is money paid to the victim, usually from a state victim compensation program.
cycle of violence
Research indicates that both boys and girls are more likely to engage in violent behavior if they were targets of physical abuse. This abuse-crime phenomenon is referred to as the
Concerning routine activities theory, police and homeowners would be considered ___________.
When the victim exhibits some personal characteristic that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the attacker it is known as _______________.
Areas with elevated chances of victimization due to higher concentrations of motivated offenders are known as ___________.
With regard to crime victims and their offenders, crime tends to be _________________.
According to ____________, people who drink, use drugs, and engage in crime, have a much greater chance of victimization.
Deviant Place Theory
According to ______________, people are more likely to become victims of crime and violence if they reside in areas where is an increased risk of coming into contact with criminal offenders.
____________ suggests that some people may actually initiate the confrontation that eventually leads to their injury or death.
The fact that some people’s activities and behaviors increase their risk of victimization by increasing their potential to become “opportunities” for criminal offenders is the basis of what theory?
victim precipitation theory
Some people may actually initiate the confrontation that eventually leads to their injury or death. This is termed ____________.
$450 billion dollars
Tallying the societal costs of crime (justice system costs, legal costs, treatment costs, etc.) results in a total loss due to crime of __________________annually.
Individuals who have been crime victims have a greater chance of future victimization. This concept is known as ___________________.
The __________ are more likely to be victims of frauds and scams.
When victims act provocatively, use threats or fighting words, or even attack first, it is known as ________.
seductions of crime
Situational inducements, such as the thrill or relieving stress, which directly precede the commission of a crime, and draw offenders into law violations are called ____________.
Offenders may react selectively to the characteristics of particular offenses. For instance, the decision to commit a burglary may involve evaluating the target’s likely cash yield and the presence of dogs and escape routes. This crime would then be considered:
fear of punishment
Beccaria believed that criminals choose to commit crime and that criminal choices could be controlled by:
The offender commits more serious crimes, assuming if caught, the punishment would be no worse than for somewhat lesser crimes.
When deterrence measures convince would be criminals that the risk of committing a particular crime is just too great, offenders adapt in various ways. Of the following, which is not one of those ways?
The view that proposes placing offenders behind bars during their prime crime years in order to lessen their opportunity to commit crime is known as:
They face punishment soon after their apprehension.
Crime persists because most offenders believe all but which of the following?
These studies indicate arrest was not a greater deterrence than warning or advising the assailant.
After the famous Minneapolis domestic violence study, other studies and analyses have been conducted. What do these studies indicate regarding the deterrent effect of arrest for domestic abusers?
The seductions of crime increase the likelihood of engaging in crime due to neither fearing legal punishment nor losing respect of peers.
the cohesiveness of the community structure
The effect of shaming may vary according to what?
The majority of offenders are not deterred and reoffend.
The theory of specific deterrence suggests that the harsher the punishment, the less likely the chances of recidivism. Is this so?
The Minneapolis domestic violence study showed that arresting offenders was an ineffective means of reducing recidivism.
The view that crime is a matter of rational choice is held by a number of criminologists who believe that the decision to violate any law is made for a variety of personal reasons including greed, revenge, need, anger, lust, jealousy, thrill-seeking, or vanity.
Because punishment based on deterrence or incapacitation involves an offender’s future actions.
According to Von Hirsch’s view on “just deserts,” why is punishment based on deterrence or incapacitation wrong?
diffusion of benefits
When efforts to prevent one crime unintentionally prevent another and when crime control efforts in one locale reduce crime in other non-target areas, this is called:
The writings of Beccaria influenced the U.S. Constitution and France’s Declaration of the Rights of Man.
Clearly indicating a rational thought process, people will forego crime if they risk losing the respect of their peers and/or damaging their reputations
The criminal perceives the crime is too risky.
According to rational choice theory, why might a criminal decide not to commit crime?
Well-lit housing projects that maximize surveillance reflect Oscar Newman’s concept of _______ that suggests crime can be prevented via the use of residential architectural designs that reduce criminal opportunity.
Guardians who monitor targets, handlers who monitor potential offenders, and managers who monitor places are ____________ who have varying levels of responsibility and research indicates they impact crime rates.
personal and situational factors
According to the rational choice approach, law-violating behavior occurs when an offender decides to commit the crime after considering what two types of factors?
Impact studies indicated that the overall impact of executions might actually increase the incidence of homicide
What do immediate impact studies indicate about capital punishment’s deterrent effect on murder?
__________ occur when significant others, such as parents, peer, neighbors, and teachers, direct their disapproval toward the offender.
Discouragement occurs when crime reduction programs may boomerang and increase rather than decrease the potentiality for crime.
According to __________, crime rates are influenced and controlled by the threat of punishment.
Situational crime prevention is not without its problems. When crime reduction programs re-direct offenders to alternative targets, it is termed:
reducing the shame for committing crime
Which of the following is not a crime prevention strategy used today?
The mere presence of patrol officers on the street did not have a deterrent effect.
The Kansas City, Missouri police department’s study of patrol effectiveness, convinced criminologists that:
Placing offenders behind bars during their prime crime years should lessen their lifetime opportunity to commit crime.
The utilitarian calculus, which is a cost-benefit analysis, is associated with Jeremy Bentham.
Most burglars prefer to commit crime in neighborhoods with a limited number of access streets to ensure a decrease in traffic.
Crime reduction programs may produce a short-term positive effect, but benefits then dissipate as criminals adjust to new conditions. This phenomenon is known as:
If petty offenses were subject to the same punishment as more serious crimes, offenders would choose the worst crime. This is known as:
The three components of deterrence theory are severity, certainty, and speed of legal sanctions (punishment). Of these components, deterrence theorists tend to believe that the _________ of punishment seems to have the strongest impact.
Personal factors such as economic opportunity, learning and experience, and knowledge of criminal techniques condition people to choose crime.
According to deterrence theory, if the probability of arrest, conviction, and sanctioning could be increased, crime rates should:
Most burglars prefer to commit crimes in neighborhoods that contain a greater than usual number of access streets. These neighborhoods are referred to as:
If a crime is offense-specific, offenders have weighed their abilities, resources, needs, and levels of fear.
Criminal solutions require much effort but hold the promise of a huge payoff
The basic elements of classical criminology do not include which of the following ideas?
To deter people from committing more serious offenses, Beccaria believed punishment should be lenient.
This occurs when crime control efforts targeting a particular locale help reduce crime in surrounding areas and populations.
Situational crime prevention tactics such as Lojack® tracking systems are an example of what?
Crackdowns are effective when coupled with problem-solving and community- improvement techniques; crackdowns initially deter crime but the effect soon wears off after the high intensity police activity ends.
“Crackdowns” are sudden changes in police activity designed to lower crime rates through an increase in the communicated threat or actual certainty of punishment. How effective are crackdowns?
situational crime prevention
Policies that convince potential criminals to desist from criminal activities, delay their actions, or avoid a particular target are known as:
The view that criminals evaluate their skills and needs prior to engaging in a crime is:
Rational choice theory has roots in the Chicago School developed by Cesare Beccaria.
Chronic offenders are impulsive, but consider the legal consequences of their actions so as to decrease the likelihood of apprehension.
General deterrence theory holds that threat of punishment should deter lawbreakers through fear. Which statement is inaccurate as to why some offenders are not deterred?
Informal sanctions are less effective at reducing crime than is fear of formal legal punishment.
Some law violators describe the adrenaline rush that comes from successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations. This integration of danger, risk, and skill, is for some, a seduction of crime and is referred to as:
The philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished is known as:
Rational choice theory is rooted in the classical school of criminology developed by:
consistent relationship between painful attacks and aggressive responses
Social learning theorists contribute all but which of the following factors to violent and/or aggressive behavior?
minimal brain dysfunction
Explosive rage disorder is considered an important cause of spouse and child abuse, suicide, aggressiveness, and motiveless homicide. This disorder is a type of:
Social learning theory holds that people learn to be aggressive through their life experiences. Which of these is not a source of this behavior modeling process?
Which of the following biochemical factors has not been linked to criminality?
_______________ is defined as a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others.
Abnormal levels of these male sex hormones influence the neocortex and have been linked to brain seizures and emotional volatility.
modeling prosocial behavior
Therapeutic interventions designed to make people better problem solvers do not involve which measure?
California Personality Inventory
A frequently administered personality test which has been used to distinguish deviants from nondeviant groups is the:
The condition at the onset of the menstrual cycle that triggers excessive amounts of hormones affecting antisocial, aggressive behavior is known as:
an imbalance between the id, ego and superego
Conduct disorder is considered a more serious group of behaviors than oppositional defiant disorder. What statement is false regarding the causes of conduct disorder?
The theorist associated with the “born criminal” and biological determinism is?
The study of the activities of several generations of families believed to have an especially large number of criminal members is the:
Recent research on IQ and crime suggests that low IQ increases the likelihood of criminal behavior through its effect on:
Some researches feel it is possible that what appears to be a genetic effect evidenced in twin research is actually the effect of sibling influence pertaining to criminality and referred to as the:
low levels of moral reasoning development
According to the moral and intellectual development branch of cognitive theory, what is wrong with criminals?
The notion that some individuals may engage in crime due to the attraction of “getting away with it” is known as:
______________ argues that intelligence is largely determined genetically, and is linked to criminal behavior.
how social behaviors are learned and perceived
Sociobiology differs from earlier theories of behavior in that it stresses that biological and genetic conditions affect:
Cerebral allergies; neuroallergies
__________ cause an excessive reaction in the brain, whereas _________ affect the nervous system. Both are linked to mental, emotional, and behavioral problems.
during early childhood
The psychodynamic model of the criminal offender depicts an aggressive, frustrated person dominated by events that occurred:
The average blood lead level has increased over the past decade.
Which of the following statements pertaining to the link between lead and crime is inaccurate?
According to William Sheldon, who believed that criminals manifest distinct physiques, which somatotype was most likely to become criminal?
ADHD has been linked to the desistance of a delinquent career.
What statement is false with regard to ADHD?
Lead poisoning was one of the most significant predictors of female delinquency
With regard to lead and its association to aggressive behaviors, what statement is false?
The belief that all humans are born with equal potential to learn and achieve is known as:
_______ is found in youngsters whose personalities require them to seek immediate gratification, to consider their own needs more important than others, and to satisfy instinctive urges without considering right and wrong.
A condition that occurs when glucose in the blood falls below levels necessary for normal and efficient brain functioning is known as:
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
A disorder in which a child shows a developmentally inappropriate lack of attention and an excess of impulsivity is known as:
Biosocial theory contends that all humans are born with equal potential to learn and achieve.
People alter what they do based on learned responses from rewards and punishments is the premise of what group of theories?
Substance abuse among the mentally ill is significantly lower than that of the general population.
The connection between crime and mental illness is evident given all but which of the following statements?
High bone concentrations of this mineral/metal are associated with delinquency.
Biocriminologists believe human behavior is not produced by which of the following?
If one member of a twin pair was delinquent, the other was not and the effect was seen in both types or twins.
Which finding is false with regard to the studies of MZ and DZ twins?
According to Freud, the superego is the _____ aspect of one’s personality.
The premise that traits and characteristics have become ingrained and some of these traits make people aggressive and predisposed to commit crime is part of which theory?
The belief that no serious consideration should be given to biological factors when attempting to understand human nature is known as:
The concept used to describe people who have feelings of inadequacy and compensate for them with a drive for superiority is:
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
One of the most widely used psychological tests that is designed to measure many different personality traits, including psychopathic deviation, schizophrenia, and hypomania is known as the:
Which theory states that the emotional bond at birth has important lasting psychological implications that follow people across the life span?