Soc 315 CH 10

Monique and Tyrone are stepsiblings who live in a household with Tyrone’s mother, who is Monique’s stepmother, and Monique’s father, who is Tyrone’s stepfather. According to the textbook their family can be considered a

A. boundary ambiguity.

B. dynamic family.

C. blended family.

D. adoptive family.

C.

Any family that includes stepparents, stepsibling, or half-siblings can be considered a blended family. The word blended implies that more than one family is mixed together, with at least one outside family member whose relationship is not shared with everyone.

Research on the independence effect of women’s employment on the divorce rate indicates which of these conclusions?

A. Women’s employment is strongly associated with divorce for all types of marriages.

B. Women’s employment increases the likelihood of divorce, but only for women who are unhappy in their marriage.

C. Women’s employment increases the tendency of women to leave happy marriages.

D. Women’s employment has no effect on the divorce rate.

B.

Research on the independence effect of women’s employment that tracks couples over time has found that women’s employment does increase the likelihood of divorce, but only for women who are unhappy in their marriage. There is no evidence that employment increases the tendency of women to leave happy marriages.

Separation is a legal process that involves:
A. married spouses separating into different households.
B. the legal dissolution of a marriage.
C. the end of a marriage through divorce or separation.
D. declaring that a marriage was never legally binding
A.
The main difference between the crude divorce rate and the refined divorce rate for a given country is that

A the crude divorce rate indicates the number of divorces compared to the number of married couples whereas the refined divorce indicates how many divorces there are relative to all separations.
Correct Response
B the refined divorce rate specifies how many divorces there are among all married couples whereas the crude divorce rate specifies the number of divorces there are relative to the total population.

C the crude divorce rate indicates how many divorces have been attempted whereas the refined divorce rate indicates how many successful divorces have occurred.

D the refined divorce rate indicates how many annulments there are compared to all married couples whereas the crude divorce rate indicates how many divorces there are compared to all married couples.

B.

The crude divorce rate indicates how common divorce is in the whole country by indicating the number of divorces for every 1,000 people. The refined divorce rate indicates how common divorce is among married couples by indicating the number of divorces for every 1,000 married couples.

Legal annulment is ________ in the United States.
A. very common
B. common
C. rare
D. very rare
D.
How does the experience of living together with a partner (cohabitation) impact the likelihood that a couple will later divorce?

A. Cohabitation increases the odds of relationship dissolution regardless of whether the couple marries.
Correct Response
B. Cohabitation does not affect the chance of divorcing if the couple eventually marries.

C. On average, cohabitation before marriage decreases the likelihood that a couple will divorce.

D. Cohabitation prior to marriage increases the odds of a couple divorcing in the first 10 years.

B.

When taking into account complex factors involved with cohabitation such as the length of the cohabitating relationship, we find that cohabitation does not create a higher probability for divorce as long as the cohabitating couple eventually marries. Without taking these factors into account, the overall trends do show that cohabitating couples are more likely to see their relationship end than married couples.

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According to American Community Survey data from 2008 to 2012, Koreans have highest divorce rate among all Asians in the U.S.

A True
B False

B
Prior to the 1970s and “no fault” divorce laws, the divorce rate was:
A. extremely low.
B. stagnant.
C. increasing.
D. steadily increasing.
D.
One British study suggests that divorce outcomes for adults:
A. show higher levels of stress even after the divorce.
B. show lower levels of stress after the divorce is final.
C. show that they felt more depressed and anxious after the divorce.
D. show that they continued to have difficulty sleeping after the divorce
B.
When discussing trends in divorce, sociologists focus primarily on heterosexual, formally married individuals because:
A the outcomes are different for those who are not legally married.
B sociologists do not consider nontraditional forms of family.
C there is limited systematic research on other forms of family.
D homosexuality is too recent to have been effectively studied.
C.
According to data on U.S. divorces in 2012, what is the relationship between racial-ethnic groups and the divorce rate?

A. Divorces are the least common for Whites compared to all other racial-ethic groups.

B. Divorces are the most common among American Indians and African Americans.

C. Divorces are the least common for Hispanics compared to all other racial-ethnic groups.

D. Divorce rates were equal across all racial-ethnic groups in the United States in 2012.

B.

As the Story Behind the Numbers infographic suggests, when considering the divorce rate and racial-ethnic groups, we find the Asian or Pacific Islander group has the lowest divorce rate while American Indians and African Americans have the highest divorce rate. Whites and Hispanics have higher divorce rates than Asians and Pacific Islanders and lower rates than the other groups.

Which of the following is an example of how members of a blended family may benefit from their experience in this type of a family?

A. Remarried adults tend to preserve their autonomy more than they did in their first marriage.

B. Blended families tend to have higher incomes than families that are not blended.

C. Blended families are more likely to have well-defined roles for each family member.

D. Children of remarried adults are more likely to graduate from colleg

A.

One advantage that members of a blended family have is that they tend to have a greater sense of individual autonomy. Remarried adults may have learned from their divorce experiences, and children of divorced parents also seem to be more individualistic.

While divorce provides a legal dissolution of a marriage according to the laws of a state, an annulment of marriage is different because

A. it provides legal proof that a couple is separated for tax purposes pending a divorce.

B. it is a determination—religious only—that the couple is now divorced in the eyes of the church.

C. it provides a temporary divorce status that can be reversed for one year if the couple desires.
Correct Response
D. it is considered a legal or religious determination that the marriage was never valid

D.

An annulment of marriage is a legal or religious determination that the marriage was never valid, and afterward, the marriage is treated as though it never occurred. This is different than a divorce because a divorce acknowledges that at one point in the past the marriage was valid. Annulment is an important issue for some religious groups, especially Catholics, because remarriage in the Catholic Church is only permitted if the first marriage was annulled by the Church.

Approximately ________ percent of Baby Boomers had divorced by the age of 40.
A. 25
B. 33
C. 50
D. 60
B.
Which term refers to the legal dissolution of marriage according to the laws of the state?

A. marital dissolution

B. divorce

C. relationship dissolution

D separation

B.

Divorce is the legal dissolution of marriage according to the laws of the state. Marital dissolution refers to the end of a marriage through permanent separation or divorce but is not necessarily a legal dissolution of marriage. Separation refers to the formal or informal separation of married spouses into different households.

How do the contemporary debates about marriage rights today—same-sex marriage for example—differ from the debates about marriage rights in the late nineteenth century?

A. In the late nineteenth century, the major debate over marriage centered on whether the guilty party in a divorce should be allowed to remarry.

B. In the late nineteenth century, the major debate was about whether couples had the right to have a religious marriage annulled.

C. In the late nineteenth century, the major debate centered on whether couples with young children should be allowed to have a legal divorce.

D. In the late nineteenth century, the major debate over marriage rights involved whether interracial couples should be allowed to marry.

A.

While today’s debate over marriage rights usually involves the rights of same-sex couples, in the late nineteenth century the main debate was over whether the “guilty” party in a divorces should be permitted to remarry, while the accusing spouse was seen more sympathetically. People on the side of the debate that did not want them to be allowed to remarry were concerned that loosening marriage laws would result in more divorce and this would eliminate the sacredness of marriage.

The change in divorce laws, which allowed either spouse to file for divorce, effectively increased the power of:
A. women.
B. men.
C. the state.
D. the church.
A.
Controversies over who controls marriage —the state or church—have arisen based on all of the following topics EXCEPT:
A. same-sex marriage.
B. marriage after divorce.
C. attending a remarriage.
D. marriage after death of a spouse
D.
2. According to data on U.S. divorces in 2012, what is the relationship between racial-ethnic groups and the divorce rate?
Divorces are the least common for Whites compared to all other groups.
Divorces are the most common among American Indians and African Americans.
Divorces are the least common for Hispanics compared to all other racial-ethnic groups.
: B
Discussion: As the “Story behind the Numbers” infographic suggests, when considering the divorce rate and racial-ethnic groups, we find the Asian or Pacific Islander group has the lowest divorce rate while American Indians and African Americans have the highest divorce rate. Whites and Hispanics have higher divorce rates than Asians and Pacific Islanders and lower rates than the other groups.
1. According to data on U.S. divorces in 2012, what is the relationship between education and the divorce rate?
Divorces are the least common for college graduates compared to everyone else.
People who did not earn a high school diploma are the least likely to divorce.
There is no relationship between level of education and the divorce rate
: A
Discussion: As the “Story behind the Numbers” infographic suggests, when considering the divorce rate and education, we find that college graduates are the least likely to be divorced when compared to all other education groups. Those who have completed some college but did not graduate have the highest divorce rate.
5. Research on the independence effect of women’s employment on the divorce rate indicates which of these conclusions?
Women’s employment is strongly associated with divorce for all types of marriage.
Women’s employment increases the likelihood of divorce, but only for women who are unhappy in their marriage.
Women’s employment has no effect.
B
Discussion: Research on the independence effect of women’s employment that tracks couples over time has found that women’s employment does increase the likelihood of divorce, but only for women who are unhappy in their marriage. There is no evidence that employment increases the tendency of women to leave happy marriages.
4. Mona and Jon are stepsiblings who live in a household with Jon’s mother, who is Mona’s stepmother, and Mona’s father, who is Jon’s stepfather. According to the textbook, their family can be considered
a boundary ambiguity.
a dynamic family.
a blended family.
an adoptive family.
: C
Discussion: Any family that includes stepparents, stepsibling, or half-siblings can be considered a blended family. The word blended implies that more than one family is mixed together, with at least one outside family member whose relationship is not shared with everyone.
3. How does cohabitation impact the likelihood that a couple will later divorce?
a. Cohabitation does not affect the chance of divorcing if the couple eventually marries.
b. Cohabitation before marriage decreases the likelihood that a couple will divorce.
c. Cohabitation before marriage increases the odds of a couple divorcing.
: A
Discussion: When taking into account complex factors involved with cohabitation such as the length of the cohabitating relationship, we find that cohabitation does not create a higher probability for divorce as long as the couple eventually marries. Without taking these factors into account, the overall trends do show that cohabitating couples are more likely to see their relationship end than married couples
2. While divorce provides a legal dissolution of a marriage, an annulment of marriage is different because it
a.provides legal proof that a couple is separated for tax purposes.
b.provides a temporary divorce status that can be reversed for on year.
c. is considered a legal or religious determination that the marriage was never valid.
C
Discussion: An annulment of marriage is a legal or religious determination that the marriage was never valid, and afterward, the marriage is treated as though it never occurred. This is different than a divorce because a divorce acknowledges that at one point in the past the marriage was valid. Annulment is an important issue for some religious groups, especially Catholics, because remarriage in the Catholic Church is only permitted if the first marriage was annulled by the Church.
1. Which term refers to the legal dissolution of marriage according to the laws of the state?
a. marital dissolution
b.divorce
c. relationship dissolution
d. separation
: B
Discussion: Divorce is the legal dissolution of marriage according to the laws of the state. Marital dissolution refers to the end of marriage through permanent separation or divorce but is not necessarily a legal dissolution of marriage. Separation refers to the formal or informal separation of married spouses into different households.
blended families
More than one child out of six under the age of 18 live in blended families.
Hispanic children are more likely to experience blended families
divorce stigma
Even though divorce is often viewed as a negative event, the stigma of divorce does not seem to deter remarriage very much.
Overall, 3 percent of divorced or widowed adults remarried in 2011.
The differences between racial-ethnic groups are relatively small.
However, there is a large difference by gender, education, and, especially, age.
number of times married
Of individuals age 55 to 65, one-third have been married more than once.
Most of these individuals were married for the first time in the 1970s and their marriages were the most likely to end in divorce.
In addition to having a high rate of remarriage and divorce, this generation also had the highest rate of cohabitation.
Boundary Ambiguity
The situation in which family members do not know or do not agree on who is in the family and what role each person plays
Blended Family
Any family that includes stepparents, stepsiblings, or half-siblings
Half-Sibling (Half-Brother or Half-Sister
The biological child of one’s parent and another person
The biological child of one’s parent and another person
The child (son or daughter) of one’s stepparent
Stepchild
The child of one’s spouse or committed partner
Stepparent
The spouse or committed partner of one’s biological or adoptive parent
Consequences of divorce: common outcomes for children
-short-term emotional or behavioral reactions or school problems
-permanent emotional changes
-new roles and identities in the family or social environment
Consequences of Divorce: Protective factors for children
-Coping Skills, Interpersonal Skills, and Self-Confidence
-Economic, Educational, or Other Resources That Help Families Buffer Children
-Attentive Parenting, Diminished Conflict, and Continued Involvement of Both Parents After the Divorce
consequences of divorce: divorce stressors of children
-Less Parental Time and Energy
-Losing Contact with One Parent for Periods of Time
-Witnessing or Being Part of Conflicts
-Residential Moves, Job and School Transitions, and Economic Hardship
adults happiness
Divorce not usually an intended outcome of marriage and is generally seen as a negative event.
But divorce may be a better alternative to unhappy marriage situations, especially ones that involve violence, abuse, or neglect.
Researchers examine both negative and positive outcomes and consequences of divorce.
Income Effect
On the other hand, independence can work to strengthen marriage as well.
Couples with high levels of education and high incomes are less likely to get divorced (Martin, 2006).
This is called the income effect of employment.
Researchers have linked having a higher income with increased stability and happiness and reduced stress.
Independence Effect
When women and men are economically independent and have the means to survive on their own, they are less likely to leave unhappy relationships.
For women, this means that if they have employment outside of the home and it can give them self-sufficiency, they are more likely to leave unhappy marriages.
This has been called the independence effect of women’s employment (Teachman, 2010).
But a woman’s independence or self-sufficiency alone does not cause her to seek a divorce.
An employed women is only more likely to divorce if she is unhappy in her marriage.
Thus there is not evidence to suggest that a woman’s employment “causes” divorce
couples are more likely to divorce when
they spend less time alone with each other.
they disagree frequently about household tasks, money, time together, sex and in-laws.
they have heated arguments, shout at, or hit each other.
couples are more likely to divorce when
they describe themselves as unhappy in their marriages.
they spend less time alone with each other.
they disagree frequently about household tasks, money, time together, sex, and in-laws.
percent of first marriage ending in separation or divorce
When spouses are under age 20 when they first marry, 50 percent of these marriages break up.
This is compared to a 25 percent breakup rate for marriages where the spouses are over the age of 25 when they first marry.
the matching process
The nature of marriage is affected by the ways in which individuals come together and form couples.
Cohabitation is an important consideration for many researchers.
The age of the individuals when they first get married is also an important consideration.
patterns of divorce
For example, divorce is more common among people with less education, those who have been married previously, African Americans, Native Americans, and so on.
However, different aspects of marriage also impact divorce.
4. In 2012 there were 1.2 million divorces. What is the percent of divorce for couples who had been married for four years or less in 2012?
0.2 percent
1.3 percent
2.6 percent
3.1 percent
d
The Divorce Revolution
During the period from 1960 to 1980 there was a dramatic increase in divorce that was termed the divorce revolution (Weitzman, 1985).
Divorce reform
The liberalization of family law and the rise of no-fault divorces
Spread during the 1970s
Went from legal control to the voluntary arrangement between individuals
Marriage was legally recognized as a voluntary contract between two individuals.
New laws, voluntary arrangement
Reforms to the legal system influenced by the feminist movement and geared toward emancipating women from traditions and laws that reinforced gender inequality
Legal to get a divorce for personal reasons rather than making an accusation or charge against the other party
Either spouse could demand a divorce and did not need a specific reason
Refined Divorce Rate
The refined divorce rate tells us how many divorces there are for every 1,000 married couples in the country.
This rate tells us how common divorce is among married couples specifically, not just in the entire population.
crude divorce rate
The crude divorce rate is simply the number of divorces that have occurred in one year in the entire population.
It is used to tell how common divorce is in the entire country.
It is also useful as a rough comparison to ascertain long-term historical trends even back when the data were not as plentiful.
Currently, the crude divorce rate in the United States is 3.9 divorces for every 1,000 people in the country.
Annulment of Marriage
A legal or religious determination that the marriage was never valid
Divorce
The legal dissolution of marriage according to the laws of the state
Separation
The formal or informal separation of married spouses into different households
Marital Dissolution
The end of a marriage through permanent separation or divorce
church and state
In modern society, the state as an institutional arena has taken more and more authority and control away from the church, especially where divorce is concerned.
Church authority in general has become decreasingly less powerful with the rise of the nation state.
The modern family is much more under the control of state authority than it is under the control of religious authority.