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(1) What are some factors both developmental and environmental associated with the safety of infants through the second birthday? “Sharing a bed with a newborn is dangerous if the adult is drugged or drunk-and this in danger of “overlying” the baby. It may be that co-sleeping is beneficial but bed-sharing is not, partly because adult beds. Unlike cribs, are often soft, with comforters, mattresses, and pillows that increase a baby’s risk of suffocation (Alm, 2007)”.

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(Berger 2012, p. 137). (2) What is cot death? Cot death is a diagnosis that’s made when an apparently healthy baby dies, without, warning, and for no clear reason.

No one knows why babies die in this way. It must be a combination of factors that affect a baby at a vulnerable stage in their development. Some babies may have a problem with the part of the brain that controls breathing and walking. These babies don’t respond if their breathing is slightly restricted, such as if there are bed clothes covering their nose or mouth. Sadly, there’s no failsafe way to prevent cot death. However, you can do a number of things to keep your baby safe and reduce the risk. Put your baby to sleep on his/her back in a cot or Moses basket. For the first six months this should be in a room with you.

Healthy babies placed on their back to sleep are not more likely to choke. This is the safest place and position for your baby to sleep in. At about five months of six months, babies start to roll. At this age the risk of cot death reduces and it’s safe to let your baby find his/her own comfortable sleeping position. But you should still put your baby down to sleep on his/her back. If you wake up and see that your baby is on his/her front, and he/she’s younger than six months old, gently roll him/her onto his/her back. Babies older than this can usually roll on to their back themselves.

You don’t need to get up and check throughout the night, as likely to change position regularly when he/she sleeps. Don’t smoke during pregnancy or allow anyone to smoke around your baby. If you smoke during or after pregnancy, your baby’s risk of cot death increases. Cot death is more common in babies who are regularly exposed to smoke. The risk to your baby is increased if anyone in the house smokes, even if it’s in another room with a window open. Visitors should smoke outside so the air around your baby is always smoke-free. Never smoke in the same room as your baby.

The safest place for your baby to sleep for the first six months is in a cot or Moses basket in the same room as you. Never share a bed with your baby if you or your partner are a smoker (even if you never smoke near your baby), have been drinking alcohol, are taking any medication or drugs or are very tired” (Baby Center, L. L. C. 2012). “Many factors can affect the development of a fetus. Environmental agents that can negatively affect prenatal development are called teratogens. Teratogen exposure tends to be most detrimental during the first trimester (the first three months) of pregnancy, when formation of the organs and brain occurs.

However, some substances, such as alcohol, can have an effect at any point in pregnancy. Alcohol consumption can harm a developing embryo or fetus, although how much is too much remains much is too much remains unclear. “The only way to be absolutely certain that your baby is not harmed by alcohol is not to drink at all during pregnancy or while you are trying for a baby,” says the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RCOG). Pregnant women who continue to drink are at increased risk of experiencing a miscarriage or still birth.

Infants exposed to alcohol before birth may show signs of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FAST) including learning problems, behavioral problems, and physical disabilities, the RCOG reports. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, which results in mental retardation and facial abnormalities, is uncommon. Unlike FAST), which can occur with only moderate exposure to alcohol. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome only occurs due to heavy drinking during pregnancy” (Demand Media, Inc. 2012). (3) How can you, as an early childhood care professional help parents plan for developmental and environmental factors associated with the safety and health of infants and young children?

As an early childhood care professional I can help parents plan for developmental and environmental factors associated with the safety and health of infants and young children by providing parenting education services “that assist parents or primary caregivers to strengthen their knowledge and skills thereby enhancing positive parenting practices and promoting the health and optimal development of young children and by providing family support services that work with families to strengthen their resiliency and to address the stressors that impair their ability to nurture or support the healthy development of their children (ucla. du 2012). (4) Discuss some safety factors associated with toys. “There are many factors that should be considered in choosing a toy. Assuming that selected toys have been carefully made out of safe materials, the most important thing a consumer should do is consider the age and developmental stage of a child. Even when a child is very intellectually advanced, the age and developmental level of the child must be considered. When toys have labels indicating that they are not appropriated for children under three, they have not been safety tested for infants and toddlers.

Genreally the concern is the size of the toy pieces and the risk or potential for choking” (CapitalKids. com 2012). References: Berger, K. (2012). The developing person through childhood. (6th ed. ). New York: Worth Publishers http://www. babycentre. co. uk/baby/health/cotdeath/? oo=0 http://www. livestrong. com/article/92641-factors-affecting-fetus-development/ http://www. healthychild. ucla. edu/Publications/Documents/ParentEd. pdf http://www. capitolkids. com/toy_safety. html