Sem. 1 Soc Final

versthen
empathetic understanding of the meanings other attach to their actions
function
positive consequence an element of society has for the maintenance of the social system
theory
systematic explanation of the relationship among phenomena
symbol
anything that has something attached to it
culture
shared products of human groups. beliefs, and values
Material Culture
physical objects created by human groups
non-material culture
abstract human creations such as language, ideas, beliefs, rules, skills and family patterns
ethnocentrism
tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups
values
shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable
cultural universals
common features that are found in all human cultures
subculture
group with its own unique values norms, and behaviors that exists within a larger culture
counterculture
group that rejects the values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural patterns
society
group of mutually interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culture and have a feeling of unity
norms
shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations
technology
knowledge and tools people use for practical purposes
urbanization
concentration of the popularization in cities
exchange
individual, group, or societal interaction undertaken in an effort to receive a reward in return for actions
accommodation
state of balance between cooperation and conflict
reciprocity
idea that if you do something for someone they you something in return
achieved status
status acquired by special skill, knowledge, or ability
ascribed status
status assigned according to standards that are beyond a persons control
Division of labor
specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities
personality
sum of the total behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristic of individual
instinct
unchanging, biologically inherited behavior pattern
heredity
transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children
feral children
wild or untamed children
socialization and agents of socialization
interactive process through which individuals learn the basic skills, values, beliefs, and behavior patterns of society
dating
a social behavior that allows individuals to choose their own marriage partners
adolescence
period between the normal onset of puberty and the beginning of childhood
social integration
degree of attachments people have to social groups or to society
homogamy
tendency for individuals to marry people who have social characteristics similar to their own
puberty
physical maturing that makes an individual capable of sexual reproduction
std
sexually transmitted disease
drugs
any substance that changes mood, behavior, or consciousness
deviance
behavior that violates significant social norms
stigma
mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society
degradation ceremony
the process of labeling an individual as deviant
social class
grouping of people with similar levels of wealth, power, and prestige
social inequality
unequal sharing of social rewards and resources
life chances
likelihood individuals have of sharing int he opportunities and benefits of society
minority group
category of people who share physical characteristics or cultural practices that result in the group being denied equal treatment
genocide
extermination aimed at intentionally destroying an entire targeted population
discrimination
denial of equal treatment to individuals based on their group membership
stereotypes
oversimplified, exaggerated, or unfavorable generalization about a category of people
segregation
physical separation of a minority group from the dominant group
racial profiling
the practice of assuming nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit crimes than white Americans