Section 3 Flashcards

How did improved transportation technologies lead to an increased volume of trade?
Improved transportation technologies led to an increased volume of trade by making it easier to travel on animals, and harnesses allowed for the carrying of more items across longer distances like the Silk Road and the Trans Saharan. This allowed for the transport of more items, considering that more items could be carried on the animal, and in the wagons along with them.
How did improved transportation technologies expand the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks?
Transportation technologies expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks by allowing for further travel in less time. Animals allowed for faster travel along roads such as the silk road, and because of the saddles and such that the travelers sat on, they were able to travel in moderate comfort. This allowed for a greater range of trade. In conclusion, transportation technologies expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks because of the speed of animals, and the comfort of saddles.
How did improved commercial practices lead to an increased volume of trade?
Improved commercial practices and technologies (the compass, astrolabe, bills of exchange, etc) allowed for an increased volume of trade by making it easier to navigate, making it easier to trade because each thing had a monetary value, and therefore allowed for more trading ships to be used, and for more people to want to trade. In conclusion, improved commercial practices lead to an increased volume of trade by making it easier to navigate, and making it easier to trade.
How did improved commercial practices expand the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks?
Improved commercial practices expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks by allowing things like credit, so that more people could get more items, and people could use the money promised to them to travel, trade, etc. Because of this, the range of the trading expanded. In conclusion, improved commercial practices expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks by allowing things like credit, which allowed more flexibility in trading, allowing more ground to be covered.
How did the Silk Roads promote the growth of powerful trading cities in this time period?
The Silk Roads promoted growth of powerful trading cities from 600 C.E. – 1450 C.E. by allowing for the trade of valuable items in the city. Because of the trade in the city, credit, checks, and forms of money were created. Because of this, more people could survive in a trading city, and more people could thrive. In conclusion, the Silk Roads promoted the growth of powerful trading cities in the time period because they allowed trade to happen in the city, allowing cash to flow in and out of the city.
How did Mediterranean trade routes promote the growth of powerful trading cities in this time period?
Mediterranean trade routes promoted the growth of powerful trading cities in this time period by allowing wealth to flow in and out of cities, making them more powerful. The relationship was reliant on one to grow the other (i.e.- you had to have trade in order for cities to grow and you have to be growing constantly in order to have lots of trade) and because of this, both the trade and the cities grew. In conclusion, Mediterranean trade routes promoted the growth of powerful trading cities in this time period by allowing wealth to flow in and out of cities, making them more powerful.
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How did Trans-Saharan trade routes promote the growth of powerful trading cities in this time period?
Trans-Saharan trade routes promoted the growth of powerful trading cities in the time period because they traded valuable items like slaves, gold, and salt, which increased the net worth of the cities and allowed for economic growth that way. Because of the trading, the Trans-Saharan cities could grow.
How did Indian Ocean trade routes promote the growth of powerful trading cities in this time period?
Indian ocean trade routes allowed for the growth of powerful trading cities in this time period by allowing for new ideas and products to come through the cities, allowing things to grow. The economic factor grew because there was the trade of gold, porcelain, and other luxury goods. The factor of ideology and religion grew because there were plenty of new ideas flowing in and out of the cities. In conclusion, the Indian ocean trade routes allowed for the growth of powerful trading cities by allowing for new ideas and products to come through the cities.
How did Novgorod come to be a powerful trading city?
Novgorod was founded as a trading post. Novgorod was the largest Russian town on the Gulf of Finland, beyond the ports of Narva and Tallinn. It never fully joined the Hanseatic League, but in 1259, the League established a Novgorod, a trading post, which enjoyed most of the Baltic trade for Russian goods for at least a century and eliminated the need for ships to sail the dangerous northern route around Scandinavia.
How did Timbuktu come to be a powerful trading city?
Timbuktu (in central Mali) was one of the most important cities on the edge of the Sahara. After Muslim scholars brought the religion of Islam to the region, around 900, it became a great center of Muslim learning, with schools, a university, and a special market where valuable, handwritten books were sold. This allowed for trading to soar.
How did the Banana Swahili city-states come to be powerful trading cities?
The east coast of Africa faces the Indian Ocean. Throughout the centuries, the ocean has connected Africa with Arabia, Persia, India, and even China. As early as 100 AD, the Romans had heard of African ports far south of Egypt. Sailors learned that they could use the seasonal winds known as monsoons to sail back and forth across the ocean. Arab traders could pick up Chinese porcelain, cloves from Java, cinnamon from Ceylon, cotton and pepper from India, coffee from Arabia, then travel southwest along the African coast. As they went, they stopped at a series of port cities and traded their goods for African gold, ivory, pearls, and slaves. They sailed back northeast when the monsoon wind changed.
How did Hangzhou come to be a powerful trading city?
Arab merchants lived in Hangzhou during the Song dynasty, due to the fact that the ocean going trade passages took precedence over land trade during the time. Hangzhou was the new capital of the Southern Song Dynasty. It was a center of trade and entertainment.
How did Calicut come to be a powerful trading city?
The city of Kozhikode was founded on a marshy tract along the Arabian coast in 1042 AD. Following the collapse of the powerful Chera Kingdom, several of its chieftains proclaimed independence. One of the more powerful of these chieftains was the Eradis of Nediyirippu. The city was established by the Eradis after a prolonged battle with the Porlathiris of Polanad. Access to the sea helped the Eradi chief, who was by now called the Saamoothiri (Zamorin), develop the city into one of the major trading centres of the Eastern world abounding in a wide variety of goods like pepper, textiles, lac, ginger, cinnamon, myrobalans, and zedoary. Vessels of various sizes from around the world, like the junk, arrived on the shores of Calicut. About two centuries later, a Portuguese naval fleet arrived in Calicut in May 1498 led by Vasco da Gama, initiating a new chapter in the European interactions with this region. The Portuguese failed to secure any valuable treaty with the Zamorin and came into direct conflict with the Arab merchants and the Zamorin himself. A Dutch fleet led by Steven van der Hagen arrived in Calicut in November 1604 and marked the beginning of the Dutch presence on the Indian coast. The Dutch had a more favourable relation with the Calicut and were provided greater participation in the ongoing trade. The British reached Calicut in 1615, led by Captain William Keeling.
How did Baghdad come to be a powerful trading city?
Baghdad is sited on the Tigris River at the point where Tigris and the Euphrates are closest. Although the city that became the capital of the caliphate, the far-flung Muslim empire, was founded only in 762 AD, there had been a town at that location for thousands of years. The site was a place of power being in a fertile region at the juncture of the east-west land trade routes and the north-south river trade routes of the Tigris and the Euphrates. The city was founded by the caliph Abu Ja’far al-Mansur and given the name Madinat al-Salam (City of Peace) but the old name of Baghdad (Persian for Gift of God) survived. What al-Mansur was founding was not a metropolis. Instead he intended only to create a site for his palace, barracks for his elite soldiers and administrative offices for his empire. He laid out a circular enclosure on the west bank of the Tigris. The city subsequently spread to the east bank. As befitted the capital of an Islam-based empire there was a magnificent mosque located at the center of the circular enclosure. The growth of Baghdad economy was fueled by the demand generated by the caliphate. First there was the demand for goods and services involved in building the structures; the oppulent palace called the Golden Gate, the mosque, the barracks and the administrative offices. Then there was the market for supplying the food, clothing and luxuries the caliphate demanded and could afford. And meanwhile Baghdad grew as a result of the trade that was passing through. The caravans and the ships needed a safe resting place for their journeys and Baghdad provided that. Often cities grow up where the trade cargoes have to be transfered from one mode of transportation to another. Being at the juncture of the land and water trade routes Baghdad served that function.
How did Melaka come to be a powerful trading city?
From the earliest of times during the dawn of Melaka as a important trade center, traders and travelers were attracted by the city’s unique blend of different culture derived from a cosmopolitan society and the beauty of its land. The most important factor in Melaka’s history has been it’s geographical location. The Malay Peninsula separates the Indian Ocean from the South China Sea. In ancient times, the peninsula was a convenient landing point for Indian and Chinese traders. The north east monsoon (wind & rainy season) which lasts from December to March, brought sailing ships from India to the Malay Peninsula. They then waited for the southwest monsoon, which last from June to October, to continue their voyages to China and vice-versa. In terms of trade, the city of Melaka was certainly the centre of commerce in Southeast Asia – the largest marketplace in the world for goods from India and the West, China and the Spice islands.
How did Venice come to be a powerful trading city?
Venice became well known throughout the world for its flourishing trade centers and textile industry, which connected the Western world with the East. Their location gave them an advantage over other Italian cities to connect with other trading ports from across the world. As one Venetian patrician claimed, “For a certain novelty of placement and opportune position, it was by itself the only form in all the universe so miraculously disposed.” Even before the Renaissance, Venice had already been trading with the Islamic world as early as the ninth century, and continued to in the sixteenth century. During the 1200s, trade between Egypt, Syria, Southeast Asia, Iran and China was present, especially with their trade of spices, grain, wine, and salt. The spice trade with the east was the reason for Venice’s expansion of their high quality textile manufacturing. The high quality woolen textiles, for example, that were put on the market were in exchange for supply of spices from the east. Venice’s ability to find excellent labor, raw materials, and capital contributed to their success in trading desirable woolen textiles in exchange for eastern goods. The city’s “textile trade was the single most important achievement of the Italian city state economy” during the 14th century.
How did Tenochtitlan come to be a powerful trading city?
Tenochtitlan was a Nahua altepetl (city-state) located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. Founded in 1325, it became the capital of the abounding Aztec Empire in the 15th century, until captured by the Spanish in 1521. On the positive side, the empire promoted commerce and trade, and exotic goods from obsidian to bronze managed to reach the houses of both commoners and nobles. Trade partners included the enemy Tarascan, a source of bronze tools and jewelry. On the negative side, imperial tribute imposed a burden on commoner households, who had to increase their work to pay their share of tribute.
How did Cahokia come to be a powerful trading city?
Cahokia was the most important center for the peoples known today as Mississippians. Their settlements ranged across what is now the Midwest, Eastern, and Southeastern United States. Cahokia was located in a strategic position near the confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois rivers. It maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south, trading in such exotic items as copper, Mill Creekchert, and whelk shells. Mississippian culture pottery and stone tools in the Cahokian style were found at the Silvernale site near Red Wing, Minnesota, and materials and trade goods from Pennsylvania, the Gulf Coast and Lake Superior have been excavated at Cahokia. At the high point of its development, Cahokia was the largest urban center north of the great Mesoamerican cities in Mexico. Although it was home to only about 1,000 people before c. 1050, its population grew explosively after that date. Archaeologists estimate the city’s population at between 6,000 and 40,000 at its peak, with more people living in outlying farming villages that supplied the main urban center.
Describe the development of new trade routes in Mesoamerica and the Andes in this time period.
Trade in Maya civilization was a crucial factor in maintaining Maya cities. The economy was fairly loose, and based mostly on food like squash, potatoes, corn, beans, and sometimes chocolate drinks made of ground cocoa beans and water. They also traded almost any other basic necessities such as salt and stone because there was a large need for trade in order to bring such basic goods together. The types of trade varied greatly, from long-distance trading spanning the length of the region, to small trading between farm families. However, not only the central cities in the empire grew. Because of the increased amount of traffic through the smaller cities along trade routes, these once isolated cities grew too, creating a fairly consistent amount of growth throughout the Post-Classic period.
How did interregional trade in silk and cotton textiles grow in this time period?
Various woolen goods, carpets, curtains, blankets and rugs, came to China from Central Asia and East Mediterranean. They made huge impression upon Chinese who were unfamiliar with methods wool and flax processing, carpet manufacture and weaving. Highly appreciated in Ancient China were Parthian tapestries and carpets. Central Asia exported camels which were very appreciated in China, military equipment, gold and silver, semi-precious stones and glass items. Samarkand made glass was especially valued due to its high quality. It was considered as luxury goods. Other goods were skins, wool, cotton fabrics, gold embroidery, exotic fruits – water-melons, melons and peaches; fat-tailed sheep and hunting dogs, leopards and lions. From China caravans carried the well-known Chinese china – snow-white vases, bowls, glasses, and dishes with graceful patterns. Only Chinese owned the secret of making the thinnest and resonant porcelain, therefore, it was very expensive in European markets. Bronze ornaments and other products from this metal, ornate bronze mirrors, umbrellas, products from the well-known Chinese varnish, medicines, and perfumery were also popular. Chinese paper, one of the most remarkable inventions of Chinese technical genius, was highly appreciated too. Gold, skins and many other things were exported as well. Merchants also carried tea and rice, woolen and flax fabrics, corals, amber and asbestos. The sacks of merchants were filled with ivory, rhino horns, turtle shells, spices, ceramic and iron items, glaze and cinnamon, ginger, bronze weapons and mirrors.
How did interregional trade in ta mère porcelain grow in this time period?
Chinese export porcelain concerns a wide range of porcelain that was made and decorated in China exclusively for export to Europe and later to North America between the 16th and the 20th century. Wares from the 16th century include Kraak porcelain, Yixing stonewares , Blanc-de-Chine, Blue and white porcelain, Famille verte, noire, jaune and rose, Chinese Imari, Armorial wares and Canton porcelain. Chinese export porcelain is generally decorative, but without the symbolic significance of wares produced for the home market. With the exception of the rare Huashi soft paste wares, Chinese porcelain is hard paste made using china clay and Chinese porcelain stone, baidunzi. While rim chips and hairline cracks are common, pieces tend not to stain. Chinese wares are usually thinner than Japanese and do not have the Japanese stilt marks. The main export of China was porcelain.
How did interregional trade in spices grow in this time period?
Civilizations of Asia were involved in spice trade from the ancient times, and the Greco-Roman world soon followed by trading along the Incense route and the Roman-India routes. The Roman-Indian routes were dependent upon techniques developed by the maritime trading power, Kingdom of Axum (ca 5th century BC-AD 11th century) which had pioneered the Red Sea route before the 1st century. By mid-7th century the rise of Islam closed off the overlandcaravan routes through Egypt and the Suez, and sundered the European trade community from Axum and India. Arab traders eventually took over conveying goods via the Levant and Venetian merchants to Europe until the rise of the Ottoman Turks cut the route again by 1453. Overland routes helped the spice trade initially, but maritime trade routes led to tremendous growth in commercial activities.
How did interregional trade in precious metals and gems grow in this time period?
A gemstone or gem is a piece of mineral, which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments. However certain rocks, (such as lapis lazuli) and organic materials (such as amber or jet) are not minerals, but are still used for jewelry, and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well. Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their lustre or other physical properties that have aesthetic value. Rarity is another characteristic that lends value to a gemstone. Apart from jewelry, from earliest antiquity until the 19th century engraved gems and hardstone carvings such as cups were major luxury art forms; the carvings of Carl Fabergé were the last significant works in this tradition. People loved to trade for gems and metals because it was a high luxury item to have jewelry. These people wanted it to show there high status.
How did interregional trade in slaves grow in this time period?
The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the trans-Atlantic slave trade, refers to the trade in slaves that took place across the Atlantic ocean. The vast majority of slaves involved in the Atlantic trade were Africans from the central and western parts of the continent, who were sold by African slave dealers to European traders, who transported them to the colonies in North and South America. There, the slaves were made to labor on coffee, cocoa, cotton and sugar plantations, in gold and silver mines, in rice fields, the construction industry, timber, and shipping or in houses to work as servants. It was easy for people to rely on slaves to do manual labor to maximize their profits, also slaves were cheap and replaceable.
How did interregional trade in exotic animals grow in this time period?
Any unique or wild-looking pet (including common domestic animals such as the ferret and the domestic rat) is called an exotic pet. “Exotic” may also be used for a species which is non-indigenous to the owner’s locale. Many people more or less funded the exotic animal trade because they were looking for larger and strange pets. These people could show off their cool new pets to all their friends. These animals were mostly traded for as a piece to show off.
How did the caravanserai help foster the growth of interregional trade?
A caravanserai, or khan, was a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day’s journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa, and South-Eastern Europe, especially along the Silk Road. These were found frequently along the Persian Empire’s Royal Road, a 2500 km long ancient highway that stretched from Sardis to Susa according to Herodotus: “Now the true account of the road in question is the following:- Royal stations exist along its whole length, and excellent caravansaries; and throughout, it traverses an inhabited tract, and is free from danger.”
How did camel saddles help foster the growth of interregional trade?
The camel saddles helped to foster interregional trade because they are used on a mammal that does not need a lot of water. All the camel saddles allowed a rider to go for a long time before resting. The saddles had bags that hung over the sides of the animals that could carry a descent amount of good making trade far faster and easier. The saddles were a major innovation that greatly increased the land trading process.
How did the compass help foster the growth of interregional trade?
A compass is a navigational instrument that shows directions in a frame of reference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) – north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions, is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the “N” mark on the rose really points to the north. Frequently, in addition to the rose or sometimes instead of it, angle markings in degrees are shown on the compass. North corresponds to zero degrees, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90 degrees, south is 180, and west is 270. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings, which are commonly stated in this notation. Another crucial navigational tool.
How did astrolabe help foster the growth of interregional trade?
An astrolabe is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers, navigators, and astrologers. Its many uses include locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars, determining local time given local latitude and vice-versa, surveying, triangulation, and to cast horoscopes. It was used in classical antiquity, through the Islamic Golden Age, the European Middle Ages and Renaissance for all these purposes. In the Islamic world, it was also used to calculate the Qibla and to find the times for Salah, prayers. There is often confusion between the astrolabe and the mariner’s astrolabe. While the astrolabe could be useful for determining latitude on land, it was an awkward instrument for use on the heaving deck of a ship or in wind. The mariner’s astrolabe was developed to address these issues. The astrolabe was crucial for interregional trade because it was a navigation tool to keep captains and their ships on track to their destination.
How did larger ship designs help foster the growth of interregional trade?
Larger ship designs allowed for more products to be traded across regions, and therefore allowed for the growth of trade. The larger ship design, such as viking long boats, also allowed for the transport of people to be more efficient, timely, and much less costly. Larger boats aided the growth of interregional trade for many reasons. Having large boats allowed groups of merchants to travel further than they ever could before. Also the larger ships could carry far more goods than its smaller cousins. As well as the larger ships could carry more people for militaristic purposes or for colonizing. These larger ships were also well armed so that they could fend off attacks from pirates. Overall the larger ships were better than the smaller ships.
How did bills of exchange help foster the growth of interregional trade?
Bills of exchange (aka currency) fostered the growth of interregional trade by allowing for the process of trade to become easier. They allowed traders to not carry as much heavy material such as gold on them, and allowed them to count and trade faster, without weighing the materials.
How did credit help foster the growth of interregional trade?
Credit helped foster the growth of interregional trade by allowing for people to not carry any currency, and allowed for a “buy now, sell later” attitude. This allowed for people to continue to get things that they need for their societies, but not pay if they are having trouble with their money at the moment. It also helps the people giving the credit because they earn interest on the things that they lend from, and therefore make more of a profit.
How did checks help foster the growth of interregional trade?
Checks helped foster the growth of interregional trade because it made it easier to keep money on you without actually keeping money. It allowed for “credit” when someone didn’t know you well enough to give you credit, but they still had your word, written, so that they could get their money.
How did banking houses help foster the growth of interregional trade?
The first banks were the merchants of the ancient world that made loans to farmers and traders that carried goods between cities. The first records of such activity dates back to around 2000 BC in Assyria and Babylonia. Later in ancient Greece and during the Roman Empire lenders based in temples would make loans but also added two important innovations: accepting deposits and changing money. During this period there is similar evidence of the independent development of lending of money in ancient China and separately in ancient India. These houses allowed for the development of trade because it allowed for loans to be paid and for trade to be conducted more quickly.
How did the Grand Canal in China help foster commercial growth?
Although the Tang Dynasty (618-907) capital at Chang’an was the most thriving metropolis of China in its day, it was the city of Yangzhou—in close proximity to the Grand Canal—that was the economic hub of the Tang era. Besides being the headquarters for the government salt monopoly and the largest pre-modern industrial production center of the empire, Yangzhou was also the geographical midpoint along the north-south trade axis, and so became the major center for southern goods shipped north. One of the greatest benefits of the canal system in the Tang Dynasty—and subsequent dynasties—was that it reduced the cost of shipping grain that had been collected in taxes from the Yangtze River Delta to northern China. Minor additions to the canal were made after the Sui period to cut down on travel time, but overall no fundamental differences existed between the Sui Grand Canal and the Tang Grand Canal. This allowed for growth because towns sprang up along the canal, and this allowed for trade between those places.
How did the minting of coins help foster commercial growth?
The minting of coins helped foster commercial growth because it was easy to carry money with you so you could impulse buy. You could go to a market without a plan and still end up with something, and all you had to trade for was these coins.
How did the use of paper money help foster commercial growth?
Paper money fostered commercial growth by allowing for the process of trade to become easier. They allowed traders to not carry as much heavy material such as gold on them, and allowed them to count and trade faster, without weighing the materials.
How did the Hanseatic League help foster commercial growth?
The Haseatic leauge helped foster commercial growth by allowing merchants to all come together and be one unit. This allowed for group trade overseas, which allowed for much more imports than one could imagine. This leauge, formed in the 1200s, was very helpful for fostering trade and commercial growth.
How did Chinese empires draw new peoples into their economies and trade networks?
The Chinese empire drew new people into their economies and trade networks by use of state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures. State practices allow paper money to be distributed and coins minted allowing people to have less of a load and keep better track of it all. In doing so, it makes the government more attractive to the new people’s personal needs. Trading organizations allowed protection of commercial interests and privileges and mutual aid. When one belonged to and organization, they were protected and it was very appealing to a merchant. State-sponsored commercial centers fueled economies and trade networks because it allowed better and easier transportation, places to trade, and easier access to things. In creating a Commercial center, an Empire attracts more people because it is easier and more efficient. Due to state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial centers, the trade networks and economies of the Chinese empires drew more people into it.
How did Chinese empires facilitate Trans-Eurasian trade and communication?
The Chinese empires facilitated Trans-Eurasian trade and communication by using trade-organizations, new forms of credit and diasporic communities. Trade organizations were spread out over many empires. This allowed many people to become a part of it and communication between many parts of the known world. New forms of credit allowed people from one empire trade with another using paper money. This allowed trade to become easier and simpler between the two countries and in allowing this, communication between the two empire increased. Also, diasporic communities allowed and increase in trade and communication because it allowed a group of people from one culture settle in another. Diasporic communities brought in goods and allowed the diffusion of languages, increasing communication between two cultures. In conclusion, by using trade organizations, new forms of credit, and diasporic communities, the Chinese empires were able to increase Trans-Eurasian trade and communication.
How did the Byzantine Empire draw new peoples into its economy and trade network?
The Byzantine Empire drew new peoples into its economy and trade networks by use of state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures. State practices allow paper money to be distributed and coins minted allowing people to have less of a load and keep better track of it all. In doing so, it makes the government more attractive to the new people’s personal needs. Trading organizations allowed protection of commercial interests and privileges and mutual aid. When one belonged to and organization, they were protected and it was very appealing to a merchant. State-sponsored commercial centers fueled economies and trade networks because it allowed better and easier transportation, places to trade, and easier access to things. In creating a Commercial center, an Empire attracts more people because it is easier and more efficient. Due to state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial centers, the trade networks and economies of the Byzantine Empire drew more people into it.
How did the Byzantine Empire facilitate Trans-Eurasian trade and communication?
The Byzantine Empire facilitated their Trans-Eurasian trade and communication by using trade-organizations, new forms of credit and diasporic communities. Trade organizations were spread out over many empires. This allowed many people to become a part of it and communication between many parts of the known world. New forms of credit allowed people from one empire trade with another using paper money. This allowed trade to become easier and simpler between the two countries and in allowing this, communication between the two empire increased. Also, diasporic communities allowed and increase in trade and communication because it allowed a group of people from one culture settle in another. Diasporic communities brought in goods and allowed the diffusion of languages, increasing communication between two cultures. In conclusion, by using trade organizations, new forms of credit, and diasporic communities, the Byzantine were able to increase Trans-Eurasian trade and communication.
How did the Islamic caliphates draw new peoples into their economies and trade networks?
The Islamic caliphate drew people into their economies and trade networks by use of state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures. State practices allow paper money to be distributed and coins minted allowing people to have less of a load and keep better track of it all. In doing so, it makes the government more attractive to the new people’s personal needs. Trading organizations allowed protection of commercial interests and privileges and mutual aid. When one belonged to and organization, they were protected and it was very appealing to a merchant. State-sponsored commercial centers fueled economies and trade networks because it allowed better and easier transportation, places to trade, and easier access to things. In creating a Commercial center, an Empire attracts more people because it is easier and more efficient. Due to state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial centers, the trade networks and economies of the Islamic caliphates drew more people into it.
How did the Islamic caliphates facilitate Trans-Eurasian trade and communication?
The Islamic caliphates facilitated Trans-Eurasian trade and communication by using trade-organizations, new forms of credit and diasporic communities. Trade organizations were spread out over many empires. This allowed many people to become a part of it and communication between many parts of the known world. New forms of credit allowed people from one empire trade with another using paper money. This allowed trade to become easier and simpler between the two countries and in allowing this, communication between the two empire increased. Also, diasporic communities allowed and increase in trade and communication because it allowed a group of people from one culture settle in another. Diasporic communities brought in goods and allowed the diffusion of languages, increasing communication between two cultures. In conclusion, by using trade organizations, new forms of credit, and diasporic communities, the Islamic caliphates were able to increase Trans-Eurasian trade and communication.
How did the Mongols draw new peoples into their economy and trade networks?
The Mongols drew new peoples into their economy and trade networks by use of state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures. State practices allow paper money to be distributed and coins minted allowing people to have less of a load and keep better track of it all. In doing so, it makes the government more attractive to the new people’s personal needs. Trading organizations allowed protection of commercial interests and privileges and mutual aid. When one belonged to and organization, they were protected and it was very appealing to a merchant. State-sponsored commercial centers fueled economies and trade networks because it allowed better and easier transportation, places to trade, and easier access to things. In creating a Commercial center, an Empire attracts more people because it is easier and more efficient. Due to state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial centers, the trade networks and economies of the Mongols drew more people into it.
How did the Mongols facilitate Trans-Eurasian trade and communication?
The Mongols facilitated Trans-Eurasian trade and communication by using trade-organizations, new forms of credit and diasporic communities. Trade organizations were spread out over many empires. This allowed many people to become a part of it and communication between many parts of the known world. New forms of credit allowed people from one empire trade with another using paper money. This allowed trade to become easier and simpler between the two countries and in allowing this, communication between the two empire increased. Also, diasporic communities allowed and increase in trade and communication because it allowed a group of people from one culture settle in another. Diasporic communities brought in goods and allowed the diffusion of languages, increasing communication between two cultures. In conclusion, by using trade organizations, new forms of credit, and diasporic communities, the Mongols were able to increase Trans-Eurasian trade and communication.
What environmental effects did the movement of peoples have during this time period?
Due to the nomadic tendencies of many cultures, the environment was affected through the spread of agricultural technology and the spread of domesticated animals. The Bantus spread their farming techniques. This increased the production of crops in other areas during that time period. Polynesian peoples also spread the use of domesticated animals when they spread out through the islands. The Island now had to provide for the people and the animals. In conclusion, the environment was affected by the spread of technology and the spread of domesticated animals.
What linguistic effects did the movement of peoples have during this time period?
Due to the diffusion of culture through international trade and nomadic tendencies, the diffusion of language occured. When dealing with cultures close together, they have to communicate. So when trading or roaming, their language was spread and they also recieved languages on thier travels. In the end, through the necessity of communication, people learned other peoples languages, diffusion the language to use several different languages.
How were Viking longships a technological adaptation to environmental concerns?
Viking longships were an adaption to the environmental concerns because it was able to fair the high seas and travel on rivers. Before the longships, boat were either confined to the seas or to the river, but the viking longship’s build allowed it to endure both terrains. In conclusion, the development of the longship aided the vikings with environmental concerns by allowing them to travel on river and sea.
How were Arab or Berber camels a technological adaptation to environmental concerns?
Berber Camels allowed Arabs to travel over vast distances, carry more, and ride places that were far away. The Berber camel could carry a heavy load for a longer distance than other animals. And with a saddle, it could carry people. This aided them because traders a simpler and more efficient way to trade over large distances. In conclusion, with the berber camel, traders were able to travel long distances, carry more, and ride on their camels.
How were Central Asian steppe horses a technological adaptation to environmental concerns?
The Central Asain steppe horses were used to travel over the harsh terrain of the steppes. It bacame increasingly difficult to travel and transport things over the rough terrain of the steppes, so they used horses. That’s how it goes.
What impact did the migration of the Bantus and their iron technologies and agricultural techniques have on the environment?
Migration of the Bantus and their iron technologies and agricultural techniques increased farm production. The use of these new technologies by other peoples increased farm production from the land, allowing the land to feed more people. In conclusion, the land was able to provide more to the people due to the increase in technology that the Bantus provided.
What impact did the maritime migration of the Polynesians and their transplanted food and domestic animals have on the environment?
The transport of domesticated animals and crops into the Polynesian islands impacted the environment by molding it to support them. The Polynesian peoples needed the island to provide the food they needed through the crops it produced and the food for their domesticated animals. They molded it and caused it to produce such needs. In conclusion, the impact the Polynesians had on the environment was that they changed the environment to suit their needs.
What caused the spread of Bantu languages like Swahili?
The spread of the Bantu languages like Swahili was due to their migration and transmission of technology. The Bantu were nomadic peoples. Due to this, they would meet several different peoples and learn about them and their languages, allowing a diffusion of culture to occur. Through the transmission of their technology, their practices and language would travel and they would become more well known. In other words, their language would spread. In conclusion, the spread of the Bantu languages was due to their nomadic tendencies and the transmission of technology.
What caused the spread of Turkic languages?
The spread of the Turkic languages was due to diffusion of culture through conquest, trade and commercial contacts. Through conquest, the Ottomans could successfully spread their language by introducing it to conquered peoples. Conquered peoples would be forced to know the language and would be forced to only use their language. Secondly, trade aided the spread of Turkish by allowing goods to be traded. The process of this exchange also allowed the transfer of language through written texts and by verbal means. Thirdly, commercial contacts also led to the diffusion of culture due to the amount of cultural interaction involved. Commercial contacts allowed people of one area to have partnerships with a people or business across the map, allowing their language to be exchanged. In conclusion, due to migration, trade and commercial contacts, the diffusion of the Turkish language was spread.
What caused the spread of Arabic languages?
The spread of the Arabic languages was due to the diffusion of culture through migration, trade and commercial contacts. Through migration, language was used by nomads traveling from place to place. In doing so, it allows their language to spread from one area to the next. Secondly, trade aided the spread of the Arabic Languages by allowing goods to be traded. The process of this exchange also allowed the transfer of language through written texts and by verbal means. Thirdly, commercial contacts also led to the diffusion of culture due to the amount of cultural interaction involved. Commercial contacts allowed people of one area to have partnerships with a people or business across the map, allowing their language to be exchanged. In conclusion, due to migration, trade and commercial contacts, the diffusion of the Arabic language commenced!
How did networks of trade and communication foster cross-cultural exchanges?
The networks of trade fostered communication and cross-cultural exchanges by allowing the diffusion of culture, diasporic communities, and the exchange of products. Diffusion of culture was evident because these traders were meeting new people and exchanging words with them. They would learn about them and be exposed to more than just their way of life. Diasporic communities allowed people to settle in another area and communicate with the local population. They were definatly exposed to new cultures. The exchange of products fostered cross-cultural exchanges because their product could be a statuette or figurine with some relativity to something relating to one culture’s religion or culture. This allowed people from far away to learn about cultures across the globe. In conclusion, due to exchanging products, diasporic communities, and diffusion of culture, cross-cultural exchanges were made.
Where did Islam start? What are the fundamental beliefs of Islam?
Islam started in Mecca (the Arabian peninsula), and the fundamental beliefs of Islam include the five pillars. The first pillar is to have complete faith in the on true God and that his prophet is Muhammad. The second one is you must pray five times a day facing the holy city of mecca. The third one is paying the zakah (the toll thing for the needy). The fourth is self purification by fasting. The final and fifth one is the pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca.
How are the beliefs and practices of Islam related to the interactions of Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians with local Arabian peoples?
Like Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, Islamic people spread their beliefs through conquest, missionaries and merchants. The Islamic Empire used conquest to spread their beliefs. The Christians and the Jews both had instances where they too used conquest to spread their religion. Like Christianity, Jews, and the Zoroastrians, Islam used missionaries to travel and convey their religion. By sending these people out, they could spread their religion even further. Also, merchants were used indirectly. They would travel out and talk about the religion, recruiting peoples. In conclusion, many of the ways the Islamic people went about recruiting people is similar to the Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians.
Where and how did Muslim rule spread?
Muslim beliefs spread through conquest, trade, and by appealing to people and spread up through Persia and North Africa. When the Muslim empire was created, it set out to conquer people. By conquering these people, they converted to Islam. Through trade, Muslims were able to spread their religion. Thet could expose new people to their culture and many people found it appealing. By appealing to the poeple, Islam gained many followers. It aided the poor, protected slaves, and provided many other benifits to the people if they converted. The spred of Islam to Persia and North Africa was heavily due to their conquests, through trade, and by appealing to the peoples.
How did Muslim merchants in the Indian Ocean region introduce their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture?
Muslim merchants introduced their own cultural traditions into the population by setting up Musilm merchant communities around the Indian Ocean. This allowed them to still be among their brethren, but also expose the community to their religion and traditions. In conclusion, the Muslim merchants introduced their own cultural traditions into the culture by setting up Muslim merchant communities.
How did Chinese merchants in Southeast Asia introduce their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture?
Chinese merchants in Southeast Asia introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture by setting up Chinese merchant communities. This allowed them to still be among their brethren, but also expose the community to their religion and traditions. In conclusion, the Chinese merchants introduced their own cultural traditions into the culture by setting up Chinese merchant communities.
How did Sogdian merchants in Central Asia introduce their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture?
The Sogdian merchants in Central Asia introduced their own traditions into the indigenous culture by setting up Sigdian merchant communities. This allowed them to still be among their brethren, but also expose the community to their religion and traditions. In conclusion, the Sogdian merchants introduced their own cultural traditions into the culture by setting up Sodgian merchant communities.
How did Jewish merchants in the Mediterranean region introduce their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture?
The Jewish merchants in the Mediterranean. introduced their own traditions into the indigenous culture by setting up Jewish merchant communities. This allowed them to still be among their brethren, but also expose the community to their religion and traditions. In conclusion, the Jewish merchants introduced their own cultural traditions into the culture by setting up Jewish merchant communities.
How did Jewish merchants in the Indian Ocean region introduce their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture?
The Jewish merchants in the Indian Ocean introduced their own traditions into the indigenous culture by setting up Jewish merchant communities. This allowed them to still be among their brethren, but also expose the community to their religion and traditions. In conclusion, the Jewish merchants introduced their own cultural traditions into the culture by setting up Jewish merchant communities.
How did Jewish merchants in the Silk Road region introduce their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture?
The Jewish merchants in Silk road region introduced their own traditions into the indigenous culture by setting up Jewish merchant communities. This allowed them to still be among their brethren, but also expose the community to their religion and traditions. In conclusion, the Jewish merchants introduced their own cultural traditions into the culture by setting up Jewish merchant communities.
How do Ibn Battuta’s writings reflect the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding?
Ibn Battuta’s writings reflected the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding by relaying ideas that he came upon on his journey around the world. He relayed that the world is extremely diverse and things are different other places.
How do Marco Polo’s writings reflect the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding?
Marco Polo’s writings reflected the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding by relaying ideas that he came upon on his journey around the world. He relayed that the world is extremely diverse and things are different other places.
How do Xuanzang’s writings reflect the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding?
Xuanzang’s writings reflected the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding by relaying ideas that he came upon on his journey around the world. He relayed that the world is extremely diverse and things are different other places.
How did the interaction of Neoconfucianism and Buddhism in East Asia lead to the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions?
The interaction of Neoconfusianism and Buddhism in East Asia lead to the diffusion of culture because it allowed people to exchange ideas and have one common purpose. When they have one common goal or purpose, they seem to be accepting and become one, allowing their art and literary techniques to converge. This cross-cultural exchange leads to the diffusion of the literary, artistic and cultural traditions.
How did the interaction of Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia lead to the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions?
The interaction of Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia lead to the diffusion of literary, artistic and cultural traditions because it allowed people to exchange ideas and have one common purpose. When they have one common goal or purpose, they seem to be accepting and become one, allowing their art and literary techniques to converge. This cross-cultural exchange leads to the diffusion of the literary, artistic and cultural traditions.
How did the interaction of Islam with indigenous cultures in Sub-Saharan Africa lead to the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions?
The interaction of Islam with indigenous cultures in Sub-Saharan Africa lead to the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions because it allowed people to exchange ideas and have one common purpose. When they have one common goal or purpose, they seem to be accepting and become one, allowing their art and literary techniques to converge. This cross-cultural exchange leads to the diffusion of the literary, artistic and cultural traditions.
How did the interaction of Islam with indigenous cultures in Southeast Asia lead to the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions?
The interaction of Islam with indigenous cultures in Southeast Asia lead to the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions because it allowed people to exchange ideas and have one common purpose. When they have one common goal or purpose, they seem to be accepting and become one, allowing their art and literary techniques to converge. This cross-cultural exchange leads to the diffusion of the literary, artistic and cultural traditions.
How did the interaction of the Toltec and Mexica with the Inca in Mesoamerica and the Andes lead to the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions?
The interaction of the Toltec and Mexica with the Inca in Mesoamerica and the Andes lead to the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions because it allowed people to exchange ideas and have one common purpose. When they have one common goal or purpose, they seem to be accepting and become one, allowing their art and literary techniques to converge. This cross-cultural exchange leads to the diffusion of the literary, artistic and cultural traditions.
How did Greek and Indian mathematics influence Muslim scholars?
The Greek and Indian mathematics influences Muslim scholars by being important, preserved and improved upon.. Muslims scholars wanted to preserve the teachings of the Greek and Indian mathematics because it was important. They worked and improved on them, preserving them for many years to come. These teachings were respected and not destroyed. Muslim scholars believed that it was important to preserve such teachings. The Muslim scholars also took their ideas and improved them, inventing algebra. In conclusion, Greek and Indian mathematics influenced Muslim scholars because it was important, preserved and improved upon.
What role did al-Andalus play in bringing Greek science and philosophy back to Western Europe?
Al-Andalus was a philosophy center in Spain that collected important scholastic documents, allowed studies to occur, and encouraged scholars to bring philosophise. Al-Andalus collected important texts. This allowed people in Spain to have easy access to important documents. Students studied here. They would learn about technologies around the world. Scholars would also improve their studies there. In conclusion, al-Andalus allowed people people in Spain (Europe and such) to have easy access to documents, study, and improve the ir studies.
How did printing and gunpowder spread from East Asia to Islamic empires and Western Europe?
Printing and gunpowder spread from East Asia to Islamic Empires and Western Europe by being made in China, being traded or bought at land routes and later ocean routes. First, the Chinese invented the movable type, which were things that could be moved around easily, allowed Chinese people to print books. Gunpowder was also invented in China because they were used in fireworks and weapons. Second, when trade increased there was a lot of trading that had to deal with gunpowder and printing. Gunpowder and printing was traded through Central Asia on the land route called the Silk Road. Third, trade with land took a while, so traded started to increase on places other than land. Trade happen over oceans with boats being used to get to different places to trade. Overall, the Silk Road was a main reason that gunpowder and printing spread to Islamic Empires and Western Europe.
How did bananas come to be grown in Africa?
Bananas came to be grown in Africa by being found in Southeast Asia, being spread with travelers, and by starting to be grown in other places. First, Bananas are native to Southeast Asia. They were found in Southeast Asia by people that were growing food, like the farmers. Second, Alexander the Great ate them while he was traveling throughout the world. His men and he found them, ate them, and took them back to the Western World. Third, however by 500 BC they were being grown in India. They started growing in India because they were spread to those areas by traders and merchants. By 200 AD bananas were grown in China and also bananas were taken to Madagascar by the Arabs and spread from there to mainland Africa. So overall the bananas ended in being grown in Africa by being transferred a lot throughout the world.
What led to the use of new rice varieties in East Asia during this time period?
What led to new rice varieties in East Asia is that domesticated versions of rice are closer to wild Asian rice, by providing different grain sizes, and by the growth rate be very high. First, with domesticated versions being closer to wild than Asian rice, harvesting is more difficult and yields are much slower. Its also very difficult to hybridize the two different rice varieties. Second, providing different grain sizes gives a variety of the outcome of the rice that you want to have, like it remaining intact of becoming sticky after its made. The different grain sizes are also long, medium, and short grain rice. Third, different rice varieties grow at a fast rate, which means that more of it is made in less time. This means that it can decreases starvation in the region because of more food being made in less time. Overall, new rice varieties were used in East Asia because of all the benefits that it provided.
How and why did cotton, sugar, and citrus spread throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean?
Cotton, sugar, and citrus spread throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean by and because of their equivalent climate, Muslims introducing cotton, sugar, and citrus, and by trade. First, Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean had about the same weather year-round, so these things can grow in the same climate. Also, these equivalent climates made growth increase throughout those areas. Second, the Muslims introduced Citrus fruits, rice, and cotton to west and Sub-Saharan Africa. They also brought sugarcane, which is where sugar came from, to southwest Asia and north Africa. Third, Europeans brought sugarcane to Mediterranean islands of Sicily, Cyprus, and Crete. This led to the use of slave labor and increased trade and movement. Overall, cotton, sugar, and citrus was made and spread with a lot of help from the Muslims.
How did epidemic diseases like the Black Death spread?
Epidemic diseases like the Black Death spread by the Silk Road with the Mongol armies and also the traders that were on the Silk Road trading. The Black Death reached the Crimea by 1346 and killed lots of people. Second, diseases like the Black Death also spread because of fleas that carried the diseases being on rodents that were on merchant ships. Oriental rat fleas lived in the black rats that were on those ships. Third, a marmot, which is a rodent, carried these fleas that had these diseases to areas including Central Asia, Kurdistan, Western Asia, Northern India, and Uganda. Overall, fleas on rodents and the Silk Road contributed a lot to the spread of diseases like the Black Death.
How did the Byzantine Empire use patriarchy as a source of power in a manner similar to the Roman Empire?
The Byzantine Empire used patriarchy as a source of power similar to the Roman empire by following the same religion, therefore following their household rules. Christianity was never fully united and the Christians in the Byzantine Empire were diverse throughout the Empire’s history. The state church of the Roman Empire, which came to be known as the Eastern Orthodox Church, never represented all Christians in the Empire. Nestorianism, a view promoted by Nestorius who was a 5th century Patriarch of Constantinople, split from the imperial church leading to what is today the Assyrian Church of the East. So the church was used for patriarchy, which helped with power also. The Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is first in honor among all the Eastern Orthodox bishops, presides in person – or through a delegate – over any council of Orthodox primates and/or bishops in which he takes part and serves as primary spokesman for the Orthodox communion, especially in ecumenical contacts with other Christian denominations. He has no direct jurisdiction over the other patriarchs or the other autocephalous Orthodox churches, but he, alone among his fellow-primates, enjoys the right of convening extraordinary synods consisting of them and/or their delegates to deal with bad situations and has also convened well-attended Pan-Orthodox Synods in the last forty years. So overall, patriarchy was run by the churches and also helped in stabilizing power in the Byzantine Empire, similar to the Roman Empire.
How did the Byzantine Empire use religion as a source of power in a manner similar to the Roman Empire?
The Byzantine Empire used religion as a source of power in a manner similar to the Roman Empire by the empire still using religions that were connected to Christianity, by having domed buildings, and by using architecture to show religion. First, people in the Byzantine Empire and the Roman Empire had religions connected to Christianity, which come from Rome after it collapsed and the Byzantine Empire rose. That means that both empires had about the same people following the same religion in it. Second, both empires had the same building structures that were made the same for religious prayer, like the dome buildings that showed tradition of icon panting. These dome buildings also had the elaboration of powerful and richly colored mosaics. Third, both empires used about the same architecture when they made building in the empires, using the same main idea but different specifics. The Byzantine Empire showed artistic ideas in their architecture while the Roman Empire showed aesthetic works in theirs, which is their dominant. Overall, there were a lot of similarities in religion between the two Byzantine and Roman Empires and few differences.
How did the Byzantine Empire use land-owning elites as a source of power in a manner similar to the Roman Empire?
The Byzantine Empire used land owning elites as a source of power in a manner similar to the Roman Empire by spreading out power so it was easier to control. The Byzantine Empire was subdivided for administrative purposes into a number of smaller provinces. Because of this separate civil and military officials were established. This led to the land owning elites a power source because they had them control small parts of different villages while still being under control of the emperor.
How did the Sui, Tang, and Song Dynasties use patriarchy as a source of power in a manner similar to earlier Chinese dynasties?
Patriarchy is a social system in which the role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property. The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties used this as a source of power by having a definite source of power. This allowed one part of the chain to fail but always having something to fall back on. Since the man is always in charge in a patriarchy than it is definite who is in charge if something happens. This allows the government to have a large handle on the civilians goings and comings throughout the city if they always have to report to a higher up male official.
How did the Sui, Tang, and Song Dynasties use religion as a source of power in a manner similar to earlier Chinese dynasties?
The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties used religion as a source of power by using it to control the people by having a spiritual grasp on each and every citizen. They made the rules for which religion they could practice and it was strictly enforced. Different emperors would force monks to pray for them in public. This showed citizens that these rulers have a large amount of control because if the holiest people in the world are bowing down to pray for an emperor than he must be almost equivalent to the gods.
How did the Sui, Tang, and Song Dynasties use land-owning elites as a source of power in a manner similar to earlier Chinese dynasties?
The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties used land owning elites as a source of power in a manner similar to the Roman empire by spreading out power so it was easier to control. The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties was subdivided for administrative purposes into a number of smaller provinces. Because of this separate civil and military officials were established. This led to the land owning elites a power source because they had them control small parts of different villages while still being under control of the emperor.
How did the Byzantine Empire innovate in terms of methods of taxation as compared to the Roman Empire? Why were those innovations an improvement?
The Byzantine economy was among the most advanced in Europe and the Mediterranean for many centuries. They’re taxation methods were a large step forward from before. The taxes allowed the Byzantine Empire to spend their money diversely on things such as agriculture education, advances in technology and military advancement. This allowed the empire to ward off invading Huns and other intruders, while still enjoying a solid tax base.
How did the Byzantine Empire innovate in terms of tributary systems as compared to the Roman Empire? Why were those innovations an improvement?
A tribute is wealth, often in kind, that one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance the Byzantine Empire used this by having villages that were taken over pay a tribute to them annually. This showed respect from the conquered nation and also served them as protection. This protection was not only from invading invaders but also protection from the Byzantine Empire themselves. The empire would not go and raid there village because they made their annually dues.
How did the Byzantine Empire innovate in terms of adapting religious institutions as compared to the Roman Empire? Why were those innovations an improvement?
The Byzantine Empire innovated in terms of adapting religious institutions. The survival of the Empire in the East assured an active role of the Emperor in the affairs of the Church. They were promptly Christian and held crusades. They were started by the traditions of The Byzantine state inherited from pagan times the administrative and financial routine of administering religious affairs, and this routine was applied to the Christian Church.
How did the Sui, Tang, and Song innovate in terms of methods of taxation as compared to earlier Chinese dynasties? Why were those innovations an improvement?
The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties improved their taxation methods over their predecessors in different ways. First, the Sui improved their methods by establishing granaries as sources of food and as a means to regulate market prices from the taxation of crops. The Hans used this method in earlier times. The Tang improved their taxation methods by establishing both the grain tax and cloth tax at a relatively low rate for each household under the empire, this was meant to encourage households to enroll for taxation and not avoid the authorities, thus providing the government with the most accurate estimate possible. This was a better method of also collecting more accurate census forms. The Song dynasty improved their tax methods by having the government lend money at exorbitant rates and instituted price controls on many commodities. In conclusion, the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties improved their taxation methods in different.
How did the Sui, Tang, and Song innovate in terms of tributary systems as compared to earlier Chinese dynasties? Why were those innovations an improvement?
The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties improved their tributary systems over their predecessors in different ways. First, the Tang improved their methods by having local governors from fifteen provinces with military commanders supervised tribute collections in conquered territories. This cut out the middle man in tribute collecting. Second, the Song improved their methods by cutting down on tribute tax percentages. This helped keep the lower class people happy and to avoid any revolts. Third, the Sui improved their methods by making local rulers or officials collect tribute, maintained routine services, and enforced native law. This cut down on the number of people that needed to be deployed by the Sui, who were already weak compared to earlier dynasties. In conclusion, the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties improved their tributary systems over their predecessors in different ways.
How did the Sui, Tang, and Song innovate in terms of adapting religious institutions as compared to earlier Chinese dynasties? Why were those innovations an improvement?
The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties improved their adaption of religious institutions over their predecessors in different ways. First, the Sui were very open to Buddhism by the time it made its way into China. Buddhism created a unifying cultural force that uplifted the people out of war and into the Sui Dynasty, in many ways Buddhism was responsible for the rebirth of culture in China under the Sui Dynasty. Second, the Tang was very accepting of Buddhism when it arrived in China because it was a way for people to get themselves into government with false claims. People running for office would have monks from Buddhist temples pray for them in public in return for cash donations or gifts if the person was to be selected, this was very common in the early ninth century. Third, the Song did have much conflict between Daoist and Buddhist monks and followers. There were more Buddhist monks that traveled to China during the Song period than the Ming or any other dynasty in Chinese history. In conclusion, the Sui, Tang, improved their adaption of religious institutions in multiple ways.
How was Abbasid governance different than what came before?
The Abbasid governance was different than what came before it in many ways. First, it was different because it formed alliances with Sunni Islam to counter Shi’a Islam. This caused uprisings in Mecca in 786. Second, the Abbasids murdered all high level Shi’a nobles. This caused confusion and Berber Kharijites set up an independent state in North Africa in 801. Third, the Caliphate government was losing control of different kingdoms and losing its control over its territory. This caused conflict with Turkish army generals which led to the fall of the Caliphates. In conclusion, Caliphate governance was different then the way it was before in multiple ways.
How was governance in Muslim Iberia different than what came before?
Goverance in Muslim Iberia was different than what came before because of the mixture of languages and because of new things being built. The new Muslim government in Iberia circa 715 is the uncertainty in the year is due to the fact that the coins were bilingual in Latin and Arabic and the two inscriptions differ as to the year of minting. That meant that Muslim Iberia had contact and traded and bought things with other groups. It was more conquesting and had a stable economic and agricultural state. That led to a stable society with less conflicts for a long period of time. Also it focused on things like building roads for trade and movement of people and messages. So overall, the mixture of languages and new things being built was different in Muslim Iberia than what came before.
How was governance in the Dehli Sultanates different than what came before?
The Dehli Sultanates governance was different than what came before it in many ways. First, it was different because it had unreal alliances with eastern Muslim rulers. The Dehli controlled most of the Indian subcontinent alone. Second, it allowed non-Muslims to practice their own religion but for a poll tax. Poll tax was very common in urban areas. Third, the military was at the center of the majority of towns and villages. This helped them resist the Mongols for a while. In conclusion, the Delhi Sultanates governance was different than what came before it in many ways.
How was governance in the Mongol Khanates different than what came before?
The Mongol Khanates governance was different than what came before it in many ways. First, it was different because it gave people the death penalty for not picking up something that fell from the person in front of them. The strict rule made the Mongols very disciplined and they shocked European travelers with their organization, the army was also very safe and well-run. Second, it tolerated other religions and was very open about practice. This cut down on the number of revolts in areas of different religious practices. Third, generals helped Genghis deal with foreign and domestic issues. This helped avoid government cues from forming and causing disarray of the government. In conclusion, the Mongol government was different than what came before it in many ways.
How was governance in Italian city-states different than what came before?
The Italian city-state governance was different than what came before it in many ways. First, it was different because it was a group of independently owned city-states instead of one big territory. This meant that each city had a different leader instead of having 1 leader rule a huge area of land. Second, the city states had feudal lords instead of kings. This meant that cities had a system of feudalism instead of a king ruling everything. Third, the cities states kept the church at a distance and weren’t ruled by a monarch. This allowed for much more economic freedom and growth. In conclusion, the Italian city-states governance were different than what came before it in multiple ways.
How was governance in East African city-states different than what came before?
The East African city-state governance was different than what came before it in many ways. First, it was different because it was very good at controlling trade along trade routes in Africa. This Allowed for some Somalia empires to be very dominant in trade and was almost comparable with Indo-Greco-Roman trade. Second, they were sort of like expansionist and were the first to use cannon warfare on the African continent to defeat their enemies. They used this during Adal’s conquest of the Ethiopian Empire and the Gobroon Dynasty. Third, they had a tribute system which caused cultural diffusion because people kept moving to avoid other empires. Nilotic and Bantu-speaking peoples moved into the region, and they now comprise three-quarters of Kenya’s population. In conclusion, the East African city-states governance was different than what came before it in many ways.
How was governance in Southeast Asian city-states different than what came before?
The governance of South East Asian city states differed than what came before because of the introduction of new religions. This new introduction came as trade happened. Hinduism and Buddhism were spread to this area during this time period. As Hinduism and Buddhism were introduced, people became more religious in this area. Eventually religion ruled in South East Asia and basically governed the societies. As Hinduism and Buddhism spread their rule, trade in general also widely affected South East Asia. The spice trade increased the areas income and eventually Melaka and some other cities became pretty big. This was different than before because before there were not big cities. Trade and the ideas that came with it changed the governance of South East Asia into bigger cities ruled by religion.
How was governance in Mesoamerican city-states different than what came before?
Governance in Mesoamerican societies changed in multiple ways overtime. First, they started to spread political responsibility to multiple people instead of one person. The Aztecs installed puppet governments in their conquered territories. Second, they started to use native government officials to perform certain tasks instead of using the puppet leader of the territory. The Incas used Incan tax collectors to collect tax from territories instead of collecting taxes from the puppet government of the territory. Third, some societies created their own methods of stabilizing the government. The Incas created their own system of checks and balances by making a separate chain of command for religious institutions and the military so that the power was spread out and not all with one person. In conclusion, Mesoamerican governance in different societies changed overtime.
How was decentralized governance in feudal Europe different than what came before?
Before feudal Europe, the government in Europe was based off the government of the Roman Empire. First, when the Roman Empire fell, the lands were left without the organization and the system of Rome centralization. Now hierarchy was now shaped with a king at head who was surrounded by nobles. Second, feudal Europe also increased their power from grants of land from the king in return for military service by surrounding themselves with loyal soldiers who provided a substantial fighting force and offered protection. Third, there was also expansion in places that the Roman Empire didn’t expand at, like in Germany, Spain, Italy, Scandinavia, England, and the Slavic countries. Feudal Europe’s location also affected where it expanded at. Overall, feudal Europe did a lot of different things than what came before, which is the Roman Empire.
How was decentralized governance in feudal Japan different than what came before?
Before feudal Japan, the government in Japan was based off the government of China. There was an emperor who was advised by a large, well-educated, bureacracy. Japan’s feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. There was a lot of violence and fighting between shifting factions of the court aristocracy and local warlords, which meant a lot of civil wars. The power was no longer in the emperor, but in the warlords and other power families. Each powerful family carved out their own little “kingdom” of land ruled by their own government. These mini-states all had walls built around them to protect from attacks from other mini-states. There was no longer a central government, or really any sense of who was truly in charge.
How did Persian traditions influence Islamic states?
Persian traditions influenced Islamic states by the conquering of the Persian Empire, traditions, and by the adoption of the living. First, Arab Muslims took over the whole Persian Empire in the 7th century. . This included all of Iraq and Iran of the time including some of the world’s biggest and most important cities. Second, the veiling of the women in Islamic states was adopted by the Persian Empire for upper class women and eventually all of the women. The ‘Harem’ too was adopted from Persian traditions. Third, the Muslims adopted art, architecture, knowledge, and urban living from the Persians. Architecture used to build mosques that Islamic people prayed in came from Persian architecture. Overall, the conquering of the Persian Empire influenced Islamic states in a lot of ways.
How did Chinese traditions influence Japanese states?
Chinese traditions influenced Japanese states in language, religion, and system of government. First, The Japanese had no written language at the time of their first contact with the Chinese. The Japanese’s use of Chinese proved important for the purpose of political unification under the Japanese Emperor because a language was now known to the Japanese. Second, Buddhism and Confucianism are important features of Chinese culture. As a belief system, Buddhism forced the local Japanese religions to define themselves in relation to Buddhism. Confucianism, a belief system, had a lot to say about governance and society and proved attractive for the Japanese. Third, the method of organization of the Imperial Court was also adopted by the Japanese. The Japanese Imperial Court as well as its bureaucracy, including titles, ranks and functions, soon came to be modeled after Confucian principles. Overall, Chinese traditions influenced Japanese states in beneficial ways.
How did Mayan city-states come to flourish in this time period?
The Mayan city states flourished greatly during this time in many different areas and ways. First, during this time the Mayan city states were at a peak of large-scale urbanism. It was also at a high point for artistic and intellectual development. They began to develop and agriculturally intense city centered empire. During this period the Mayas numbered in the millions, they created a multitude of kingdoms and small empires, built monumental palaces and temples, engaged in grandiose ceremonies, and developed an elaborate hieroglyphic writing system. The most notable monuments are the stepped pyramids they built in their religious centers and the accompanying palaces of their rulers.Lacking draft animals necessary for wheel-based modes of transportation, metal tools and even pulleys, Maya architecture required abundant manpower. Yet, beyond this enormous requirement, the remaining materials seem to have been readily available. All stone for Maya structures appears to have been taken from local quarries. They most often used limestone which remained pliable enough to be worked with stone tools while being quarried and only hardened once removed from its bed. In addition to the structural use of limestone, much of their mortar consisted of crushed, burnt and mixed limestone that mimicked the properties of cement and was used as widely for stucco finishing as it was for mortar. The mayans also made very important accomplishments astronomy, math, and religion. Overall, it is clear that the Mayans were making some very important and impressive accomplishments during this time that led the city to flourish.
Describe the growth of the Mexica (“Aztecs”) Empire at the end of this time period.
The Aztecs grew in multiple ways overtime. First, they grew territory from expansion wars with their neighbors. They conquered Coyoacon and Huaxtepec. Second, they grew politicaly by putting leaders in charge of their conquered territories. They installed puppet governments in Acolhua and other territories. Third, they grew agriculturally by using the farming land in other territories to grow more food to support a larger population. They persuaded the king of Culhuacan to allow them to use some of their land for more farmland. In conclusion, the Aztecs grew in many different ways.
Describe the growth of the Inca Empire at the end of this time period.
Growth of the Inca Empire at this time period can be characterized by extreme expansion. After the conquests made by Túpac Inca Yupanqu, Pachacuti’s son, the Inca Empire included Peru and Bolivia, most of what is now Ecuador, a large portion of what is today Chile north of Maule River. The most important conquest was of the Kingdom of Chimor, the Inca’s only serious rival for the coast of Peru. The Inca army was the most powerful in the area at that time, because they could turn an ordinary villager or farmer into a soldier, ready for battle. This is because every male Inca had to take part in war at least once so as to be prepared for warfare again when needed. By the time the empire had reached its large size, every section of the empire contributed in setting up an army for war. Due to all of the new areas conquered, The Inca Empire became a patchwork of languages, cultures and peoples. The components of the empire were not all uniformly loyal, nor were the local cultures all fully integrated. The Inca empire as a whole had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labor.
How did contact and conflict between Tang China and the Abbasids encourage significant technological and cultural transfers?
Contact and conflict between Tang China and the Abbasids encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers because of trade, and conquers. First, when merchants of both empires traded, they would talk about their empire. They would share their beliefs about their religion and culture. Second, when one empire conquered another, they would take each other’s ideas. They would also use inventions they had or use technologies to improve existing ones. In the Battle of Talas, the Abbasids attacked the Chinese Tang. The Tang lost and from this the paper making process was transferred to the Muslim world. In conclusion, contact and conflict between Tang China and the Abbasids encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers in many ways.
How did contact and conflict across Mongol empires encourage significant technological and cultural transfers?
The Mongols controlled basically all of Eurasia-possible for inventions like printing press and gunpowder to spread from China. The printing caused a lot of innovation because of the printing on papers being fine. Merchants could more safely travel throughout empire-Pax Mongolica or Mongol in peace. The invaders and people against the Mongols had ideas and inventions culturally diffused to them through conflict and trade with the Mongols improved technology all over the world. Gunpowder helped with fireworks and with warefare when they were fighting with other communities.
How did contact and conflict during the Crusades encourage significant technological and cultural transfers?
Contact and conflict during the Crusades encourage significant technological and cultural transfers by increasing trade, knowledge being transferred, and innovation. First, trade was increased by a lot because when the wars were going on, transport and supplies of large armies led to the increase of trade. The trades led to significant increase in traffic on roads that were unused during the Roman days as local merchants expanded to trade. Second, since Islamic culture was transferred through the Crusades, there was a lot of knowledge in different subjects being transferred. Knowledge in areas such as science, medicine, and architecture was transferred from Islamic to the Western world. Third, there was also a lot of improvement on things that were already made in economic and social structures and agricultural technology. Also innovations in governance and taxation and social mobility happened during the Crusades. Overall, because of all of the conflict going on through the Crusades, there was a lot of transfers that went around by a lot of different methods.
How did Champa rice varieties help significantly increase agricultural production?
Champa rice varieties helped significantly increase agricultural production by being drought resistant, by ripening faster, and by being more beneficial to make than regular rice. First, the rice being drought-resistant meant that the rice could be grown anywhere that older varieties had failed to grow. The places that it grew in that older varieties didn’t were higher land and on terraces that climb hilly slopes. Second, since the champa rice ripened faster, that that double-crossing and triple-crossing of the plant was possible when farming. The hardiness and productivity of these rices was responsible for the density of population in some locations. Third, since the champa rice varieties was made more faster by being farmed and a lot was gotten from it, it was very beneficial to a lot of farmers and people that used rice a lot. Since a lot was gotten out of it, the production of the champa rice increased because people wanted to make more of it to have rice faster. Overall, a champa rice variety was a very beneficial way to make a lot of rice in a less amount of time than making regular rice.
How did chinampa field systems help significantly increase agricultural production?
Chinampa field systems help increase agricultural production by helping farm without land, by having very high crop yields, and by not having to water the crops. First, chinampa field systems were floating gardens on shallow lake beds and mush was used for the soil that the crops were planted in. the gardens were filled with fenced-off areas that were layered with mud, lake sediment, and decaying vegetation, eventually bringing it above the level of the lake that it was put on. Second, very high crop yields meant that a lot of crops were growing, which was beneficial. These islands on the lake had crop yields with up to seven crops a year. Third, since these gardens were floating on water, the soil of the crops soaked water that was in the lake, which made water unnecessary. This saved time and energy for farmers because now they didn’t have water the crops. Overall, chinampa field systems increased agricultural production because of all of the advantages it had over regular land farming.
How did waru waru agricultural techniques in the Andes significantly increase agricultural production?
Waru Waru agriculture techniques in the Andes increased agricultural production in multiple ways. First, it raised baeds to prevent damage due to soil erosion. This technique was revived in Bolivia in 1984. Second, it ensured the collection of water so that plants that required lots of water could be grown. This technique was revived in Peru in 1984. Third, it allowed for drainage which was helpful in high flood areas where many crops would die because of to much water. This technique was revived in Bolivia and Peru in 1984. In conclusion, Waru Waru agriculture techniques helped agricultural production in the Andes in multiple ways.
How did improved terracing techniques significantly increase agricultural production?
Improved terracing techniques significantly increased agricultural production by decreasing erosion and surface runoff, by helping with soil conservation, and by creating a lot of food in a short period of time, decreasing starvation. First, terracing techniques decreases erosion ans surface runoff by slowing down the water runoff in the plants. The water runoff is slowed down because the plants are using the water to grow, so the water slows down as it goes down because is being soaked up by the plants. Second, terracing techniques use soil conservation to help the plants get more fertilized so they can grow and provide food to the people. Soil conservation directs water through the dry plants and gives them that water so those plants can be fertilized. Third, since terracing techniques provide food at a faster rate than older farming, this meant that more food will be available for much more people to eat since a lot has grown. Starvation in the communities now decreases because of the availability of more food to everyone that is in that community. Overall, improved terracing techniques helped communities provide much more food than they used to when they farmed regularly without any techniques.
How did the horse collar significantly increase agricultural production?
The collar allows a horse to use its full strength when pulling, essentially allowing the horse to push forward with its hindquarters into the collar rather than to pull with its shoulders as it would be required to do if wearing a yoke. The collar is also an improvement on the yoke as it reduces pressure on the windpipe. From the time of invention of the horse collar, horses became extremely valuable for agricultural success and for pulling heavy vehicles. When the horse was harnessed with the horse collar, the horse could provide a work effort of 50% more foot-pounds per second because of greater speed than the ox, as well as having generally greater endurance and ability to work more hours in a day. The horse collar was important in the development of Europe, as the replacement of oxen with horses for ploughing boosted the economy, reduced reliance on subsistence farming, and allowed the development of early industry, education, and the arts in the rise of market-based towns.
How did increasing demand for foreign luxury goods impact the location in which crops were grown?
Increasing demand for foreign goods impacted the location in which crops were grown in that they now had to be grown closer to larger cities that were major trading areas. Some crops were very valuable, such as Indian spices, and were desired by many other civilizations. So, instead of growing the crops in rural areas like they had before, they moved the farms closer to the cities so it would be easier to harvest and then transport. Also, because cities were now growing due to trade, the population was increasing as well. This meant that more people had to be fed in the cities, so more farmers began to farm closer to cities to make it easier to sell their products in city marketplaces.
What happened to the production of textiles and porcelains in China, Persia, and India during this time period? Why?
The production of these products in China, Persia, and India increased significantly as the demand for them in other countries increased. The substantial conquests made during the Tang dynasty increased the size of the empire close to the size of the former Han Dynasty. The extension of Tang control deep into central Asia allowed for overland Silk routes between China and Persia to be reopened and protected. This intensified international contacts, which in turn intensified trade. Many products produced by China, such as porcelain and textiles, were exported to Islamic civilizations and southeast Asia. Also, the use of junks, ships similar to dhows, heightened Chinese use of overseas trade. In India, the Indian Ocean allowed for them to trade with many of the civilizations around them, especially Islamic states. All of these methods of trade led to an increase in the demand for porcelains and textiles, which resulted in an increase of their production
What happened to the production of iron and steel in China during this time period? Why?
The production of iron and steel in this time period increased significantly, due to the increase in trade with other civilizations. The substantial conquests made during the Tang dynasty increased the size of the empire close to the size of the former Han Dynasty. The extension of Tang control deep into central Asia allowed for overland Silk routes between China and Persia to be reopened and protected. This intensified international contacts, which in turn intensified trade. The Chinese developed superior methods for producing iron and steel, and between the 9th and 12th centuries, iron production increased tenfold. These superior methods helped China to keep up with the higher demand for iron and steel products during this time period.
How and where did invasions contribute to the decline of urban areas in this period?
Invasions led to many examples of urban decline. In China, when the Mongols invaded, it forced the of many of their northern cities to fall and people to move south. Although urban areas still flourished in the south, the mongols invasion led to an extreme decline of urban areas in the north. In the
Byzantine Empire, the Turks and the Muslims invasions led to the great empires demise. The Muslims, through one of the crusades conquered Constantinople only for a brief amount of time but for long enough to cause the cities urban area to decline. The Turks were the ones who were finally able to make the city of Constantinople fall, causing urban decline in the Byzantine Empire.
How and where did disease contribute to the decline of urban areas in this period?
The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30-60 percent of Europe’s population, reducing the world’s population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400. This has been seen as having created a series of religious, social and economic upheavals, which had profound effects on the course of European history. It took 150 years for Europe’s population to recover. The Black Death originated in or near China and spread by way of the Silk Road or by ship. In crowded cities, it was not uncommon for as much as 50 percent of the population to die. Europeans living in isolated areas suffered less, whereas monks and priests were especially hard hit since they cared for the Black Death’s victims. This caused the populations of urban cities to decline, and remote farms to increase.
How and where did the decline of agricultural productivity contribute to the decline of urban areas in this period?
In Europe, the decline of agricultural productivity was mainly because of the Little Ice age. With cooler temperatures, there was a shorter time period in which crops could be grown, which meant that less crops were produced. With less crops produced, there was less of a surplus of food for those members of society whom were not farmers to eat. This caused more people to have to give up their city lives where they could rely on buying food from others and spread out to farm for their own food. This occurred all throughout the world, but especially in Europe and parts of Asia. Also, with the change in temperature due to the Little Ice age, some crops began to fail because they could not grow in the new climate. This caused famine, which also led to urban decline.
How and where did the Little Ice Age contribute to the decline of urban areas in this period?
The little ice age contributed to the decline of urban areas in this period by the decline in agriculture and trade. Due to the colder temperatures, crops failed. Not having enough food to eat, famine took the lives of many people, causing a decline in population. Also, because the colder temperatures froze the rivers and lakes, trade with other civilizations became much harder. Many cities who relied heavily on trade in this time period declined, which includes much of Western Europe.
How and where did the end of invasions contribute to the revival of urban areas in this period?
In China, after they moved south enough to escape the attacks of the Mongols, the civilization thrived. No longer having to worry about building up an army or defenses, more money and attention could be put towards things that favored conditions in cities, which led to urban revival. Also, with less chaos that invasions usually cause, the government is more efficient and the empire is more stable. A more stable empire can support large cities better than an unstable one, which shows again that the end of invasions did lead to urban revival. With less people dying in battle against the invaders, the populations will be higher, which would also lead to urban revival.
How and where did the availability of safe and reliable transport contribute to the revival of urban areas in this period?
With safe and reliable transport becoming more avaliable, trade became easier. It became easier to get goods from one place to another, so people did it more often than they did before, which increased trade. The increase in trade created a need for more merchants and places for merchants to sell their goods. This need resulted in the increasing size of cities to accomadate the larger number of people who came to trade. This occurred in China, and Europe. In China, the use of junks and the reopening of the silk road gave them more safe and reliable transport. In Europe, dhows allowed transport to also be safer and more reliable. Cities such as Constantinople, Hangzhou, and Baghdad grew as a result of the increased trade.
How and where did the rise of commerce contribute to the revival of urban areas in this period?
The rise of commerce contributed to Urban revival in that it created the need for larger areas to accomadate the needs of the incoming merchants and larger marketplaces. With more trade between the cities came more wealth, which also helped urban revival. Not as many people needed to farm for a living as they could now, with their increased commerce, use the better technology to farm so that it would be more productive. Cities such as Constantinople, Hangzhou, and Baghdad all grew as a result of the increased commerce.
How and where did the warmer temperatures between 800 and 1300 contribute to the revival of urban areas in this period?
With warmer temperatures in comparison to the Little ice age, agriculture was very productive, which in turn allowed more food to be produced. With more food produced, the more of a food surplus there is. With more of a food surplus, less people had to farm, and more people lived in cities in order to carry out other professions. With more people carrying out other professions, such as merchants, there is more money coming into the empire. With more money coming into the empire, the more buildings can be built and the more the city can expand. This cause and effect chain of events that sprang from the warm period are all things that lead to urban revival.
How and where did increased agricultural productivity contribute to the revival of urban areas in this period?
Increased agricultural productivity sprang mostly from new technologies. For example, Waru Waru agriculture techniques in the Andes increased agricultural production in multiple ways. First, it raised baeds to prevent damage due to soil erosion. This technique was revived in Bolivia in 1984. Second, it ensured the collection of water so that plants that required lots of water could be grown. This technique was revived in Peru in 1984. Third, it allowed for drainage which was helpful in high flood areas where many crops would die because of to much water. This technique was revived in Bolivia and Peru in 1984. In conclusion, Waru Waru agriculture techniques helped agricultural production in the Andes in multiple ways. Another example is the chinampa field systems help increase agricultural production by helping farm without land, by having very high crop yields, and by not having to water the crops. First, chinampa field systems were floating gardens on shallow lake beds and mush was used for the soil that the crops were planted in. the gardens were filled with fenced-off areas that were layered with mud, lake sediment, and decaying vegetation, eventually bringing it above the level of the lake that it was put on. Second, very high crop yields meant that a lot of crops were growing, which was beneficial. These islands on the lake had crop yields with up to seven crops a year. Third, since these gardens were floating on water, the soil of the crops soaked water that was in the lake, which made water unnecessary. This saved time and energy for farmers because now they didn’t have water the crops. Overall, chinampa field systems increased agricultural production because of all of the advantages it had over regular land farming. With better technologies came better production, which led to a surplus of food. This surplus of food allowed for less people to have to farm for a living. With less people needed to live in rural areas to farm, there were more people able to pursue other occupations in urban areas.
How and where did rising population contribute to the revival of urban areas in this period?
Rising population contributed to urban revival during this time period in that there were just more people living in the cities, so they got larger. This happened all over the world in almost all major cities as conditions in cities improved, diseases decreased, commerce increased, and temperatures were warmer. With more people, there are more jobs that can be carried out, which brings more money into the empire. The more money that is in the empire, the more it can grow and the bigger of a population it can support.
How and where did the greater availability of labor contribute to the revival of urban areas in this period?
With more people willing to work for lower costs, the government could use them to expand the city and build new buildings and defenses,which all led to urban revival. Also, more people would be willing to work on farms, which, again, would allow others go to cities to pursue occupations other than ones in agriculture. With more people working (trading) in the city, there is more money being brought into the empire. With more money, the empire can, bringing more people, cities, and money to the empire.
Which cities declined as governmental, religious, and commercial centers in this time period?
After the Mongols captured a city, it declined because they usually ransacked it an set it one fire. This happened specifically to Baghdad. The cities in Northern China also declined as Chinese culture was driven south by the mongols.
Which cities emerged as governmental, religious, and commercial centers in this time period?
Hangzhou, the capital of China flourished as the silk road reopened and trade flourished. Constantinople, the great city of the Byzantine empire flourished as a major religious center for Christianity. Baghdad, before it was overrun by the Mongols flourished as the capitol of the Islamic state.
How was labor organized in a free peasant agriculture system?
In a free peasant agriculture system, peasants work for a usually wealthy landowner on an estate with other free peasants. They were not slaves or serfs, so they could leave at any time, but they usually wouldn’t leave due to the fact that they had no where else to go. They worked in the fields all day, and their payment was that they had a house to live in and food to eat. In China, they tried to break up the free peasant system as it gave a lot of power to the landowners. They split up the estates and gave the free peasants each a small portion of land to farm on their own.
How was labor organized in a nomadic pastoralism system?
Nomadic pastoralism is a form of agriculture where livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze following an irregular pattern of movement – in contrast with transhumance where seasonal pastures are fix. Nomadic pastoralism is commonly practised in regions with little arable land. The mongols are a good example of this. Their survival depended on the well-being of their herds. The basic unit of mongol society was the tribe, which was divided into several kin-related clans whose members camped and hunted together on a regular basis. When threatened by an external source, the clans would come together into confederations. Leaders were elected by the free men of the group.
How was labor organized in a craft production system?
In a craft production system, people produced crafts (things such as pottery, jewelry, etc.) and sold them to others, usually in a marketplace, for a profit. They are very similar to guilds, which are craftsmen who formed associations based on their trades, confraternities of textile workers, masons, carpenters, carvers, glass workers, each of whom controlled secrets of traditionally imparted technology, the “arts” or “mysteries” of their crafts. The purpose of a craft production system is to maximize profit for a particular craft and to make sure that no one person monopolizes the craft.
How was labor organized in a guild organization system?
In a guild, craftsmen formed associations based on their trades, confraternities of textile workers, masons, carpenters, carvers, glass workers, each of whom controlled secrets of traditionally imparted technology, the “arts” or “mysteries” of their crafts. Usually the founders were free independent master craftsmen. Guilds stressed security and mutual control; They attempted to give all members a share in every endeavour. They regulated apprenticeships to guarantee good training but also to ensure that no one member would have too many apprentices and so gain undue wealth. Guilds gave people a status in society and a voice in government.
How was labor organized in a coerced and unfree labor system?
Although labor was organized differently in different systems on unfree labor, there are a few general examples. In the Abbasid empire, much of the unskilled labor was left to the slaves, who were often attached to prominent families as domestic servants. It was possible for the more ambitious and intelligent slaves to rise to positions of power and gain freedom. Less forutanate slaves, however, were forced to live harsh lives of manual labor under the overseers whip on rural estates and government projects. Slaves in the Islamic world were used for a variety of different occupations, such as soldiers, but none the less were treated harshly.
How was labor organized in a government imposed labor taxes system?
In a labor tax system, the government put taxes many items that were required for the production of crafts that was often done by craftsmen of peasants. Because there was a tax on the items that they needed to make their specific craft, it cost more money for the peasant or craftsman to make their craft, giving them less of a profit from their craft. It put money into the government, which did help the empire as a whole, but it placed restrictions on the income of the majority of the working population.
How was labor organized in a military obligations system?
In the Byzantine Empire, being in the military was not required. Byzantine rulers would recruit troops locally and reward them with grants of land in return for their service. The Mongols system varied from this. Trained from youth, men were created from the start to be killing machines. All males aged from 15 to 60 and capable of undergoing rigorous training were eligible for conscription into the army, a source of honor in their tribal warrior tradition. In China, by the year 737, Emperor Xuanzong discarded the policy of conscripting soldiers that were replaced every three years, replacing them with long-service soldiers who were more battle-hardened and efficient. Although there were no military obligations, the Song military was chiefly organized to ensure that the army could not threaten Imperial control, often at the expense of effectiveness in war.
What impact did class and caste hierarchies have on social structure in this time period?
In this time period, caste hierarchies had a similar effect on social structure compared to the previous time period. In China, Neoconfucianism brought back the social structure of previous dynasties where men overpowered women. In Byzantime, women are subordinated to men and have little role outside the home. Also, in Arab societies, women were treated better than China, but worse then in the Mongols. In all societies at this time period, men are dominant. It is just more prominent in some societies (China, Byzantine) than others (Mongols, West Africa, Southeast Asia, Japan).
Describe the power and influence women had among the Mongols during this time period.
Compared to other civilizations, Mongolian women had the power to influence society. Even though men were dominant in society, many turned to women in their lives for advice. Although women exercised influence within the family and had the right to be heard in tribal councils, men dominated leadership positions. Marriages in the Mongol Empire were arranged, but men were permitted to practice polygamy. After the Mongols gained control of China, they refused to adopt the Chinese culture that subordinated women such the Chinese practice of footbinding and wearing of chadors or burqas. They retained their right to own property and freedom to move about. Toward the end of the Mongol Empire, however, the increasing influence of Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism and Islamicization saw greater limits placed on Mongol women.
Describe the power and influence women had in West Africa during this time period.
In West Africa, women had greater power and influence than they did in other civilizations. Several states were matrilineal, and women were recognized within the lines of kinship. In Africa, women were the major food producers and thus not only had ready access to land but also had authority of how the land was to be used and cultivated. Therefore, the value of women’s productive labour in producing and processing food established and maintained their rights in the domestic and other spheres. Women dominated the trade and merchant exchange of goods of their communities. Women were often the most powerful spiritual figures in the land. Women were often in charge of the spiritual systems in their communities. However, Islam coming to Africa did lessen their role.
Describe the power and influence women had in Japan during this time period.
Before Feudal age at height of culture, women were expected to be as poised and as cultured as men in society. Less involved with the Chinese cultural imports than men, but played a more creative and artistic role. They enjoyed greater freedom than women in other civilizations. During the Feudal Age, however, women’s status plummeted. Peasant women continued to have de facto freedom of movement and decision making power, but upper-class women’s lives were subject to the patiarcharal ideology supported by the government as part of its efforts at social control. They no longer received land, or income due to the change in only giving inheritance to the oldest son, a trend that started at this time period. Women became reared to anticipate their husbands every desire. Also, they lost role of the celebrant in religious ceremonies
Describe the power and influence women had in Southeast Asia during this time period.
Women in Southeast Asia fared better than women in other civilizations. They were not soley found in the household, but in other professions such as business owners. They had a much more favored position than women in China. Women in Vietnam were very hostile towards Confucian values. They refused to follow any of them, and often wrote poetry about it. Historically, this character and spirit of Vietnamese women were first exemplified by the conduct of the Trung sisters, the “first historical figures” in the history of Vietnam who revolted against Chinese control.
Why was serfdom in Europe and Japan a new form of coerced labor?
In Europe, serfs (people who “practiced” serfdom) lived on self sufficient agricultural estates called manors. They were agricultural workers who received some protection from the government, in return for giving up some of their goods and staying on the manors. This practice was strengthened by the lack of trade and major political systems. Life for the serfs was not easy: production was low and agricultural equipment was limited, and the landlords expected more labor from them than just in the fields (such as repairing the castle). They were not slaves, and they could own their own houses and property. In Japan, serfs faced similar circumstances. Most peasants were serfs, owned by their landlord. Like in Europe, they had difficult lives.
Why was the mit’a system in the Inca Empire a new form of coerced labor?
Mit’a was a mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire. Historians use the hispanicized term mita to distinguish the system as it was modified by the Spanish, under whom it became a form of legal servitude which in practise bordered slavery. The various public service jobs that they could preform included building roads, working in mines, and serving in the military. This system mobalized thousands of Indians into work. Although they were paid for the work, there were many abuses, and the work often disrupted and destructed the lives of the Indians. Because of this, many Indians left villages and went to work for Spanish landowners. This led to many Indians no longer living in their native villages, but in Spanish cities and farms.
How and why did free peasants revolt in China?
Free peasants in China resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts. They caused riots and raised crime rates in cities to show their anger. In response to this, the government during this time period attempted to break up large estates and distribute the land among free peasants. The lives of the free peasants was not an easy one, so they felt that they deserved better from the government. The peasants were often the ones who were taxed and forced to live bad lives as they watched the upper class people live lives of “luxury”. This is why the free peasants revolted in the China.
How and why did free peasants revolt in the Byzantine Empire?
In the Byzantine empire, peasants revolted due to the fact that they were being taxed too high amounts of money for them to be able to pay. They caused riots and raised crime rates in cities to show their anger. The lives of the free peasants was not an easy one, so they felt that they deserved better from the government. The peasants were often the ones who were taxed and forced to live bad lives as they watched the upper class people live lives of “luxury”. This is why the free peasants revolted in the Byzantine empire.
How did the diffusion of Buddhism change gender relations and family structure?
Buddhism, unlike Confucianism, promoted women to take a role outside the household. It encouraged women to live a scholarly or monastic life, at the expense of getting married and having children. Buddhists in Japan argued for women’s importance. In China and in southeast Asia, Buddhisam improved womens’ role by giving them more freedom, the right to own property, a role outside the home (business owners), and freeing them from the harsh Confucian values.
How did the diffusion of Christianity change gender relations and family structure?
Christianity established religious communities for women, giving them not only new forms of expression, but new leadership roles as well. With the establishment of Christian monasticism, other influential roles became available to women. From the 5th century onward, Christian convents provided opportunities for some women to escape the path of marriage and child-rearing, acquire literacy and learning, and play a more active religious role. Ultimately, Women under Christian values fared far better than women under Confucian values.
How did the diffusion of Islam change gender relations and family structure?
The study of women in Islam investigates the role of women within the religion of Islam. The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. The Qur’an states both that men and women are equal, but also, as in 4:34, that “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient and guard in the husband’s absence what Allah orders them to guard.” Although the Quran does say this, the superiority of men is interpreted in terms of strength by the context – men maintain women. This verse however refers to a relationship between a husband and wife, not as a society in whole. Although women were not allowed to lead prayer, they still played an important role. Through much of the Umayyad period, little is heard of veiled women, and women pursued a wide range of occupations.
152. How did the diffusion of Neoconfucianism change gender relations and family structure?
Neoconfucianism changed gender relations because it further subordinated women after they had made some improvements. Confucianism promotes male dominance, and with a renewed study of Confucian values can a new assertion of the male power. The values stressed women’s role in the home, especially as the bearer of sons. Footbinding is a great example to show how constricted and subordinated women were in Chinese society. In order to make their feet smaller and more pleasing to the male eye, they would wrap their feet, starting at a young age, to completely change the structure of their feet to make them smaller. This limited their mobility, which made it easier to confine them to a life at home, and caused them a lot of pain, but it was what they had to do as a result of Neoconfucian values.