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Essay on Second language acquisition

1.1 Introduction

The intent of this literature reappraisal is to set up the foundation for the specific aims of this survey.This chapter reviews two of import theories that provide a clear apprehension on how people get a second/foreign linguistic communication.These theories are Krashen ‘s Input theory ( 1981 ) and Long ‘s Interaction theory ( 1983 ) .

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The chapter besides provides a description of the appropriate theories and/or theoretical accounts that form the instructional design theoretical model to steer the design and development of a courseware based on RLOs. It is, so, followed by an in-depth treatment of three theories, viz. the cognitive theory of multimedia acquisition ( Mayer 2001 ) , the cognitive burden theory ( Sweller, 1988 ) and the Dual-coding theory ( Paivio, 1986 ) . In add-on to that, an in-depth reappraisal of reclaimable learning objects ( RLO ) was discussed. Finally, the function of aptitude-treatment interaction with regard to pupils ‘ acquisition penchants manner ( visual-verbal ) was besides discussed.

1.2 Overview of Second Language Acquisition

A clear apprehension of 2nd linguistic communication acquisition ( SLA ) is overriding in linguistic communication acquisition particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse pupils ( Fillmore & A ; Snow, 2000 ; Yang, 2008 ) . SLA can be defined as “ survey of the acquisition of a non-primary linguistic communication ; that is, the acquisition of a linguistic communication beyond the native linguistic communication ” ( Gass & A ; Selinker, 2008 ) . However, there is no ideal reply to the inquiry of how does the pupil get a 2nd linguistic communication? This in portion, because there are many viing linguistic communication theories and empirical researches that did non supply distinct reply. SLA is extremely complex, as many bookmans who analyzing SLA semen from academic subjects which differ chiefly in theory and research methods ( Saville-Troike, 2006 ) . This position is in line with Gass and Selinker ( 2008 ) who states that SLA is genuinely an interdisciplinary field. The survey of SLA draws from a broad assortment of Fieldss including linguistics, psychological science, psycholinguistics, sociology, sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, colloquial analysis, and instruction ( Ibid ) . However, applied linguists are frequently concentrating on the deductions of the theories and researched for the instruction of a second/foreign linguistic communication. Towards this terminal, Ellis ( 2005 ) has summarised three attacks to the instruction of a second/ foreign linguistic communication and the acquisition theories that underpin them. These three attacks are the oral-situational attack, the notional-functional attack, and the task-based attack. Table 2.1 depicts the chief characteristics of these three attacks.

Table 2.1: The larning theories underlying three attacks to linguistic communication instruction ( Ellis, 2005 )

Pedagogical Approach

Main Feature

Learning Theory

1. Oral-situational

Based on a structural course of study ; methodological analysis built around present-practise-produce ( PPP )

Originally behaviorist ; presently skill-learning theory.

2. Notional-functional

Based on a notional-functional course of study ; methodological analysis built around present-practise-produce

Communicative competency ; function of formulaic balls ; skill-learning theory.

3. Task-based

Based on a syllabus consisting of holistic undertakings ; ‘deep-end ‘ attack ; interactive genuineness

Implicit linguistic communication acquisition ; Interaction Hypothesis ; focus-on-form.

Harmonizing to the Ellis ( 2005 ) the task-based attack is based on the premise that the people might larn the linguistic communication more efficaciously when they use the linguistic communication in ways closely resemble its natural usage outside the schoolroom. Whereas the two other attacks ( Oral-situational and Notional-functional ) are based on the premise that people should be taught some facets of linguistic communication before they can pass on in that linguistic communication. Krashen ‘s input theory ( 1981 ) and Long ‘s interaction theory ( 1983 ; 1996 ) underpin the position of task-based attack ( Ellis, 2005 ) . These acquisition linguistic communication theories are discussed subsequently in this chapter as they have great relevancy to the present survey.

1.3 Development Stages of Second Language Acquisition

Continuum of acquisition is the most concept that was endorsed by most of the current SLA theory ( Reed & A ; Railsback, 2003 ) . They farther explain the sense of continuum of larning that is, “ predictable and consecutive phases of linguistic communication development, in which the scholar progresses from no cognition of the new linguistic communication to a degree of competence closely resembling that of a native talker ” . There are five separate phases of linguistic communication development identified by these theories. These distinguishable phases are:

1. Stage I- Pre-Production Stage ( Silent Period ) : This phase involves minimum comprehension, no verbal production, pupils may non talk “ soundless period ” , but they can react by utilizing some of schemes such ; indicating to an object, image, or individual. They can besides reacting with simple words “ yes ” or “ no ” . In this phase, instructors should non coerce pupils to talk until they become ready to make so.

2. Stage II- Early Production Phase: This phase involves limited comprehension ; pupils may react in one/two-word phrases that they are able to understand and utilize. They can besides show comprehension of new stuff by giving short replies to simple yes/no, either/or, or who/what/where inquiries.

3. Phase III Speech Emergence Phase: In this phase the pupils can organize simple sentences and short phrases in order to pass on with others. They can besides inquire a simple inquiry such as ‘Can I open the door? ‘ Students can besides execute long sentences but frequently with some mistakes in address.

4. Phase IV Intermediate Fluency Phase: This phase involves really good comprehension ; pupils can organize complex sentences, longer and more sophisticated in content. They might be able to portion their ideas, summarize some points, recall past events, explicate a state of affairs, define footings, contrast objects/persons, and execute duologues.

5. Phase V The Advanced Fluency Phase: In this phase, pupils will develop first-class comprehension accomplishments. They might be able to give sentiments, create argument, evaluate, justify, examine, and defend their positions. They can besides talk English by utilizing grammar and vocabulary as native talkers. However, their address may demo fewer grammatical mistakes.

Take awareness that pupils are traveling through a consecutive series of developmental phases may help the instructional interior decorators to plan, develop, and even modify larning environment that is suited with pupil ‘s current phase and able to promote patterned advance to the following phase.

1.4 Second Language Acquisition Theories

As mentioned earlier, Krashen ‘s input theory ( 1981 ) and Long ‘s interaction theory ( 1983 ; 1996 ) underpin the position of task-based attack that was proposed by Ellis ( 2005 ) . This attack is in line with several research workers who agreed that pupils learn a linguistic communication better when they are immersed in an reliable acquisition environment whereby they engage in utilizing the linguistic communication as in existent day-to-day life ( Johnson, 2003 ; Wang, 2005 ) . Computer as the engineering in the multimedia watercourse represents powerful tools to spread out the scope of reliable acquisition for linguistic communication acquisition. With this in head, Krashen ‘s input theory and Long ‘s interaction theory were selected to supply deeper apprehension of how people can get L2 with the purpose to incorporate them with rich properties afforded by multimedia engineering.

1.4.1 Krashen ‘s Input Hypothesis

A construct endorsed by most linguistic communication acquisition theoreticians is Stephen Krashen ‘s “ comprehendible input ” hypothesis ( Reed & A ; Railsback, 2003 ; Yang, 2008 ) . This construct suggests that people get linguistic communication in merely one manner by “ intaking ” and understanding linguistic communication that is a “ somewhat beyond ” their current degree of competency ( Krashen, 1981 ) . Although purely talking, a theory is non the same as a hypothesis, in this context, the “ Kreshen ‘s input hypothesis ” are now normally used interchangeably with the term “ Kreshen ‘s input theory ” , and should be understood as such. Stephen Krashen ‘s input theory consists of five chief hypotheses.

( 1 ) The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis: Krashen postulates that there are two independent systems for internalizing a 2nd linguistic communication. These systems are ( a ) the acquisition system and ( B ) the acquisition system. In the acquisition system the procedure to get a linguistic communication is a subconscious procedure, really similar to the procedure of kids picking up their first linguistic communication. Whereas, the procedure in the acquisition system is a witting procedure which consequences in witting cognition ‘about ‘ the linguistic communication. Here a scholar should be cognizant of his ain procedure such as doing sense of assorted grammar regulations.

( 2 ) The Monitor hypothesis. This hypothesis is related to the acquisition system. During this procedure, the acquisition system acts consciously as a proctor or editor to redact and rectify the divergences to give the address a more polished manner.

( 3 ) Natural Order hypothesis: Krashen postulates that people get the regulations of linguistic communication in a predictable “ natural ” order. Some regulations of the linguistic communication tend to be acquired early while others tardily.

( 4 ) Input hypothesis: This hypothesis is cardinal amongst the five Krashen ‘s hypotheses. In this hypothesis, Krashen attempts to explicate his position of how the scholar acquires the 2nd linguistic communication. Krashen argues that a scholar acquires a second/foreign linguistic communication in merely one manner when she/he is exposed to “ comprehendible input ” that is a “ small beyond ” her/his current degree of competency “ i+1 ” . This comprehendible input “ i+1 ” could be defined as an instructional message that is easier for the pupils to understand its kernel. Krashen ‘s input hypothesis has great relevancy to the present survey because it fits the construct of reclaimable acquisition objects where the basic unit of RLOs is a granule. The granule can be a text, sound or picture that makes sense to the scholar. From this granule, more can be added to hold more inputs.

( 5 ) Affective Filter hypothesis: In this hypothesis, Krashen hypothesizes that a figure of ‘affective variables ‘ such as motive, assurance, and anxiousness could play a facilitative function in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. A contributing environment that is able to transfuse a high degree of motive, assurance, and minimum degree of anxiousness among scholars is better for 2nd linguistic communication acquisition and frailty versa.

What is the connexion of the Krashen ‘s input theory to the Mayer ‘s cognitive theory of multimedia acquisition that is used in the present survey? The Mayer ‘s cognitive theory of multimedia larning provinces that meaningful inputs for choice, organisation and integrating of cognition have to happen for meaningful acquisition. This inputs can be in the signifier of images ( inactive images or life ) every bit good as text ( either narrative text or on-screen text ) . This theory is really related to the hypotheses advanced by Krashen who posits the impression of “ comprehendible input ” , vis-a-vis scholars get linguistic communication by having and understanding linguistic communication inputs that is a “ small beyond ” their current degree of competency. In this sense, those inputs can be comprehendible by showing the information in multiple manners such as text and images.

1.4.2 Long ‘s Interaction Hypothesis

Long ‘s interaction hypothesis ( 1983 ; 1996 ) postulates that 2nd linguistic communication acquisition is strongly facilitated when scholars participate in the dialogue of significance ( i.e. interactive sequences to do common apprehension ) . This is compactly articulated by Long ( 1996 ) who states that

“ dialogue for significance, and particularly negotiation work that triggers instructional accommodations by NS ( native talker ) or more competent middleman, facilitates acquisition because it connects input, internal scholar capacities, peculiarly selective attending, and end product in productive ways ” ( Long, 1996 ) .

In interaction hypothesis theory, Long ( 1983 ; 1985 ) confirmed that comprehendible input is really indispensable for SLA, but non a sufficient factor. He suggested that scholars can increase the sum of comprehendible input that they receive through the dialogue around intending that occurs when they engage in assortment of communicative activities. These activities may include assorted back uping tools that help the pupils when they do non understand the input.

This position of Long has been supported by several surveies conducted by Pica ( 1987 ) , Gass and Varonis ( 1994 ) , Gass and Mackey ( 1998 ) , and Swain and Lapkin ( 1998 ) . These surveies supported the importance of interaction for 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. However, barely any survey has been conducted in Arabic states particularly in Yemen. Therefore this survey is done to determine the efficaciousness of this hypothesis.

There is a clear connexion between Long ‘s interaction hypothesis and the Jonassen ‘s theoretical account of constructivist larning environment. Jonassen ‘s constructivist theoretical account of larning environment provinces that cognition is separately constructed and socially co-constructed by pupils. Therefore, it is necessary to supply an environment where the scholar is posed with a job or inquiry to concentrate on, and the learning environment provides assorted tools for interpretive and rational support to turn to the job or inquiry faced by the scholar. In this theoretical account, pupils may fall back to assorted schemes to “ modify ” the input to do it comprehendible. These schemes include related instances and information resources, cognitive tools, conversation and coaction tools, and societal or contextual support systems.

1.5 Computer Assisted Language Learning ( CALL )

Computer Assisted Language Learning ( CALL ) may be defined as “ the hunt for and survey of applications of the computing machine in linguistic communication instruction and acquisition ” ( Levy, 1997 ) . Gruba ( 2004 ) pointed out that ‘CALL ‘ as nomenclature is now widely regarded as the cardinal term mentioning to surveies concerned with 2nd linguistic communication and computing machine engineering. Nowadays, the term Computer-Assisted Language Learning ( CALL ) has become a cant and is playing more and more influential functions for second/foreign linguistic communication acquisition as personal computing machines became easier to utilize. This position is in line with Warschauer ( 2004 ) who clearly states that technological alteration is the of import factor that will act upon the hereafter of CALL. He farther suggests that the full power of engineering alterations will enable pupils to utilize their English in an unprecedented manner. However, the history of CALL shows that the advancement of CALL development has gone through three distinguishable phases. These phases are structural CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL ( Warschauer, 1996 ) . In fact, each of these phases corresponds to new thoughts and utilizations of computing machines being introduced. Table 2.2 depicts the three phases of CALL.

Table 2.2: The Three Stages of CALL ( Warschauer, 2004 )



Structural CALL




twenty-first Century:

Integrative Call



Personal computers

Multimedia and





Translation & A ; Audio-



Language Teaching



Position of Language


( a formal structural

system )


( a mentally constructed

system )


( developed in societal

interaction )

Principal Use of


Drill and Practice



Authentic Discourse

Principal Objective




( 1 ) Structural CALL: This phase was the first development phase of CALL. It was conceived in the 1950s and implemented in the sixtiess and 1970s. The structural CALL phase was based on the behavioristic attack. It can be referred to as “ drill and pattern ” where computing machine as teacher, serves chiefly as a vehicle for presenting larning stuffs to the pupils. However, at the terminal of the 1970s, this attack had somewhat changed from concentrating on the signifier of the linguistic communication to concentrate on its significance. This alteration had direct consequence on the nature of CALL activities.

( 2 ) Communicative CALL: This phase emerged in the late seventiess and early 1980s when behavioristic attack to linguistic communication acquisition was being rejected at both the theoretically and didactically. It was based on cognitive position of linguistic communication larning which held that acquisition was a procedure of find, look, and development. Therefore in this phase, pupils develop linguistic communication as an internal mental system chiefly through interaction. This phase had witnessed a roar in CALL. Numerous types of CALL plans were developed and used for different facets of linguistic communication accomplishments such as hearing, speech production, reading, authorship, and pronunciation. However, by the terminal of the 1980s, many pedagogues critiqued this phase of CALL as the computing machine was being used in an ad hoc and peripheral which contributed to marginal instead than of cardinal elements of linguistic communication acquisition. In this phase the input was the of import proviso instead than the content of the interaction for the pupils to develop their mental lingual system.

( 3 ) Integrative Call: This phase started in the late eightiess and early 1990s. It was marked by the debut of two of import inventions. These inventions are multimedia and Internet. The current phase of integrative CALL is based on a socio-cognitive position of linguistic communication acquisition. This position suggests that the best manner for larning a 2nd or foreign linguistic communication is in an reliable context. Here, the content of interaction is really of import as it helps the pupils to build their cognition and therefore get the linguistic communication by understanding the input in an reliable environment.

The move of CALL from behaviourism through cognitivism to constructivism represents displacements in accent off from an external position to an internal position of linguistic communication acquisition. To the behaviourist, the acquisition procedure focuses on a new behavioural form being repeated until it becomes automatic, to the cognitivist, the acquisition procedure focuses on detecting the alterations in behaviour which is used as indexs to explicate what is go oning indoors in the pupil ‘s head. In contrast, the larning procedure in constructivism focal points on fixing the pupils to job solve in equivocal state of affairss. Constructivist views the pupils as builders of their cognition.

These developmental displacements of CALL ask for effectual direction that focal point on the pupils instead than on the instructor. Direction that view the pupils as builders who can build their cognition through interaction with the larning environment to understand what is being presented. Therefore, successful and effectual direction for 2nd and foreign linguistic communication larning emphasizes the acquisition environment that enables pupils to interact, modify, measure, and so build their ain cognition and apprehension.

1.6 Instructional Design Theoretical Framework

Reigeluth ( 1999 ) defines instructional design theories as “ design oriented, they describe methods of direction and the state of affairss in which those methods should be used, the methods can be broken into simpler constituent methods, and the methods are probabilistic ” . Instructional design theories could be used as models for developing faculties or lessons that addition and/or heighten the possibility of larning and promote the battle of pupils so that they learn faster and derive deeper degrees of apprehension.

The potency of reclaimable learning objects ( RLOs ) for effectual and efficient direction is high but remains mostly under-utilized. RLOs such as any information engineering tools need to be incorporated with instructional design theory which will supply expressed counsel on how RLOs aid to ease acquisition. Towards this terminal, this survey attempts to supply the appropriate theories and/or theoretical accounts to steer its design and development. These theories/models identify methods of direction and the state of affairss in which those methods should and should non be used in relation to RLOs.

1.6.1 Macro-model and Micro-model

Harmonizing to Reigeluth and Merrill ( 1978 ) there are three chief sorts of instructional schemes that are importance in instructional design theory. These schemes are delivery-strategies, management-strategies, and organization-strategies. Delivery-strategies are elemental methods for conveying the direction to the pupils and/or for having and reacting to input from the pupil. Management-strategies are elemental methods for doing determinations about which organizational- and delivery-strategy constituents to utilize during the instructional procedure. Whereas, organizational-strategies are elemental methods for forming the subject-matter content that has been selected for direction and can be subdivided into two subcategories: micro schemes and macro schemes ( Reigeluth, 1999 ) .

The micro-strategies relate to direction on a individual thought, such as one construct or rule, while macro-strategies relate to more than one thought, such as in sequencing or sum uping different subjects of the subject-matter that are to be presented ( Reigeluth et al. , 1980 ) . The following followers subdivisions and sub-sections describe assorted theories and theoretical accounts that were selected to function as either the micro-strategies or the macro-strategies to steer the design of the multimedia courseware vis-a-vis RLOs.

1.6.2 Micro Model

Clark & A ; Mayer ‘s ( 2003 ; 2008 ) six rules of multimedia design were adopted to organize a micro-strategy of a multimedia courseware of this survey. These rules were explained by Mayer ‘s ( 2001 ) cognitive theory of multimedia acquisition. Mayer ‘s theory and its two associated theories Sweller ‘s ( 1988 ) cognitive burden theory and Paivio ‘s ( 1986 ) Dual coding theory were described holla. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning ( CTML )

Mayer ‘s ( 2001 ) cognitive theory of multimedia acquisition encompasses three cardinal premises for multimedia direction. These premises draw on Paivio ‘s ( 1986 ) double coding theory, Sweller ‘s ( 1988 ) cognitive burden theory and Baddeley ‘s ( 1992 ; 1999 ) working memory theoretical account. Mayer ‘s theory assumes the followers:

1. Worlds have double independent and separate channels to treat ocular and audile experiences/information. This premise is consistent with Paivio ‘s double cryptography theory ( Paivio, 1986 ) .

2. Working memory has a limited capacity to hive away the sum of information that the scholars procedure in each channel. This premise concurs with Sweller ‘s cognitive burden theory ( Sweller, 1988 ) and Baddeley ‘s ( 1992 ) working memory theoretical account.

3. Meaningful acquisition occurs when a scholar selects, organise, and integrates relevant information in each channel ( Mayer, 2001 ) .

Mentioning to the 3rd premise, Mayer explains his doctrine for the meaningful acquisition. Harmonizing to him meaningful acquisition occurs when pupils are able to choose relevant images from the presented illustrations, choice relevant words from the presented text of narrative, mentally, organize the selected words and images into a coherent verbal representation and into a consistent ocular representation severally, and eventually link the ocular and verbal representations with each other and with anterior cognition. Figure 2.1 depicts cognitive theory of multimedia acquisition.

Assorted experimental surveies had been carried out by Clark and Mayer ( 2003 ; 2008 ) and yielded six major rules of multimedia design as describes in Table 2.3. These rules are in line with Mayer ‘s cognitive theory of multimedia acquisition. The rules explain how pupils learn better from the multimedia elements. In this survey, these rules were adopted for planing the instructional messages of the multimedia acquisition environment which is RLO-based.

Table 2.3: Principles of Multimedia Design ( Clark & A ; Mayer, 2008 )



Multimedia Principle

Learning from text and artworks is better than from text entirely

Spatial Contiguity Principle

larning from matching text and artworks is better when the corresponding text and artworks are presented near each other

Temporal Contiguity Principle

larning from matching text and artworks is better when matching text and artworks are presented at the same time instead than consecutively

Coherence Principle

Learning is better when there is no otiose text, artworks, or sound

Modality Principle

Learning is better with life and narrative than from life on-screen text

Redundancy Principle

Learning is better with life and narrative than life, narrative, and on screen text

In add-on, two of those rules: mode rule and redundancy rule are tested to find their consequence for larning English as foreign linguistic communication. The following two subdivisions discuss related issues of those two rules. Modality Principle

Modality rule provinces that pupils learn better from artworks and narrative than from artworks and on-screen text. The theoretical rational for this rule is based on the premise that when artworks and text are both presented visually, the ocular channel can be overloaded and the verbal channel is non used at all ( Clark & A ; Mayer, 2003 ; 2008 ) .

Harmonizing to Mayer ‘s cognitive theory of multimedia acquisition, pupils have two independent channels for both pictural and audile processing. Therefore, when images and on-screen text are presented at the same time, pupils have to treat those images and its explanatory text in her/his pictural channel. The capacity of working memory for the two channels is limited ( Baddeley, 1992 ; 1999 ) . Therefore, in such presentation, acquisition could be damaging as the pictural channel become overloaded. Figure 2.2 below shows the overloading of pictural channel with presentation of on-screen text and images. Pictures ( Clark & A ; Mayer, 2008 )

The overloading of pictural channel could be reduced through showing the image and its explanatory in speech signifier instead than on-screen text ( Clark & A ; Mayer, 2008 ) . In this state of affairs, the narrative enters the cognitive system of the pupils through the ears and is processed in the audile channel. The pictural channel will prosecute to treat the image. In this manner, neither pictural channel nor audile channel is overloaded. Figure 2.3 shows equilibrating content across pictural and audile channels with presentation of narrative and images. Redundancy Principle

Redundancy rule provinces that pupils learn better from artworks and narrative than from artworks, narrative, and on-screen text. The theoretical rational of this rule is based on the premise that when artworks and words are both presented visually, the pictural channel becomes overloaded ( Clark & A ; Mayer, 2003 ; 2008 ) .

Harmonizing to the Mayer ‘s cognitive theory of multimedia acquisition, adding excess on-screen text to the multimedia presentation could overload pictural channel. When images and narrative are presented at the same time with excess on-screen text, both of the images and on-screen text enter the pupils ‘ cognitive system through the eyes, whereas, the narrative enters the pupils ‘ cognitive system through the ears. In this manner, the limited mental resources of the pictural channel have to cover with both the images and the on-screen text at the same time. If the presentation content conveyed fresh information, pupils will be mentally engaged to cover with many ocular elements which took more mental resources. As a consequence, some of of import information may lose which negatively affects the pupils ‘ apprehension of the subject being presented. Figure 2.4 depicts the overloading of pictural channel with images explained by words in audio and on excess written text. Audio and Written Text ( Clark & A ; Mayer, 2008 )

However, there are some fortunes in which the redundant on-screen text does non yet find to whether cut down or increase the cognitive burden. These state of affairss were proposed by Clark and Mayer ( 2008 ) as follows:

  1. Kinds of Learner: Does adding redundant on-screen text to show at the same time with images and audio narrative hinder ( or even aid ) in linguistic communication acquisition for non-native pupils with really low prior cognition? This has great relevancy in the present survey where the topics consist of pupils who study English as a foreign linguistic communication.
  2. Kinds of Material: Does adding redundant on-screen text to show at the same time with images and audio narrative hinder ( or even aid ) when the on-screen stuff is proficient footings, equations, or brief headers?
  3. Kinds of Method: Does adding redundant on-screen text to show at the same time with images and audio narrative hinder ( or even aid ) the acquisition procedure when the on-screen text and corresponding artworks are presented consecutive or when the gait of presentation is sufficiently slow. Cognitive Load Theory ( CLT )

Cognitive burden theory as proposed by Sweller ( 1988 ) , states that effectual instructional techniques improve larning public presentation by directing cognitive resources towards activities that contribute straight to larning. This theory is based on the premise that the pupils have a limited processing capacity of working memory, so sufficient allotment of mental resources is indispensable for larning. In that sense, this theory suggests to show instructional stuffs of the subject-matter in different modes ( for illustration, utilizing auditory every bit good as ocular information ) . This presentation is based on the premise that the effectual size of the working memory will increase if information is partitioned between the pictorial and auditory channels ( Ardac & A ; Unal, 2008 ) .

Cognitive burden theory uses combination of information constructions and cognition of human knowledge to steer instructional design ( Sweller, 2004 ; van Merrienboer & A ; Sweller, 2005 ) . This theory generates many instructional techniques that cut down cognitive burden on the on the job memory. Working memory burden is affected by two type of cognitive burden: intrinsic cognitive burden and immaterial cognitive burden.

Harmonizing to Sweller ( 1998 ) , intrinsic cognitive burden is the intrinsic natural ( trouble degree ) of the learning stuffs themselves. This type of cognitive burden can non be altered by instructional design. Extraneous cognitive burden, in contrast, is unneeded burden on the working memory that does non lend to larning. This cognitive burden can be modified by instructional intercessions.

When the intrinsic cognitive burden is high ( instructional stuffs contain hard content ) and the immaterial cognitive burden is besides high, so entire cognitive burden will transcend mental resources and acquisition may neglect to happen ( Cooper, 1998 ) . Cognitive burden theory provides a theoretical base in planing guidelines to cut down the immaterial cognitive burden. By cut downing immaterial burden, sufficient allotment of mental resources will stay to cover with the intrinsic burden ( Copper, 1998 ) . Figure 2.5 and Figure 2.6 depict the relationship between the intrinsic cognitive burden and immaterial cognitive burden. ( Cooper, 1998 )

Extraneous cognitive burden forms the footing of the cognitive burden theory. The cognitive burden theory provides empirically-based guidelines that help instructional interior decorators to diminish immaterial cognitive burden during larning. Table 2.4 below shows major guidelines that contribute to cut down immaterial cognitive burden.

Table 2.4: Major guidelines to cut down immaterial cognitive burden

( new wave Merrienboer & A ; Sweller, 2005 )



Extraneous burden

Goal-free consequence

Replace conventional jobs with goal-free jobs that provide scholars with an a-specific end

Reduces immaterial cognitive burden caused by associating a current job province to a end province and trying to cut down differences between them: focal point scholar ‘s attending on job provinces and available operators

Worked illustration consequence

Replace conventional jobs with worked illustrations that must be carefully studied

Reduces immaterial cognitive burden caused by weak-method job resolution: focal point scholar ‘s attending on job provinces and utile solution stairss

Completion job consequence

Replace conventional jobs with completion jobs. supplying a partial solution that must he completed by the scholars

Reduces immaterial cognitive burden because giving portion of the solution reduces the size of the job infinite: focal point attending on job provinces and utile solution stairss

Split attending consequence

Replace multiple beginnings of information ( often pictures and attach toing text ) with a individual. integrated beginning of information

Reduces immaterial cognitive burden because there is no demand to mentally incorporate the information beginnings

Modality consequence

Replace a written explanatory text and another beginning of ocular information such as a diagram ( unimodal ) with a

spoken explanatory text and a ocular beginning of information ( multimodal )

Reduces immaterial cognitive burden because the multimodal presentation uses both the ocular and audile processor of working memory

Redundancy consequence

Replace multiple beginnings of information that are self-contained ( i.e.. they can be understood on their ain ) with one beginning of information

Reduces immaterial cognitive burden caused by unnecessarily treating excess information Double Coding Theory ( DCT )

Double cryptography theory is a theoretical account that is based on cognitive information processing theory. It was foremost proposed by Paivio ( 1971 ) to account for verbal and gestural influences on memory. The theory is so, advanced by Paivio ( 1986 ) as an drawn-out version to suit new informations every bit good as theoretical issues that have become outstanding since the original version.

A basic premise of double cryptography theory is that both ocular and verbal information handled cognitively by two separate but interrelated cognitive subsystems. These subsystems are non-verbal and verbal subsystems. Non-verbal subsystem is specialised for the representation and processing of gestural objects and events such as images. Verbal subsystem, in contrast, is specialised for the representation and processing of verbal objects such as text or sound ( Paivio, 1986 ) .

Paivio ( 1986 ) postulates two different types of representational units: “ imagens ” for mental images and “ logogens ” for verbal entities. Logogens are organised in footings of consecutive constrained and hierarchies while imagens are organised in footings of holistic and coincident relationships. Double coding theory identified three distinguishable degrees of processing ( see Figure 2.7 ) . These degrees are described as follows:

( 1 ) Representational processing: It is the initial activation of logogens or imagens. The activation of verbal or non-verbal representation depends on the stimulus state of affairs and single differences. This stimulation would be the text and/or audio features every bit good as the illustrations and images presentation. The single differences, on the other manus, would include learning ability, prior cognition, instructional stuffs, and so on.

( 2 ) Associate processing: This degree involves distributing activation of representations within the same verbal or non-verbal system that is typically associated with meaningful comprehension.

( 3 ) Referential processing: It is the activation of the verbal system by the non-verbal system or vice-versa. The referential processing makes connexion between the two channels.

The two systems are assumed to be functionally independent. This means that both verbal and non-verbal systems are “ stand-alone ” in activation. Each system can be activated with or without each other. Indeed, this theory emphasized that acquisition is better when the information is referentially processed through the two systems. The interrelatednesss and connexions of the two systems ( referential ) allow the double cryptography of information ( verbal and gestural ) . In multimedia acquisition, the referential processing may happen, for illustration, when a pupil sees a image of an object and verbally processes it matching description whether in text or in narration signifier ( Najjar, 1996 ) .

1.6.3 Macro Model

As mentioned earlier, macro-strategies are those instructional methods for the design of larning activities. These schemes are concerned on sequencing, and organizing the subjects of the subject-matter that are to be presented. In this survey, macro-strategies were formed by uniting the New Bloom Taxonomy with the theoretical account for planing constructivist larning environments. Bloom Taxonomy

The initial point of the instructional design procedure is to find what the leaner will derive from direction. Learning aims help to place what accomplishments are expected to accomplish by the leaner as a consequence of direction. Specific, concise, and mensurable aims play a important function to steer the instructional interior decorators during the courseware development ( Mager, 1991 ) . To that terminal, the New Bloom Taxonomy ( Anderson & A ; Krathwohl, 2001 ) was adopted to denominate the degrees of larning aims.

Bloom ‘s authoritative taxonomy has been emerged since the mid-1950s when his book entitled “ Taxonomy of Educational Aims: Handbook I: Cognitive Sphere ” was published in 1956. This taxonomy contains three spheres: cognitive, psychomotor and affectional. The taxonomy is hieratically attack in the sense of higher and lower order of believing accomplishments. It is suggested that higher degrees are built on each its degree below. In other words, to turn to the higher degree, pupils should be foremost achieved at each degree below. Figure 2.8 illustrates the hierarchy of Bloom ‘s authoritative taxonomy.

Mentioning to Figure 2.8, the Bloom ‘s taxonomy comprised of six classs or degrees. As stated earlier these degrees are built in hierarchy mode, from the basic to the degrees that are more sophisticated. Descriptions of these degrees are as follows:

Cognition: This degree focuses on the ability of pupils to retrieve facts, constructs, or rules.

Comprehension: It focuses on understanding the information that the pupils memorized and so interpret in their ain words.

Application: This degree focuses on the ability of the pupil to use what they memorized and understood.

Analysis: It focuses on the ability of the pupils to analysis, interrupt down, compares, and differentiates ( critical thought accomplishments ) between facts and illations to understand what was applied.

Synthesis: This degree focuses on the ability of the pupils to construct a construction or pattern base on what they understood and has been applied.

Evaluation: It focuses on the ability of the pupils to do judgement about the value of thoughts or stuffs that they applied.

Anderson and Krathwohl ( 2001 ) revised the original Bloom ‘s taxonomy and supply a new taxonomy to categorise capable affair content into larning aims. This taxonomy is well-known as “ New Bloom ‘s Taxonomy ” . The new taxonomy is an effort to supply a model for instructors to add the latest relevant theory and research in the field of human knowledge. However, both versions of bloom taxonomy are classified the cognitive degrees into six degrees which help the pedagogues to concentrate on different larning activities of higher and/or lower-order thought accomplishments.

There are two chief differences between the authoritative and the New Bloom Taxonomy. First, the new taxonomy reworded the footings of the former degrees from nouns to verbs which are more accurate to depict the significance of each degree. In the new taxonomy, cognition became retrieving, comprehension became understanding, application became applying, analysis became analysing, synthesis became evaluating, and rating became making.

Second, the two higher-order degrees in the authoritative taxonomy were relocated to be in conformity with recent surveies of higher-order thought accomplishments. Harmonizing to Sousa ( 2006 ) pupils need higher complex thought in planing or bring forthing a new thought than in doing a judgement. In add-on, knowledge degree in the original taxonomy has become a separate dimension. Therefore, there are two dimensions in the new taxonomy: cognitive procedure dimension and a cognition dimension. Figure 2.9 shows the differences between the two versions of Bloom ‘s taxonomy.


Table 2.5 describes a matrix that was proposed by Anderson and Krathwohl ( 2001 ) . This matrix is used as a templet by the instructional interior decorators to name the acquisition aims which in bend guide the interior decorators during a developmental procedure of larning environment. Model for Planing the Constructivist Learning Environments ( CLEs )

An reliable acquisition environment is the best for larning a foreign linguistic communication ( Wang, 2005 ) . This environment can be enhanced by constructivism attack whereby the pupils are actively engaged in authentic-problem resolution activities ( Jonassen, Peck & A ; Wilson, 1999 ; Jonassen, 2003 ) . There are many practicians provided a set of guidelines that could be used to make constructivist-based e-learning. However, Jonassen ( 1999 ) provides likely the most utile counsel for planing constructivist larning environments ( Toh, 2003 ; Brandon, 2004 ) . Figure 2.10 depicts Jonassen ‘s theoretical account for condescending the constructivist larning environments ( CLEs ) .

( Jonassen, 1999 )

The theoretical account of Constructivist Learning Environments or CLEs is a model that conceives of an appropriate job as the cardinal focal point of the environment. The end of the pupils in this environment is to work out the job, interact with others and measure their acquisition. Therefore, the instructional interior decorators have to develop assorted interpretive and rational support systems to promote and steer the pupils to work out a job. These include related instances, information resources, cognitive tools, conversation/collaboration tools, and social/contextual support.

The job or undertaking

The pupils ‘ chief focal point in constructivist acquisition environment is the job or undertaking context that they attempt to work out or decide. The chief difference between CLEs and objectivist is that pupils construct their cognition of the subject-content in order to work out the job, whereas, in objectivist attack they solve the job as an application of the acquisition. To bring forth meaningful acquisition, pupils should have interesting, relevant and clear job. The job should besides be surrounded by state of affairss and issues as it is in existent life. In this regard, the job needs to include three incorporate constituents. These constituents are ( a ) the job context, ( B ) the job representation, and ( degree Celsius ) the job use infinite.

( a ) The Problem Context

The job statement in the acquisition environment should be cleared and described the contextual issues such as physical, socio-cultural and organizational clime that surround the job. In this manner, pupils can understand the job and have motive to work out it.

( B ) The Problem Representation

The job should stand for in such manner to be interesting, appealing, and prosecuting for a pupil to be simulated and perturbed. The job context and job representation go a narrative provides a set of events that leads to the job that need to be solved by the pupils. Therefore, the job can be narrative collapsible shelter text, sound, or picture, it can be besides introduced in practical world and on high quality picture scenarios.

( degree Celsius ) The Problem Manipulation Space

The job in constructivist larning environment should provides the same restraints and advantages that would be in the real-world undertakings. Therefore, pupils should prosecute in activities which present the same type of cognitive challenges as those in the existent universe. With this in head, pupils should be able to pull strings something such as the objects of capable affair being presented and trial hypotheses about the job. They besides should be able to obtain feedback as effects of their uses.

Related Cases

In constructivism, pupils can build their cognition to get new experience, even if they are novice pupils and have no old cognition to construct on. To this terminal, CLEs suggest to show related experiences or cognition to which pupils can mention to understand the issues implicit in the job representation. These related experiences are besides known as related instances. The related instances support larning by two ways. First, it supports larning by scaffolding pupils ‘ memory. Second, it support larning by heightening cognitive flexibleness. The first manner can be performed through supplying the pupils with illustrations for comparing with the job posed. The 2nd manner can be performed through supplying a assortment of point of views and positions on the instance or undertaking being examined.

Information Resources

Rich beginnings of information are of import issue in planing constructivist larning environment. Students require information to construct mental theoretical account and formulate hypotheses in the sense of job reading. Therefore, it is of import to find what information the pupils need in order to grok the job. The World Wide Web is a powerful beginning of information that helps pupils to understand the job. However, some of the pupils peculiarly novitiates, may confront troubles to find the related beginnings. Therefore, it is necessary that the instructional interior decorators guide the pupils to entree more relevancy beginnings in ways that support the sort of believing expected from them.

Cognitive Tools

Complex, novel and reliable undertakings are presented in constructivist acquisition environment. Therefore, cognitive tools that assist pupils to execute those undertakings should be provided. Cognitive tools are generalisable computing machine tools that are intended to prosecute and ease specific sorts of cognitive processing ( Kommers, Jonassen & A ; Marie goeppert mayers, 1992 ) . In utilizing cognitive tools, pupils learn with the engineering instead than from it. Cognitive tools are rational devices that are used to visualise, organise, automate, or supplant thought accomplishments. These tools can prosecute pupils in the productive processing of information. However, the cardinal end of cognitive tools is “ to do effectual usage of the mental attempts of the scholar ” ( Jonassen, 1996 ) .

Conversation and Collaboration Tools

As believed, pupils learn one from another in coaction within squad, non in isolation. CLEs should be able to assist pupils to collaboratively build socially shared cognition. To make this, CLEs should supply entree to shared information and shared knowledge-building tools. When pupils work in a squad, their energies focus on work outing the job they encountered. Currently, the conversations may be supported by different types of computing machine conferences such as Yahoo courier, MSN courier and so on.

Social/Contextual Support

It is of import to suit contextual factors such as the physical, organizational and cultural facets of the environment to guarantee the success of the execution of the CLEs. Thus, those “ instructors ” who will be back uping the acquisition and those “ pupils ” who will larn from the environment have to obtain training plan.

Supporting Learning in Constructivist Learning Environments

In CLEs, pupils need to research and joint what they know and what they have learned. They besides need to theorize and pull strings the environment in order to concept and prove their theories and theoretical accounts ; reflect on what they do, why something works or does non and what they have learned from the activities. These larning activities indicate the ends for supplying instructional supports in constructivist acquisition environment, such as mold, training and scaffolding.


There are two types of mold in constructivist acquisition environments ( CLEs ) . These types are behavioural mold and cognitive mold. Behavioral patterning demonstrates how to execute the activities whereas cognitive mold articulates the logical thinking that pupils should utilize. Modeling schemes focus on the expert ‘s public presentation where it provides worked illustrations that describe how jobs are solved by an experient job convergent thinker.


Students will try to execute like the theoretical account in order to larn. They crude imitation, and so they will better by jointing and using public presentation to the creative activity of skilled and original public presentations. Their public presentations are likely to better with coaching. The function of training is to actuate pupils, analyse their public presentations, provide feedback and advice on the public presentations and how to larn about how to execute, and provoke contemplation on and articulation of what was learned.


Scaffolding provides impermanent models to back up acquisition and pupils ‘ public presentation beyond the pupils ‘ capacities. It is a more systematic attack to back up the scholar, concentrating on the undertaking, the environment, the instructor and the pupil. Scaffolding involves schemes that provide support to let the pupil to larn for herself or himself ( Hogan & A ; Pressley, 1997 ) . Harmonizing to Hannafin, Land, and Oliver ( 1999 ) , there are four types of scaffolding schemes: ( a ) conceptual, ( B ) metacognitive, ( degree Celsius ) procedural, and ( vitamin D ) strategic. Table 2.6 below shows description of these schemes.

Table 2.6: Types of Scaffolding Strategies ( Hannafin, Land, and Oliver, 1999 )

Scaffold Types and Functions

Related Methods & A ; Mechanisms


A· Supplying pupils with expressed intimations and prompts as needed ( Vygotskian staging )

A· Recommending the usage of certain tools at peculiar phases of job work outing Providing construction maps and content trees

Guides scholar in what to see ; considerations when job undertaking is defined


A· Proposing pupils program in front, evaluate advancement and determine demands

A· Modeling cognitive schemes and mileposts

Guides how to believe during acquisition: ways to believe about the job under survey and schemes to see ; determination and framing jobs


A· Supplying “ pop-up ” aid

A· Tutoring on system maps and characteristics

Guides how to use the available CLE characteristics ; on traveling “ aid ” and advice on characteristic maps and utilizations


A· Enabling intelligent responses to system usage, suggest alternate methods and processs

A· Provided start-up inquiries to be considered

A· Supplying advice from experts

Ushers in analysing and nearing larning undertakings or job ; provided ab initio as macro scheme or ongoing as demands or petitions arise

1.7 Motivation and ARCS

Teachers can learn their pupils but they can non do them larn because acquisition is an internal, personal, and finally single act ( Allen, 2003 ) . He farther adds that “ personal energy fuels indispensable activities of perceptual experience, callback, analysis, creative activity of meaningful association, and storage of information ” . Thus, motive is a cardinal constituent for meaningful acquisition as pupils are the active participants of the acquisition procedure ( Kocaman-Karoglu, Kiraz, & A ; Ozden, 2008 ) .

Due to the fact that motive is an indispensable component for direction and acquisition, no unvarying definition of motive has coined as standard definition ( Hodges, 2004 ) . However, many research workers have formulated different definitions of motive that are relevant to larning. For illustration motive was defined as “ a conjectural concept that loosely refers to those internal and external conditions that influence the rousing, way and care of behaviour ” ( Martin & A ; Briggs, 1986 ) . Another definition of motive has been formulated as “ the magnitude and way of behaviour. In other words, it refers to the picks people make as to what experiences or ends they will near or avoid, and the grade of attempt they will exercise in that regard ” ( Keller, 1983 ) . Pulist ( 2001 ) states that motive can be seen as a merchandise of involvement in the content, supportive and gratifying societal scenes and personal battle in meaningful undertakings with clear relevant information. It can be defined besides as “ a individual ‘s desire to prosecute a end or execute a undertaking, which is manifested by pick of ends and attempt ( persistence plus energy ) in prosecuting the end ” ( Robert & A ; John, 2002 ) .

Historically, there have been many motivational theories in the field of instruction that revealed the importance of motive in support the results of direction. For illustration, Maslow ( 1954 ) developed the hierarchy of demands theory which presents a primary thought in understanding human motive. This theory assumes that pupils are motivated by pyramid demands. These demands are placed from lower needs up to the higher demands. Maslow identifies five classs of demands: physiological demand, safety demands, societal demands, esteem demands, and self-actualization demands. Once the lower demand is met, pupil motivates to carry through the following upper demands.

Another motivational theory is ERG theory which was developed by Alderfer ( 1972 ) to turn to the restriction of Maslow ‘s theory. The acronym ‘ERG ‘ is formed by simplifying the hierarchy of Maslow ‘s demands into three demands: being demand, relatedness demand, and growing need. These demands can be matched with Maslow ‘s demands as follows: being need matched with physiological and safety demands. Relatedness need matched with societal and esteem demands. Growth need matched with esteem and self-actualization demands. However, ERG theory differs in some of import facets. First, unlike hierarchy demands, ERG allows for different degrees of demands to be pursued at the same time. Second, harmonizing to ERG when demands in a higher class are non met, the individual may repeat the attempt invested in lower degree demands that appears easier to fulfill.

Another theory that presents clear thoughts of motive in larning field is the expectancy-value theory. This theory is based on the premise that motive is a map of two conditions: anticipations and values. The theory postulates that pupils are motivated to finish the end, if they have “ positive anticipation ” for success and the end has “ positive value ” for them. This premise was contributed for the development of the motivational theoretical account known as the ARCS theoretical account.

However, there are many other features should be considered in understanding the motive. These features are wonder, desires to be competitory, esthesis seeking, anticipation of success ( Toh, 1998 ) . In the same vena, Keller ( 1987 ) states that in the field of instruction, motive was studied from a general point of view. Most surveies were focus to analyze the motive in the footings of its effectivity on results of instructions. These surveies may assist the instructional interior decorators to understand the motive in assorted ways but they did non assist them to cognize the types of schemes that they could be used within a given pupils ( Keller, 1987 ; Song & A ; Keller, 2001 ) .

Keller ( 1987 ) further adds that these surveies “ did non integrate of import rules from several countries of motivational research that have been studied in recent old ages ( e.g. wonder, esthesis seeking, and intrinsic motive ) ” . For these grounds Keller ( 1987 ) developed a theoretical account for motivational manner known as ARCS theoretical account.

ARCS theoretical account is a method to consistently plan motive schemes into instructional stuffs. This theoretical account is grounded in a figure of motivational theories and constructs. It is a decision of a comprehensive reappraisal of the literature in societal acquisition theory, motive theory and cognitive psychological science. However, this theoretical account is based on the premise that motive is a map of two conditions: anticipations and values. Harmonizing to ARCS theoretical account, pupils are motivated to finish the end, if they have “ positive anticipation ” for success and the end has “ positive value ” for them. This premise is the base of expectancy-value theory. Therefore, ARCS theoretical account was developed based on the expectancy-value theory ( Keller, 1987 ) .

The ARCS is a well-known motivational theoretical account and widely applied to the design and development of computer-assisted direction plans ( Song & A ; Keller, 2001 ; Huang, Diefes-Dux, Imbrie, Daku, & A ; Kallimani, 2004 ) . In this theoretical account, Keller emphasized that motive involves more than extrinsic factors and pupils are affected by extrinsic every bit good as intrinsic factors, such as wagess, penalties and cognitive rating. The acronym ARCS refer to the four design considerations for making motive direction: ( A ) Attention ; ( R ) Relevance ; ( C ) Assurance ; and ( S ) Satisfactory. Table 2.7 below shows the acronym of four motivational schemes developed by Keller ( 1987 ) .

Table 2.7: Detailss of ARCS Model ( Keller, 1983 )



( A ) Attention

Attention schemes for eliciting and prolonging wonder and involvement

( R ) Relevance

Relevance schemes linked to pupil ‘ demands, involvements and motivations

( C ) Assurance

Assurance schemes that help pupils develop a positive outlook for successful accomplishment

( S ) Satisfactory

Satisfaction schemes that provide extrinsic and intrinsic support for attempt

Attention indicates the ability to capture the involvement of scholars, to elicit their wonder to larn, and to keep their attending. This cardinal component of motive can be gained through some tactics such as perceptual rousing which refers to capturing pupils ‘ involvement, enquiry rousing that indicates to deriving the pupils ‘ wonder or involvement and variableness which is of import to forestall scholar ‘s humdrum through altering activities in the acquisition environment ( Keller, 1983 ) .

Relevance refers to run intoing the personal demands and ends of the scholar to impact a positive attitude. Keller ( 1983 ) identified three classs of schemes covering with relevancy: ( 1 ) Goal orientation which refers to run intoing the pupils ‘ outlooks or educational ends, ( 2 ) Motive fiting which involves the maneuver of fiting the pupils ‘ involvement and acquisition manners and ( 3 ) Acquaintance which relates to make links or maulerss to pupils ‘ old acquisition.

Assurance indicates assisting the scholars to believe/feel that they will win and command their success. Keller ( 1983 ) offered three schemes to derive the assurance in pupils: ( 1 ) Learning Requirements – clearly saying the outlooks for larning ( 2 ) Success chances back uping the pupils ‘ beliefs about their ability to larn, and ( 3 ) Personal Responsibility set uping the construct of attempt as the footing for success instead than political relations or fortune.

Satisfaction is the motive component that focuses on assisting pupils to experience positive about their accomplishment. Keller ( 1983 ) identifies three sorts of tactics to better learner satisfaction: ( 1 ) Intrinsic Reinforcement ; this scheme refers to promoting the joy of acquisition ( 2 ) Extrinsic Rewards ; set uping wagess for acquisition and ( 3 ) Equity carnival and equal intervention of all pupils.

1.8 Reclaimable Learning Objects ( RLOs )

In the past few old ages the usage of computing machine engineering has been quickly increasing in about all facets of our lives. With the coming of rapid proliferation of computing machines, their usage in instruction has besides been heightened in an amazing manner. Nevertheless, computer-based direction requires a higher initial investing in budget and clip, which occurs when instructors suffer from offering unneeded duplicate in making the instructional stuffs. Therefore, the demand of following new engineering that may lend to the decrease of these initial costs and avoid reinventing the wheel of what already done has been indispensable.

This engineering is reclaimable larning objects ( RLOs ) , the nucleus component of RLOs is the ability of reusability which supports the usage and reuse of the same RLOs within different content and context. This is compactly articulated by Wiley (

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