Running head: WHAT ARE ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES?
Running head: WHAT ARE ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES? Title Principles about Adult Learning Author Michael McElrath Author Affiliation Liberty University Author Note This paper was prepared for INFT-101, B61, taught by professor K Abstract Adult learning theory became well known in the US during the 20th century. Industrialization resulted in substantial demands for training. Then, they continue education for adults for the one already completed their elementary and secondary education.
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There is several numbers of dimensions of learning. There are also several kinds of memory. The training performance should remember and exercise the independence of the trainee as a self-directed person. The training materials should guarantee the trainee as a self-directed person, as well as exercise the experiential base that the trainee brings to the training position. Adult learning theory can certain improve and format training activities. They should be carefully by being reviewed by both the training staff and line manager. What Are Adult Learning Principle?
A previous issue of “Effective GMP” (Journal of GXP Compliance, Summer 2009, Volume 13, Number 3) identifies and briefly discusses the following key points that should be considered in management of GXP training program: 1. Training policy, standards, and procedures documented. 2. Training process strategy and approach defined. 3. Principles of adult learning theory considered. 4. Training needs analyzed and prioritized by risk analysis. 5. Collaboration of affected groups with defined responsibilities and requirements for each group. 6. Trainees and their organizations are “customers” of training. . Training appropriate for task. 8. Training materials and materials and methods appropriate and effective. 9. Qualified training personal. 10. Training performance. 11. Training effective monitoring and maintenance. 12. Change training if needed. 13. Training documentation. 14. Efficient and cost-effective training. 15. Senior management support training. Also, the authors of the Journal of GXP Compliance have received several questions about the principles of adult learning. The questions were combined into seven and they have important material for learning in them.
Principles about Adult Learning Learning Theory Adult learning practice and theory became well known in the history and education in the new life age. There were so many reasons for this. Industrialization results in many requests for whose training and continuing education for their self as an adult. The requests were on the rise by the development of the science-based companies. Adult education became organize in the system and then they learned professional. ”During the 1920s, Lindeman, proposed a set of adult learning principles” (see in Table 1) (Eduard C. Lindeman, 1926, p. 39-40).
Implications For Training Persons are responsible for organizing the training programs to classify to the groups about the differences in conduct training. The questions that are considered: 1. Is this training for new hires or repeat training for people who have been doing the job for 20 years? 2. Will the trainees be doing this work for one week and then be released, or will they be doing this work for an extended period-like one year? 3. What are the perspectives of the individuals to be trained? 4. Are they highly educated and experienced pharmaceutical scientists or newly hired workers without any background in the industry?
Each of these questions can highly affect the performance of your training or your work. Table 1: Lindeman’s principles of adult learning| MotivationOrientation to learn| As adults experience needs and interests that can besatisfied through learning, they are motivated to learn. Adults have a life-centric orientation to learning. | Experiential base| The richest source for adult learning is experience. | Self-direction| Adults need to be self-directed. | Individual differences| Individual differences increase with age. | Adults Learn Differently Than Children
This is a principle of adult learning theory that discuss that adult learns differently than children do. Pedagogy comes from a Greek name. 1Pedagogy means the teaching of children. The spokesman during the adult training was Malcolm Knowles. “Influenced by a Yugoslavian adult educator Dusan Svicevic, Knowles began to use the term “andragogy” (Malcolm S. Knowles, 1989, p. 8). 2Andragogy is the meaning of teaching of adults. “Knowles stressed the difference between the education and training of children (pedagogy) and the education and training of adults (andragogy)” (Malcolm S. Knowles, 1989, p. 79). He argued that there are a number of dimensions along which adult learning differs from that of children” (Malcolm S. Knowles, 1984, p. 12). ”These include self-concept, experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learning, and motivation to learn” (see Table2). (Malcolm S. Knowles, 1970). Table 2: Dimensions of Andragogy vs. Pedagogy. | Self-concept| The maturing person’s self -concept moves from one of being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directed human being. | Experience| | Readiness to learn| The maturing person’s readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his social roles. Orientation to learning| The maturing person’s time perspective changes from one orknowledge to immediacy of application, and accordingly the orientation toward learning shifts from one of subject-centeredness to one of problem centeredness. | Motivation to learn| As a person matures, the motivation to learn is internal. | There are some many that are alike and different in Lindeman’s principles. The principles of Knowles are clear. There is a major difference in one of Knowles principle that he stresses it is called vocational learning. Implications for Training The implications of Knowles’ principles for training are also clear” (James C. Fisher and Ronald L. Podeschi, Oct-Dec. 1989, p. 345-353). ”There are two implications that should especially be stressed” (Malcolm S. Knowles, Dec. 1979, p40-42). The trainee’s should understand remember the process of the training as a self-directed person. ”The trainee’s experiential base” (D. Randy Garrison, Fall 1997, p. 18-33). The manager of the training materials should advance the material to involve the trainee as a self-directed person.
They also applied the experience to the training program. An example to this is that when someone reads you something out loud that is poor approach to training -it means that the trainee can’t read for themselves. The program gives you least one or two days to read over the procedure. Then you can bring anything that you need to discuss with you during your training at your work.”Technical training is a response to some performance gap on the part of employees” (p. 18-33). 3No gap means no training is needed. When work places require unneeded training it has a negative effect on it that’s the bottom line.
During, a training session let the employee test out in a training session. This way it will be cheaper, faster, and better for the employee’s to meet the training requirements. How Can We Tell If Employees Have Really Learned? The best way to discuss this question is to recognize the complex of the problem. ” There are a number dimensions of dimensions of learning; there are several kinds of memory; there are multiple environmental and cultural factors; and there are methodological differences between various studies of learning across the lifecycle (Christopher Hertzog and John R.
Nesselroade, 2003, p. 639-657). All of these factors are the answer to the question. ”In 1950s,in a series of publications called the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999) and his colleagues distinguished three domains of learning: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor “(David R. Krathwohl and Lorin W. Anderson,2009,p. 107-110). ” For instance, within the cognitive domain are the categories of knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation” (Benjamin S. Bloom, 1956, p. 62-200). These groups are ordered: to understand a fact.
The affective departments are the groups of receiving, and responding are the inputs. The other groups are organizing, valuing, and internalizing values. The groups are also ordered to receive an input. ” The knowledge dimension has four categories: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and meta-cognitive knowledge” (Hugh Munby, Nancy L. Hutcchinson, and Peter Chin, 2009, p. 1765). All of them are nouns. ”The process dimension has six categories: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating.
These are all verbs. Like Bloom’s earlier categories, these categories are ordered”(Lorin W. Anderson and David R. Krathwohl,2001). This allows the development of a taxonomy table that handles the behavioral objectives. (see Table 3) Table 3: Taxonomy table for cognitive domain (2001). Categories of knowledge Categories of Categories of Categories of process Remembering process Understanding process Applying Factual Conceptual Procedural
Meta-cognitive Categories of knowledge Categories of Categories of Categories of process Analyzing process Evaluating process Creating The proper cell is identified in each of the training objectives. For example, the manger comes up to you at end of your shift to ask you to clean the machine. This way you can “identify” any visible residue on it. 4Identify refers to process category remembering, specifically to this particular behavioral objective. Visible residue refers to the knowledge category factual, specifically to the sub-category specific detail. To make sure as a trainer your train your trainee right way through the objectives and adult learning theory. How Can We Tell If Employees Will Remember The Training? You know you do a good job at training other people, but how do we know they are going remember and use the training that you taught them? This leads a long talk about the measurement of memory. Dimensions of Memory Turning from all the involvement of the learning domains and it is measurement.
Turning all the groups into a learning department is a process of memory is just as difficult. ” The supposition that exists a unitary memory has been abandoned decades ago in favor of the concept of the fractionation of memory (Alan D. Baddeley, 2007, p. 151-154). ”Different kinds of memory involve different systems within the brain (Neuroscientists Ranganath and Robert S. Blumenfeld, August 2007, p. 208-291). Three of the systems are short term, long term, and working memory. We as an adult going have them sometime in our lifecycle. Conclusions
In conclusion, the points have been discussed. There is a person responsible for all organizational training programs. They must make sure the groups they are training become most successfully in conduct training. There are so many differences among employees that can impact the effectiveness’ of training, and plus they should be taken into account to make training be as effective as possible. Reflection We are fixing to get into my point of view in adult learning theory. First I want to tell you what I have learned during while I am an adult.
M y kids come in from school asking me questions that I didn’t even get to learn while I was in school. I think that’s why we as adult go back to school to get updated on the new things in education. Another thing I have learned when I got married to my wife now is I didn’t know how big of a challenge it is having an autistic child . I got on the computer research something’s on it. Then, my wife sat me down to explain how to do everything with him. The 2nd point of view I want to tell you about from my point of view is collaboration of affected group request responsibilities and requirements for each of their groups.
You learn as an adult to make sure you clean and keep things clean where you won’t spread any germs. Kids don’t understand what germs are because they spread them easier than adults. That’s why you want to teach them to clean everything where they won’t spread germs to one thing to another. For example, you want teach your child to do good hand washing. That will reduce the spread of germs. You may get request to go do some type of cleaning while you are at work. This request helps us not to spread germs to everyone.
For example, if you are working in a fast food place and you go to use the bathroom you have to wash your hands. This helps use not spreading germs to everyone even to the customers. While you are at home you always make sure things stays clean where you won’t spread or have germs. This helps with your kids not getting sick so much. The 3rd point of view I want to tell you about from my point of view is training needs analyzed and prioritized by risk analysis. By being in school, we all will have to have short term and long term memory. We have to use this to learn different things in life.
You will use short term memory for a short period of time it can be for rest of your life. Sometimes, I go back ask myself if I really did do something I post to do for that day. What is that called? That means you has a short term memory lost for a short period of time during the day that you didn’t remember if you did it or not. When you get older you can have long term memory lost or even if you had head trauma you can also have it. The working memory has control over your behaviors that you do on a daily day. How do you control that? Nobody can control it but you.
You have to control your own behaviors because nobody else can control them for you. There are some many principles in adult learning theory that you need to know. Adults have their ways learning differently and children have their ways of learning. We all have to learn the principles in life to be able to learn throughout life as we go. We as adults have our own ways of learning things. You have to find the way you like to learn. You have to ask yourself if you like learning by pictures, diagrams, voices, or even sound References (1. ) Eduard C.
Lindeman, The Meaning of Adult Education, NY: New Republic, 1976, p. 39-40. (2. ) Malcolm S. Knowles, The Making of an Adult Educator, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989, p. 8. (3. ) Malcolm S. Knowles, The Making of an Adult Educator, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989, p. 79. (4. ) Malcolm S. Knowles, The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1970. (5. ) Malcolm S. Knowles et al. , Andragogy in action. Applying Modern Principles of Adult Education, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984, P. 12. (6. ) James C.
Fisher and Ronald L. Podeschi,”From Lindeman to Knowles: A Change in Vision, “International Journal of Lifelong Education, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct-Dec. 1989, p. 345-353. (7. ) Malcolm Knowles, Training and Development Journal, Vol. 33, No. 12, Dec. 1979, p. 40-42. (8. ) D. Randy Garrison,”Self-Directed Learning: Toward a Comprehensive Model,” Adult Education Quartly, Vol. 48, No. 1, Fall 1997, p. 18-33. (9. ) Christopher Hertzog and John R. Nesselroade,”Assessing Psychological Change in Adulthood: An Overview of Methodological Issues, “Psychology and Aging, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2003, p. 639-657. (10. ) David R. Krathwohl and Lorin W. Anderson, “Bloom’s Taxonomy, “Psychology of Classroom Learning, Eric Anderman (ed. ), NY: Macmillian, 2009, Vol. 1, p107-110. (11. ) Benjamin S. Bloom (ed), Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain, NY: David McKay, 1956, p. 62-200. (12. ) Hugh Munby, Nancy L. Hutchinson, and Peter Chin,” Workplace Learning: Metacognitive strategies for Learning in the Knowledge Economy, “International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work, 2009, p. 1765. (13. Lorin W. Anderson and David R. Krathwohl (eds), A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing, NY: Longman, 2001. (14. ) Neuroscientist Ranganath and Robert S. Blumenfeld,”Prefrontal Cortex and Long-Term Memory Encoding; An Integrative Review of Findings from Neuropsychology and Neuroimaging,” Neuroscientist,Vol. 13 ,No. 3, 2007, p. 280-291 (15. ) Alan D. Baddeley,”Working Memory: Multiple Models, Multiple Mechanisms, “Science of Memory, Henry L . Roediger III, Yadin Dudai, and Susan M. Fitzpatrick (eds. ), NY: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 151-154. | |