Romantic Concerto- Music Class Hunter College

Johann Sebastian Bach
Born on March 31, 1685 – Died July 28, 1750 at the age of 65. Born in Germany he was the greatest composers of all time and some might say the greatest organist of all time as well. He was in love with the Organ and created a series of concertos called the “Brandenburg Concertos”. He also used series of fugues a musical form where the repetition of melody with slight variations. He was mesmerized by the transcription of the keyboard( piano, forte piano, modern piano) .His concertos were ornate due to the Baroque period. He also incorporated the Harpsichord in his pieces as well.Used forms of riepienos, refrains, Some pieces he composed are:

1. Bach F minor – solo concerto ( Keyboard concertino)
2. Concerto Grosso for Four pianos
3. Brandenburg Concerto No.3 in G major
4.

Robert Schumann
Born June 8, 1810- Died July 29, 1856. this composer understood the movement of romanticism. Literary movement had a huge impact to the movement. He died of syphalis, he wasnt a good student in school. Family did not want his to be a musician. He died in an sane asylum. There were a series of mental illness in his family line and he went under the teachings of Frederick Wieck who was the father of his future wife Clara Schumann. He was greatly influenced by the work of Felix Mendelssohn. Used character pieces. He wrote a chello conerto, a violin concerto in d minor and a piano concerto. He writes a piece for Joachim famous violinist. He hides it in 1853. After this composed suicide attempt, Joachim hid this piece of music and thought it was the weaker side of him March of 1933 in London his grandnieces dominated the piano. Some pieces he composed are:
Piano Concerto in A minor
Piano Concerto in 1841 Concert Allegro didn’t call it concerto. It was a concert piece.
Joseph Joachim Love Triangle
Clare Schumann was both loved by Robert Schumann her husband and Brahms Robert’s predecessor and student. Joseph Joachim a famous violinist started the love triangle. Joachim introduced Brahms to Schumann. Brahms played sonatas, scherzos, when he arrived to meet Schumann, Clara heard Brahms and thought his talent was superb. Clara still married to Schumann fell in love with Brahms talent and Brahms himself. In 1854 Schumann was diagnosed with illness and sent to an asylum. He was not allowed to see Clara, Brahms loved Clara even more. Brahms took care of Clara. Clara wasn’t allowed to see Robert before his death. Robert died of syphilis. Brahms respected Robert and decided to leave Clara and not marry her. Clara was heart broken, but they continued to casually meet. Brahms never married after.
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Born December 17, 1770- Died March 26, 1827. He appealed to the masses. He cared about the individual and self enlightenment. In his early work he wrote three concertos that were written in classical form. He wrote 5 piano concertos, wrote a violin concerto, and concertos for chorus as well which is a total of 8 concertos. His concerto enlightenment showcases virtuosity more popular for the community, about the individual, mass sound with the symphony, and the individual – conflict and resolution ( perfect concerto form) It was considered the beginning of romantic writing . used the 4+5 approach to romantic writing. In the 4th concerto the soloist is the first to come in from the beginning in the g major scale. His most famous symphony was his 3rd which created a breakthrough of drama. he loved to travel in thirds. He was tired of the 1/5 form. Primarily liked to use 1/3. Cycles of thirds. He suffered from hearing loss gradually over time. He became completely deaf in 1816
Felix Mendelssohn
Born February 3 1809- Died November 4, 1847. German – Jewish composer was considered a child prodigy at the age of 9. Born into a prominent Jewish family, he was later baptized as a Christian. abandoned his Jewish family religion, he changed his name. His sister Fanny was a prodigy as well. He loved the organ similar to what Bach loved. He revived Bach’s style and reverts back to the classical period. He admired Bach very much. His writing was similar to Beethoven’s and Mozart. He used the full range of the piano and got rid of huge divisions to avoid the audience clapping at the end of a theme or movement. Used double octaves heard the theme in second movement staggered octaves typical romantic writing. Puts a lot of emphasis on soloist. Brings previous equipment to the movements( thematic transformation) themes returning. Revived the interest in Baroque style. Perfected the Classical form and the Emergence of true romanticism. Usage of long expositions, double concertos has fugue like qualities to it. By the age of 12 he wrote a violin concerto D minor written by Mendolsonn which indicates hints of Bach written in 1821-23 in his concerto is chamber music written for a premiere in May 25th not published until 1999.
Importance of Piano in 19th Century
It was the balance it provided for the composers.
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Arcangelo Corelli
Born in Italy in 1653 born a decade before Bach and Handel, He was a famous violinist, composer, and teacher. It was his skill on the violin that made him famous throughout Europe. He improved the potentialities of the concerto grosso the smaller group consists of two violins and a cello and the larger of a string orchestra. In this period the music was based on the terrace dynamics ( principle) contrast between forte and piano and between the large and small groups constituting the dynamic variety of the scores.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Born on January 27, 1756- Died December 5, 1791. In his 35 years of living this Austrian born composer was and is the most famous, influential, well respected, an admired composers of all time. Deemed a child prodigy at a very young age. He wrote his first Minuet at the age of 5 called Minuet in F major. He was very unorganized in keeping his work together. His variety of European venues, composing works such as sonatas, symphonies, requiems, concertos, and operas are marked with vivid emotion and sophisticated textures. He wrote music for oboe an flute. His oboe pieces went missing in 1920 pieces of music was found in Salzburg, Austria. Bassoon Concerto went missing as well. Wrote a horn concerto and one of the most difficult to play. Uses the diminish 7th chord very dramatic chord to improvise. Half cadence. 1-5 stops on dominant. Uses relative major key goes into F major. 3 half steps up from d major. Perfect sense of symmetry. Neapolitan chord Half step. Chromatic writing half step. Suspension chord. Augmented 6th chord. He thought that the most important element of music is silence. He wrote 22 operas. He was a melodic and lyrical genius. His concertos naturally shown his melodic genius, his grace of expression, they had not broken, except in small details, with the common, sociable style of his contemporaries.
Johannes Brahms
Born on May 7, 1833 viewed as the protagonist of the classical tradition of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Robert Schumann was his mentor and critic and he was in love his Schumann’s wife Clara. He never married.
Baroque Concerto
Emphasis on the soloists and greater display on virtuosity. Orchestra more of an supporting body. Even more contrast of the forces. Orchestral and Soloists.
Ritornello
meaning returns to the repeating theme, returning motor. returning main ideas. Revisiting the thematic piece.
Refrain
any line or group of lines that repeat within the bar of music. Between the body and soloist. It is a technique that originated in Greggorian chant ( monophonic) sound. Composers such as Bach and Mendelsohnn, use refrains in their music especially Bach
Tutti
meaning all together the everyone in the orchestra, (Entire Body) not the soloist. In Baroque Period the soloist would be excluded in the Romantic period the soloist would be included.
Concertino
Small group of soloists away from the orchestra. In Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto’s his Cello concerto the small group of violins are this because they play away from the other string instruments.
Riepieno
means all together
Baroque Trumpet
really high range only Patronia
Concertato Style
Interaction between two or more groups of instruments, voices, and the emphasis on themes of the groups and the soloists. Themes of the groups and soloists.
Brandenburg Concerti
Johanna Sebastian Bach created six masterful pieces of music which incorporated the balance between assorted groups of soloists and small orchestra. collections were composed in 1711-1720 and dedicated in 1721 to Christian Ludwig, the margrave ( marquess) of Brandenburg and the younger brother of King Frederick of Prussia.
Cadenza
An extended virtuosity section for the soloist usually near the end of the movement of a concerto
Double Exposition
First section of the movement is played twice by the orchestra alone and the second time by the soloist accompanied by the orchestra.
Concerto Allegro Form
The Classical Period
Also known as the period of enlightenment, they believed in reasoning, structure, away from liturgical, music, science, written in big cities, philosophy, ” freedom of the individual” Middle class society, appeal to the masses, simple structure, balanced. symmetric, elegant, clarity, Greek and Roman influenced, based on Greek aesthetics.
The Baroque Period
instruments keyboard evolving, Nobility Kings and Queens, ornate an complicated, moteric pieces, mono thematic one theme.
Romanticism or Romantic Period
19th century it took place. Believed that they heavily relied on the feeling and not so much of the structure as composers in the Classical period relied on so much.