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Role Of The Forestry Department In Malaysia Environmental Sciences Essay

2.1 Introduction

Malaysia is a tropical state which consists of three parts: Peninsular Malaysia and the two Borneo provinces of Sabah and Sarawak.Harmonizing to Forest Statistic Information for the Year 2009 from Official Website Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, the forested country in Peninsular Malaysia is 5.89 million hectares from overall Peninsular Malaysia Area which is 13.18 million hectares.

McMorrow & A ; Talip ( 2001: 217, mentioning Wood 1990 ) have pointed out that, based on its public presentation up till the terminal of the 1980s ; Malaysia is one of the 14 major states with over 250,000 hectares deforested yearly.They added that by the late 1980s half of the forest country in Peninsular Malaysia and a fifth in Borneo had gone.

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A assortment of factors contribute to this province of personal businesss. When deforestation and forest debasement became critical issues, switching cultivation was singled out by the authoritiess, and peculiarly by the Sarawak authorities, as the chief cause of forest loss. Yet, it has since been established that forest debasement due to switching agriculturists is ‘minor ‘ ( Cramb 1989 ; Jomo et.al. 2004 ; Nicholas 2003 ) . The major causes of the diminution in forest country and quality include commercial logging, agricultural development, dikes and relocation.

To look profoundly into the affair of the function of authorization from land office and forest section to forestall illegal business in the wood, the writer will give some definitions about forest, illegal wood activities which include illegal business of forestlands, illegal logging, etc. The Torahs such as National Land Code1965 and National Forestry Act 1984 that involve illegal business in wood have to be defined. Forest direction or sustainable forest direction besides has to be defined to happen out overview of forest jurisprudence enforcement and system monitoring in Malaysia. Since the respondents of survey are governments from land office and forestry section, therefore the maps, functions or duties besides need to be defined.

2.2 Definition

2.2.1 Forest

Harmonizing to Oxford Advanced Learner ‘s Dictionary, wood is a big country of land that is thickly covered with trees. While in Cambridge Advance Learner ‘s Dictionary, wood is defined as a big country of land covered with trees and workss, normally larger than a wood, or the trees and workss themselves. Forest is a debatable and intercrossed class. As defined in FRA2000, it is a combination of a land-cover category and a land-use category: it relates non merely to the presence of trees of over 5m and 10 % canopy screen, but besides to the absence of other land utilizations such as agribusiness. It includes ”areas usually forming portion of the forest country which are temporarily unstocked but which are expected to return to forest ” ( FAO Forestry Department, 1998, p. 3 ) .

Further complications stem from alterations in minimal size of country included ( 0.5 hour angle in FRA2000, compared with 100 hour angles in FRA1990 ) . Rubber plantations were included as plantations in FRA2000 but non in FRA1990. And while a unvarying definition was employed in FRA2000, it has non become a planetary criterion: treatment continued thenceforth ( FAO, 2002 ) , and a different 1 has been agreed for describing on the Kyoto Protocol ( UNFCCC, 2002 ) . Even if a individual definition is agreed, as in FRA2000, jobs remain and so may go even more insidious because they are less obvious. At the state degree, informations are collected harmonizing to national definitions, and have to be adjusted to the international one Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( FAO ) , Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 showed that woods cover 31 per centum of entire land country.

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The universe ‘s entire forest country is merely over 4 billion hectares, which corresponds to an norm of 0.6 hour angles per capita.

The five most forest-rich states ( the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of America and China ) history for more than half of the entire forest country. Ten states or countries have no wood at all and an extra 54 have forest on less than 10 per centum of their entire land country.

Carol Yong ( 2006 ) revealed that the official definition of a wood used in Malaysia differs from the Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ) definition, which excludes countries under agricultural harvests ( e.g. oil thenar ) . In Malaysia, nevertheless, the countries under oil thenar, gum elastic and tree harvests are often regarded as wood. The inquiry of the definition of woods is peculiarly important in the Malayan context where the Malayan woods are quickly vanishing and, conversely, “ forest ” plantations countries are spread outing.

Malayan Timber Council ( 2008 ) draws our attending that in the twelvemonth 2006, Malaysia has 32.95 million hectares of land country, of which 24.60 million hectares or 74.7 per centum of entire land country are classified as entire country under tree screen. Of these, 18.5 million hectares are forested country and 6.25 million hectares are other tree bulls. Of the entire country under tree screen, 8.96 million hectares ( 36.42 per cent ) are found in Sarawak, 11.23 million hectares ( 45.65 per cent ) are found in Peninsular Malaysia and 4.41 million hectares ( 17.93 per cent ) in Sabah. Sabah claims it has the least country under tree screen.

S. Mather ( 1990 ) in Zalinda Binti Muhammad ( 2003 ) and Norisah Binti Kasim ( 2006 ) stated that wood is one spectrum which has natural elements like merchandise of the forest, vegetations and zoologies, etc. Area of all the forest that has been identified at the center of decennary 1980 is more than 4000 million hectare or 31 per centum of surface of the Earth.

Harmonizing to S.M. Mohd Idris who is the manager of Sahabat Alam Malaysia ( SAM ) or Friends of the Earth Malaysia ( 1987 ) in Norisah Binti Kasim ( 2006 ) , he stated that “ … forests offer protective functions against environmental alterations. The complex function played by wood in the heat and H2O balance of the Earth is undeniable. At the local degree, the forest screen breaks the impact of heavy rainstorms on the dirt, reduces and slows down surface run off, and minimizes dirt eroding every bit good as state of affairs of the drainage systems.

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Flash inundations and drawn-out inundations in many countries of the topical universe are progressively attributable to extended clearance of forested countries. ”

2.2.2 Improper Occupation

Harmonizing to Oxford Advanced Learner ‘s Dictionary, the significance of business is the act of life in or utilizing a edifice, room, piece of land, etc. Meanwhile the significance of improper is non allowed by the jurisprudence or equivalent word with illegal. Therefore improper business can be defined as the act of life in or utilizing a edifice, room, piece of land, etc which is against the jurisprudence.

2.2.3 Illegal Forest Activities

“ Illegal wood activities ” is a wide term that includes illegal logging ; it is used to mention to activities broader than merely harvest home, which is, conveyance, processing and trade ( Smith, 2002 ) . Brack and Hayman ( 2001 ) besides reference that illegalities may besides happen “ during conveyance, including illegal processing and export, misdeclaration to imposts, and turning away of revenue enhancements and other monies. ”

Illegal forest activities include all illegal Acts of the Apostless related to forest ecosystems, forest industries, and lumber and non-timber wood merchandises. They include Acts of the Apostless related to the constitution of rights to the land and corrupt activities used to get forest grants.

Illegal Acts of the Apostless include unauthorised business of public and private forestlands, logging in protected or environmentally sensitive countries, reaping protected species of trees, forest incendiarism, wildlife poaching, improper conveyance of wood and other wood merchandises, smuggling, reassign pricing and other deceitful accounting patterns, unauthorised processing of wood merchandises, misdemeanor of environmental ordinances, and bribing authorities functionaries ( Contreras-Hermosilla 2002a )

“ There are many types of illegal forest patterns like public retainers may O.K. illegal contracts with private endeavor. Private commercial corporations may reap trees of species that are protected by jurisprudence from timber development. Persons and communities may come in public wood and illicitly take merchandises that are public belongings. Illegal activities do non halt at the forest. They travel down the line to operations in transit, processing and trade of wood merchandises. Persons or corporations may smuggle wood merchandises across international boundary lines or procedure natural wood stuffs without a licence. Corporations with strong international links may unnaturally blow up the monetary value of imported inputs or deflate the volume and monetary values of their exports to cut down their revenue enhancement liability and to ease the illegal transportation of capital abroad ” ( FAO 2001 ) .

Contreras-Hermosilla nowadayss illustrations of illegal activities in the forestry sector, grouped into six classs: illegal business of forestlands ; illegal logging ; incendiarism ; illegal lumber trade and conveyance, and timber smuggling ; transfer pricing and other illegal accounting patterns ; and illegal wood processing that shown in Table 1 below.[ 1 ]

Illegal business of forestlands

aˆ?Invasion of public forested lands by either rural households,

communities or private corporations to change over them to agriculture

or cowss ranching

aˆ? Practice of slash-and-burn agribusiness on invaded lands

aˆ?Landless provincials illicitly busying forested countries to coerce authoritiess to allow land ownership rights to them and these authoritiess purchasing lands from provincials.

Illegal logging

aˆ? Logging protected species

aˆ? Duplication of droping licences

aˆ? Girdling or ring-barking, to kill trees so that they can be lawfully logged

aˆ? Contracting with local enterprisers to purchase logs from protected countries

aˆ? Loging in protected countries

aˆ? Logging outside grant boundaries

aˆ? Loging in prohibited countries such as steep inclines, riversides and H2O catchments

aˆ? Removing under-/over-sized trees from public woods

aˆ? Extracting more timber than authorised

aˆ? Reporting high volume extracted in forest grants

to dissemble the fact that portion of the volume

declared is extracted from non-authorized boundaries

aˆ? Loging without mandate

aˆ? Obtaining logging grants through payoffs.

Forests incendiarism

aˆ?Setting forests on fire to change over them to commercial utilizations.

Illegal timber conveyance, trade and lumber smuggling

aˆ? Transporting logs without mandate

aˆ? Transporting illicitly harvested lumber

aˆ? Smuggling lumber

aˆ? Exporting and importing tree species banned under international

jurisprudence, such as Citations

aˆ? Exporting and importing lumber in dispute of national prohibitions.

Transportation pricing and other illegal accounting patterns

aˆ? Declaring lower values and volumes exported

aˆ? Declaring purchase monetary values higher than the predominating market monetary values as equipment or services from related companies

aˆ? Manipulating debt hard currency flows to reassign money to a subordinate or parent company, such as blow uping debt refund to avoid revenue enhancements on net incomes

aˆ?Under-grading, under-valuing, under-measuring and misclassification of species exported or for the local market.

Illegal forest processing

aˆ? Operating without a processing licence

aˆ? Ignoring environmental and societal and labour Torahs and ordinances

aˆ? Using illicitly obtained wood in industrial processing.

Table 3: Examples of illegal patterns in the forestry sector

The World Bank estimates that loss of gross caused by illegal wood activities throughout the universe is deserving US $ 5 billion yearly. Illegal wood activities occur in tropical, temperate and boreal woods.[ 2 ]

Illegal forest activities abound in many states, for illustration:

* In Indonesia, every bit much as 50 million three-dimensional metres of lumber are estimated to be illicitly cut-down each twelvemonth.

* At least one-fifth of Russia ‘s one-year lumber crop is taken illicitly, and illegal harvest home may account for every bit much as 50 per centum of the sum in East Asia.

* In Cambodia in 1997, the volume of illicitly harvested logs was ten times that of the legal crop.

* In Cameroon and Mozambique about half of the entire one-year lumber crop is illegal.

* In Brazil, an estimated 80 per centum of lumber extracted each twelvemonth in the Amazon is removed illicitly.

2.2.4 Illegal Logging

Illegal logging has no individual definition. It is non a legal term derived from pacts, legislative acts, or tribunal sentiments. Neither is it a proficient term that professionals use in a consistent manner. In a general sense, “ illegal logging takes topographic point when lumber is harvested, transported, bought or sold in misdemeanor of national Torahs ” ( Black and Hayman 2001 ) . This wide definition includes about any illegal act that may happen between the turning of the tree and the reaching of the forest-based merchandise in the custodies of the consumer ” ( Rosenbaum 2003 )

There are normally no expressed definitions for illegal logging. In pattern, the definition can be derived from the legal misdemeanors that are reported on in the national statistics refering illegal logging. This does non needfully intend that other types of misdemeanors would be ignored ; they may merely be recorded under different headers. In wide footings, the assorted legal misdemeanors associated with illegal logging can be divided into eight groups: ( I ) larceny, ( two ) unauthorized harvest home, ( three ) non-compliance with ordinances related to timber harvest home, ( four ) non-compliance with the process of timber sales/concession award, ( V ) use of timber informations, ( six ) equivocation of revenue enhancements and fees, ( seven ) non-compliance with ordinances refering conveyance or export of lumber, and ( seven ) disobedience with labour Torahs Typically, the statistics on illegal logging in the states involved in the survey refer to misdemeanors which involve physical remotion of trees i.e. larceny, unauthorised harvest home and disobedience with cutting ordinances.

Corruptness in connexion with lumber harvest home is non recorded under illegal logging unless it involves physical remotion of trees. All types of misdemeanors in the above list except larceny could affect corruptness. Based on interviews with assorted stakeholders in the states involved in the survey, disobedience with labour Torahs is perceived to be merely weakly linked to illegal logging. Sector-specific records are non maintained and forest disposal is non involved in enforcement activities.

The illegal logging phenomenon is neither new nor uncontested by the authorities. It started in the old ages prior to the societal economic reform ; it reached the extremum in 1997 and continues to day of the month. From this point of position, the “ unwellness ” has non infected merely one sector but has extended its roots into other sectors of the economic system, and the “ remedy ” for this “ unwellness ” requires the intersectoral cooperation of public disposal, non denying here the interested community and the work of the economic and environmental NGOs.

2.3 Forest Management

Forest direction is the subdivision of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal, and societal facets and with the basically scientific and proficient facets, particularly silviculture, protection, and forest ordinance. This includes direction for aesthetics, fish, diversion, urban values, H2O, wilderness, wildlife, wood merchandises, forest familial resources and other forest resource values. Management can be based on preservation, economic sciences, or a mixture of the two. Techniques include timber extraction, seting and replanting of assorted species, cutting roads and tracts through woods, and forestalling fire.

Formal forest direction in Malaysia was introduced in 1901 by the British colonial disposal with the creative activity of a wood section. The section was involved in forestry vegetation, silvicultural pattern, policy preparation and forest saving. Forestry policies formulated by the British in the 1920s and 1930s were consolidated as the National Forestry Policy ( NFP ) in 1978 to guarantee orderly execution of forest direction, preservation and development across all provinces. This is because land and forest in Malaysia are purely province affairs. The ad hoc forest direction policy practiced by each province makes monitoring and control of forest resources at the federal degree hard. The National Forestry Act ( NFA ) of 1984 provides for orderly harvest home, reclamation and preservation of trees at the sustainable output degree.

2.3.1 Significance of Forest Management

2.3.2 Sustainable Forest Management

Sustainable Forest Management ( SFM ) is the manner of direction in which growing exceeds timber crop, now besides encompasses economic sciences, environmental and societal qualities that contribute to the sustainability of forest dependent communities and ecosystems every bit good as the forest itself. Malaysia has a program more environmentally-friendly and responsible concern patterns. This will assist cut down runing costs in the long-term and is a wise investing in the hereafter, safeguarding the natural resources depending on corporations and communities. For illustration, local corporations in wood industries are fall ining WWF ‘s Global Forest and Trade Network. They are aiming European and US markets, where consumers are progressively demanding wood merchandises from sustainably managed woods ( WWF-Malaysia, 2008 ) .

Harmonizing to International Tropical Timber Organization ( ITTO, 1992 ) , sustainable wood direction is the procedure of pull offing woods to accomplish one or more clearly specified aims of direction with respect to the production of a uninterrupted flow of coveted wood merchandises and services, without undue decrease of its built-in value and future productiveness, and without undue unwanted effects on the physical and societal environments.

FAO ( 1993 ) defines it as one which ensures that the values derived from forest meet present twenty-four hours demands while at the same clip guaranting their continued handiness and use to long-run development demands.

Sustainable Forest Management ( SFM ) is impossible to accomplish if a state does non hold a direction system. In this respect, the usage of more systematic attack in pull offing the woods in Peninsular Malaysia began in 1901 when the first forest officer was appointed ( Ismail, 1996 ) . Since so, forest direction patterns in Peninsular Malaysia had been subjected to constant reappraisal and polish so as to guarantee their suitableness in accomplishing forest reclamation and sustained output.

Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 study has provides a comprehensive overview of the consequences of FRA 2010 grouped harmonizing to seven subjects, covering cardinal facets of sustainable forest direction:

aˆ? Extent of forest resources

aˆ? Forest biological diverseness

aˆ? Forest wellness and verve

aˆ? Protective maps of forest resources

aˆ? Productive maps of forest resources

aˆ? Socio-economic maps of woods

aˆ? Legal, policy and institutional model

2.4 Legal Framework

The forestry policies are implemented chiefly through the commissariats in the forest Torahs enacted for the three parts: National Forestry Act 1984 for Peninsular Malaysia, Forest Regulation 1958 for Sarawak and Forest Enactment 1968 for Sabah, and the assorted amendments by the States. The other related ordinances that affect forestry for Peninsular Malaysia include the Land Conservation Act 1960, Environmental Quality Act 1974, National Parks Act 1980, Protection of Wildlife Act 1972, National Land Code 1965, Aboriginal Peoples Act 1954, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 and Forest Rules 1985. For Sabah, the relevant ordinances include Forest Rules 1969, Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1977, Land Ordinance 1930, Cultural Heritage ( Conservation ) 1997, Sabah Parks Enactment 1984, Biodiversity Enactment 2000, Conservation of Environment Enactment 1996, Water Resource Enactment 1998, and Environmental Quality Act 1974. Sarawak has the Natural Resources and Environment Ordinance 1997, Forest Rules 1962, Wildlife Protection Ordinance and Rules 1998, The Forests ( Planted Forest ) Rules 1997, Sarawak Biodiversity Centre Ordinance 1997, Sarawak Biodiversity ( Access, Collection & A ; Research Regulations ) 1998, Land Code 1958, Natural Resource and Environmental Ordinance, Water Ordinance 1994, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, Land Ordinance 1952, Native Code 1992, Native Code Rules 1996, and Native Custom Declaration 1996.

2.4.1 The Torahs

2.4.1.1 Malayan Fundamental law

Forests are under the duty of the provinces as enshrined in the Malayan Federal Constitution. Under Article 74 ( 12 ) of the Federal Constitution, land and forest ownership and direction is the duty of the State authoritiess. Each province has control over how they use and protect their forest resources so come up with their ain policies. For illustration, Sarawak governs under the Sarawak Forest Regulation of 1954 while Sabah operates under the Sabah Forest Enactment of 1968. The executive authorization of the Federal Government merely extends to the proviso of advice and proficient aid to the States includes aid with forest direction, preparation of forces, behavior of research and presentation or experimental Stationss unless the State agrees to depute some of their authorization to the Federal Government. However, the Federal Government is responsible for trade policies, import and export controls and international cooperation among others.

Under the proviso of Article 74 Clause ( 2 ) of the Malayan Constitution, land and forest are defined as province affairs and are therefore within the legal power of the several State Governments. Clause ( 3 ) of Article 76 of the Malayan Constitution ensures that all Acts related to land and forest shall non come into force in a State unless it has been adopted by a jurisprudence made by the legislative assembly of the State. As such each State is empowered to ordain Torahs on forestry and to explicate wood policy independently. The executive authorization of the Federal Government merely extends to the proviso of advice and proficient aid to the States, preparation and the behavior of research, and in the care of experimental and presentation Stationss.

2.4.1.2 National Forest Policy

Upon independency from the British in 1957, the Colonial Office returned the woods to Malaysia. In 1958, with commissariats under the Federal Constitution, the National Land Council ( NLC ) was formed ‘for organizing State and Federal policies and aims covering land usage, excavation, forestry and agribusiness to explicate from clip to clip in audience with the Federal Government, the State Governments and the National Finance Council a national policy for the publicity and control of the use of land throughout the Federation the development of natural resources was hence sensed piecemeal, instead than holistically ‘ ( Kathirithamby-Wells 2005: 267 ) . The first measure to protecting the forest resources in Malaysia was the formation of the National Forestry Council ( NFC ) in December 1971. The end of the NFC was to make co-ordinated programs and efficaciously pull off Malaysians woods. The NFC is made up of the Chief Curates from all 13 provinces.

Subsequently, this organic structure created the basis for the formation of the National Forestry Policy ( NFP ) . This policy was officially adopted by the Malayan authorities in 1978. This policy recognizes the importance of woods for the public assistance of both single communities and that state itself. Malaysia has dedicated itself to sustainable timber output patterns.

The National Forest Policy for Peninsular Malaysia of 1978 was revised in 1992 to integrate several new elements, one of which is on the importance of forest jurisprudence enforcement. In this revised policy statements, it was emphasized that the State Governments through their several State Director Forestry must judicially implement the National Forest Act 1984 ( Revised 1993 ) to guarantee sustainable forest resource direction and preservation.

2.4.1.3 National Forestry Act 1984

An Act to supply for the disposal, direction and preservation of woods and forestry development within the States of Malaysia and for affiliated intents. There is the amendment to National Forestry Act 1984 in 1993 to supply for stiffer punishments for illegal logging and enlisting the Police and Armed Forces to help the Forestry Departments in transporting out enforcement to control illegal logging, lumber larceny and invasions.

The cardinal step taken by the Government to forestall forest offense was by amending the National Forestry Act, 1984 to integrate new commissariats to discourage the happening of wood discourtesies. The Act was enacted to update and harmonise forest jurisprudence in the Peninsula. Prior to the Act, the assorted State authoritiess depend on the State Forest Enactment ‘s, which were formulated in 1930 ‘s, for legal guidelines on forest direction and preservation. The Act besides enables the effectual execution of the National Forestry Policy passed in 1978. It was amended in 1993 to further beef up its commissariats to control illegal invasion of woods and larceny of lumber. The Act has been adopted by all the provinces in Peninsular Malaysia.

The chief aims of amending the Act are as follows:

I ) To increase the punishments and fasten the processs in intensifying forest offenses

two ) To reassign load of cogent evidence from the prosecuting officer to the defence in the tribunal

three ) To depute power in authorship by State Director of Forestry under subdivision 88, 89, 90, 92 or 93 to any member of the armed forces non below the rank of Lance Corporal as empowered to the constabulary but shall non include the power of probe

four ) To add new subdivisions 100A and 100B for wagess and protection of betrayers severally, subdivision 101A for power of tribunal to order annulment and disqualification, subdivision 110A for discourtesies committed by licensee or holder of license, and New Sixth Schedule for list of machines, equipment and conveyance ” .

V ) To do general amendments in the national linguistic communication text, alteration of name in the national linguistic communication text and replacement subdivisions 5, 69, 101 and 104

2.4.1.4 National Land Code

Harmonizing to subdivision 425 improper business, etc. , of province Land, reserved land or excavation land National Land Code ( Act 56 of 1965 ) and ordinances,

Section 425 ( 1 ) stated that any individual who, without lawful authorization –

Occupies, or erects any edifice on, any State land, reserved land or excavation land or

Clears, Big Dippers, digs, encloses or cultivates any such land or portion thereof ; or

Cuts or removes any lumber or bring forth on or from such land,

shall be guilty of an offense, and apt on strong belief to a all right non transcending ten thousand Ringgit, or imprisonment for a term non transcending one twelvemonth.

( 1A ) Any individual who abets the committee of an offense under sub-section ( 1 ) shall be guilty of an offense, and apt on strong belief to a all right non transcending ten thousand ringgit, or imprisonment for a term non transcending one twelvemonth, or to both.

( 2 ) For the intent of this subdivision, State Land shall include all land held by or on behalf of Federal or State Government a local authorization or a statutory authorization exerting power vested in it by Federal or State jurisprudence.

Section 426 besides stated that improper extraction or remotion of stone stuff besides show that any individual who without lawful authorization, extracts removes, or, conveyances or permits the extraction, remotion or transit of stone stuff from any land shall be guilty of an offense, and apt on strong belief to a all right non transcending 50 thousand ringgit, or imprisonment for a term non transcending five old ages, or to both.[ 3 ]

Section 426A show that any constabularies officer non below the rank of Inspector, Registrar, Land Administrator, Settlement Officer or other officer duly authorized by the State Authority ( afterlife in this portion referred to as “ authorised officer ” may without warrant-

Arrest any individual found perpetrating or trying to perpetrate or abetting the committee of an offense under subdivision 425 or 426

Seize any vehicle, tractor, agricultural implement or other thing whatsoever which he has ground to believe was used or is being used in the committee of an offense under that subdivision

Demolish, destroy or take any edifice, or take ownership in the name of the State Authority of any harvest, erected or cultivated on any land land in dispute thereof.

2.4.1.5 List of improper activities under each Law

Misdemeanors of the protective commissariats ( harm of wood modesty through fire, prohibited Acts of the Apostless in a wood modesty, illegal logging and remotion from other countries, cutting of undersized trees ) are punished by mulct and imprisonment in the instance of unauthorised entry for intervention with fencings or notice boards, by a all right entirely [ Idaho. Section 20 ( 1 ) ( C ) and 33 ( 1 ) ] . Assorted offenses of fraud, privacy of grounds and having forest green goods are besides punished by mulct and imprisonment ( Section 30 ) .

In add-on to mulcts and imprisonment, the Forest Enactment authorizes the tribunal to order the cancellation of licenses, the payment of any fees that would hold been collectible in the instance of unaccredited Acts of the Apostless that could hold been licensed, and compensation of 10 times the value of forest green goods removed or damaged ( Enactment No. 2 of 1968, Section 34 ) . There is besides proviso for combination of certain offenses [ come ining closed country, rehearsing switching cultivation ( Section 20 ( C ) ] , capable to the payment of an sum based on the mulct provided for the offense ( Section 35 ) .

The Forest Enactment contains a figure of givens that shift the load of cogent evidence to the suspect charged with a forest offense. In prosecutions against licensees, if there is an extraction path from an country of alleged illegal remotion to the accredited country, or if the volume of lumber claimed to be covered by a license exceeds the production of the accredited country, the elements of illegal remotion or of ownership of green goods in regard of which an offense has been committed are presumed. In any instance in which the being of a license, payment of any royalty, ownership of farm animal or forest green goods, or the birthplace of wood green goods is in issue, the load of cogent evidence prevarications on the accused ( id. Section 38 ) .

2.4.2 The Agencies Involved

2.4.2.1 Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia

Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia ( JPSM ) is one of the sections under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia and consists of Peninsular Malaysia Forestry Headquarters, 11 State Forestry Department and 33 District Forest Office in all of the Peninsular Malaysia. The section is headed by Director General of Forestry and assisted by two Deputy Director of Forestry. At the terminal of 2009, the figure of employees is about 5.432 people.

Forestry Department is responsible for the direction, planning, protection and development of the Permanent Forest Reserve ( HSK ) in conformity with the National Forestry Policy ( NDP ) 1992 and National Forestry Act ( APN ) 1984.

Peninsular Malaysia Forestry Headquarters responsible for the preparation of forestry policies, supplying advice and proficient services to State Forestry Department in the planning, direction and development of woods, forest harvest home and wood-based industries, forest operations research, and preparation and human resource development. At the Head Office of Forestry, there are two Deputy Director General who are Deputy Director ( Policy and Planning ) and Deputy Director ( Operations and Technical ) is responsible for each of the six divisions. Meanwhile, there is one Unit of measurement and another one division is straight responsible to the Director General of Forestry.

Sector Policy and Planning Deputy Director General of Forestry ( Policy and Planning ) in charge of planning and economic wood, forest resource direction, silviculture and preservation of forest biological science, wood development and forest eco-park, province Parkss, international personal businesss and forestry plantation and forest protection. Sector Operations and Technical Deputy Director General of Forestry ( Operations and Technical ) is responsible for the personal businesss of disposal and finance, technology, forestry, lumber industry, proficient and enforcement of the forest, forestry preparation and human capital development and information engineering systems development.

2.4.2.2 State Forestry Department Negeri Sembilan

State Forestry Department is responsible for the disposal and control of forest development, forest gross aggregation and development of province forest resources. The section besides plans and coordinates the development of wood-based industries. State Forestry Department is divided into Forest Operations Division and Forest Development and supported by the Office of the Forest District.

Forest Operations Division is responsible for disposal, forest jurisprudence enforcement, gross aggregation, and co-ordinates and liaises with the Head Office of Forestry, other province sections, statutory organic structures and bureaus. Meanwhile Forestry Development Division is responsible for planning, implementing and supervising the activities of direction and development of woods, including biodiversity preservation, ecotourism development and rehabilitation of forest countries and the readying and execution of the State Forest Management Plan.

Forest Office District is responsible for disposal, control of forest development, forest gross aggregation and enforcement of forest Torahs. This office is besides responsible for implementing the activities of direction and development of woods, including forest direction of forest eco-park and province Parkss.

The operation in the wood of State Forestry Department can split into two parts which are jurisprudence enforcement and forest harvest home. In jurisprudence enforcement portion, enforcement activities undertaken in all countries affecting the Permanent Forest Reserve, the State Land Reserve and alienated land. In peculiar, this activity is to implement the National Forestry Act 1984 and amendments, the Rules of the Forest Enactment of the Wood Industry and the Rules of the Wood Industry.

Forestry Department is besides taking a precautional attack to learning from clip to clip through Development Program and Publicity through seminars, classs and official accounts and besides in the field, particularly to operators / lumbermans to follow with ordinances and Torahs in force.

The consequences of the National Forestry Council-19 in 2005 had decided that all forest discourtesies affecting Section 15 and Section 40 of the APN 1984 ( Amendment 1993 ) ( instances of illegal logging ) are no longer allowed to be compounded, but proceed with prosecution in tribunal proceedings.

In add-on, Section 86 and Section 107 is besides the subdivisions contained in the bing APN 1984 ( Rev. 1993 ) for instances of mistakes that can non be compounded even though it is the first clip. All of these discourtesies shall be referred to the State Legal Advisor for more sentiments and execution of appropriate direction.

Reaping of woods in was conducted in conformity with demands of the standard standards, indexs and activities set by the ITTO Year 2000 Objective and the MS ISO 9000 for the development of Forest Land in the Permanent Reserved Forests are capable to an one-year allowable cut an country of 2.460 hectares. Forest Harvesting is the chief standards to pull off and keep woods in line with the rules of Sustainable Forest Management for the benefit of societal, economic, cultural and environmental.

The harvest home of woods is taking activity and forest green goods that contributes to the development and socio-economic development. Reaping the Permanent Forest Reserve is an activity that must be implemented harmonizing to the best forest direction systems to cut and take plenty wood to size and adulthood of the demands of wood-based industries. Harvesting is carried out selective cutting system with adequate left base at the following unit of ammunition in line with the economic development of forest resources to guarantee sustainability and environmental stableness.

2.4.2.3 Land Office and District

Among the maps, functions and duties of Land Office and District are supplying services in direction, finance, services, licensing, records direction and security functionaries with the purpose of easing travel and fiscal disposal and program, manage, co-ordinate and implement policies for socio-economic development of local communities particularly in rural countries to accomplish the NEP by supplying basic installations needed.

Land office and District responsible to make an efficient land disposal system to guarantee efficient and effectual mode all affairs ( traffics ) are concerned with the land and guarantee that all studies made by members of the populace are investigated and action taken quickly. They besides need to maximise gross aggregation and better aggregation of arrears of gross and update history records the consequences of the Land Office from clip to clip with the right and subject the returns within the specified clip.

Land Office and District can be divided to three chief divisions which are Management Services Division, Land Management Division, and Development Division. Under the Land Management Division, there are Land Development Unit, Land Disposal Unit, Land Registration Unit & A ; Heritage, Revenue Unit, and Enforcement Unit.

The maps of Enforcement Unit are place the location of jobs and ailments, monitoring and carry oning probes, behavior patrols every hebdomad two times and guarantee that all activities that performed has valid license.

Among the functions and duties of Enforcement Unit are look into the land in relation to the application of province land, permits for prospecting, transition, impermanent housing licence applications, subdivision, subdivision, consolidation, reserve, land acquisition, implement enforcement on illegal land geographic expedition, breach of status of land, the transportation of stone stuff, carry out enforcement responsibilities, the detainment, arrogation, devastation, in line power supplied under the Section 426A National Land Code ( NLC ) , investigate studies of instances associating to set down jurisprudence ( NLC ) , regulate affairs associating to the merchandises of stone stuffs and responsible for capturing, destruction, and provide basic coverage breaches and illegal business and misdemeanor types of status harmonizing to Section 426A NLC.

2.4.3 The Power or Duties of Agencies

2.4.3.1 Monitoring

2.4.3.2 Enforcement

The Forest Enactment empowers forest and constabularies officers to carry on hunts without warrant ( except in homes ) , seize forest green goods, and equipment and apprehension suspected wrongdoers where they are improbable to look on biddings or decline to place themselves right ( Section 36 ) . Forest officers do non hold the powers of ranking constabulary officers to attest to statements made by an accused ( californium. Malaysia Crim. Pro. Code, F, M, S. Cap. 6 ) , although some ictuss might hold the same consequence.

2.4.4 The Punishments

2.4.4.1 List of punishments for each improper activity

Section

Information ABOUT Section

Punishment

15

Take any forest green goods from a lasting reserved forest or a State land

Fine non transcending[ 4 ]five hundred 1000 ringgit and to imprisonment for a term which shall non be less than one twelvemonth but shall non transcend twenty old ages.

25 ( 2 )

Fails to follow with a Form 2 notice

Fine non transcending[ 5 ]50 thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending[ 6 ]five old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment and if the offense is a go oning one, to a farther mulct non transcending[ 7 ]one 1000 ringgit for every twenty-four hours.

32 ( 1 )

Occupy or transport out any activity upon any land within a lasting reserved forest without permission

Fine non transcending[ 8 ]50 thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending[ 9 ]five old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment

40 ( 1 )

Remove any forest green goods without removal licence from any

( a ) anomic land ;

( B ) land held under a impermanent business licence ;

( degree Celsius ) excavation land ; or

( vitamin D ) reserved land,

Fine non transcending[ 10 ]five hundred 1000 ringgit and to imprisonment for a term which shall non be less than one twelvemonth but shall non transcend twenty old ages.

47 ( 1 ) & A ; ( 4 )

Enter any closed wood without permission

Fine non transcending[ 11 ]10s thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending three[ 12 ]old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment.

50 ( 4 )

Use of forest roads without route license

13Fine non transcending ten thousand ringgit

81 ( 1 )

Acts prohibited in lasting reserved woods

( a ) graze cowss or license cowss to graze ;

( B ) fell, cut, ring, grade, lop or tap any tree ; or injure by fire, or otherwise, or take any tree or lumber ;

( degree Celsius ) cause any harm in droping any tree or film editing or dragging any lumber ;

( vitamin D ) hunt for, collect, capable to any fabricating procedure or take any forest green goods or minerals ;

( vitamin E ) clear or interrupt up any land for cultivation or any other intent ;

( degree Fahrenheit ) use toxicant substance, or dynamite or other explosives on rivers or lakes for the intent of fishing ; or Hunt, shoot, fish or set traps or traps ; or

( g ) trespass in any mode non in this subdivision hereinbefore

prohibited

Fine non transcending[ 14 ]10s thousand ringgitA

Fine non transcending[ 15 ]50 thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending[ 16 ]five old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment

A

Fine non transcending ten thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending three old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment

82 ( 1 )

Carry any fire, or leave any fire combustion, within a lasting reserved forest

Fine non transcending[ 17 ]50 thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending[ 18 ]five old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment.

Table 5: Summary of illegal business in the wood and punishment harmonizing to Act 313 National Forestry Act 1984 and National Forestry ( Amendment ) Act 1993 [ Act A864 ]

The tabular array above shows that the punishments that imposed to the illegal residents or any individual who are interrupt the jurisprudence is really high and can leap to twofold, trifold and even much more higher after the amendment of National Forestry Act in 1993. For illustration, the people who are take any forest green goods from a lasting reserved forest or a State land harmonizing to subdivision 15 is all right non transcending five 100 1000 ringgit and to imprisonment for a term which shall non be less than one twelvemonth but shall non transcend twenty old ages but antecedently was 10 thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending three old ages or to both before the National Forestry ( Amendment ) Act 1993 [ Act A864 ] implemented.

2.5 Analysis of Legal Framework

2.5.1 Failing

Year

No. Of Cases

Notes

1987

172

BEFORE Amendment to National Forestry Act 1984

1988

136

1989

233

1990

172

1991

512

1992

191

1993

149

AFTER Amendment to National Forestry Act 1984

1994

41

1995

34

1996

14

1997

22

1998

23

1999

26

2000

37

2001

15

2002

13

2003

21

Table 4: Number of Illegal Logging Cases in Peninsular Malaysia Harmonizing To Year ( 1987 – 2003 )

This has shown that authorities ‘s attempt to forestall illegal forest activities in the forest particularly illegal logging in Peninsular Malaysia from acquiring worse nevertheless in fact the illegal business in the wood is still go on. Since there is stricter punishments for those illegal residents after amendment of National Forestry Act in 1993 but why illegal business still can go on even in the reserved land. This has revealed that is the failing of system monitoring and enforcement from relevant governments like land office and forestry section who have the power to supervise and implement against illegal residents.

2.5.2 Proposal

Harmonizing to newspaper “ Utusan Malaysia ” dated ( 15-10-2009 ) , Y.B. Tan Sri Joseph Kurup who is Deputy Minister of Natural Resources and Environment ( NRE ) said that his ministry likes to amend and streamline the commissariats of the National Forestry Act 1984 to turn to the issue of illegal logging. He besides added that they want to set up enforcement squads in the wood territory and province degrees and “ winging squad ” in the Forestry Department for battling illegal logging instances in add-on to placing countries with high happening of such events.

That has showed that authorities wants to beef up their system of monitoring and enforcement particularly illegal logging instances. However there are still holding other illegal forestry activities happen such as illegal business of forestland, fire combustion, and so on which will give a great impact to the environment and single. Therefore there is a survey or research to supervise other illegal forestry activities and better the enforcement against the illegal residents.

2.6 Drumhead

From the survey that have been done, illegal wood activities which include illegal business, illegal logging, etc need look earnestly by the relevant governments, organisation or non-governmental organisation ( NGO ) and even the populace who are concern about the illegal business in the wood. Since these activities can do harm or destruct the habitation of biodiversity of vegetations and zoologies in the wood, therefore indispensable stairss need to transport out to protect them from being destroy or extinct. Government or related governments have done their attempt to forestall the illegal business in the wood by enforcing heavier punishments to the illegal residents by the amendment of National Forestry Act 1984 in 1993 and National Land Code ( Amendment ) act 2008. The consequence after the amendment is figure of illegal logging instances in Peninsular Malaysia bead dramatically in that period but illegal businesss in the wood still go on and seems similar addition late. Hence there is of import to analyze or reassess system monitoring and enforcement of the governments from land office and forestry section because of the impact of illegal business in the wood. In the undermentioned chapter, the instance survey will concentrate on the wood of Negeri Sembilan where illegal businesss take topographic point to happen out the causes and betterment of system monitoring if demand.

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