Richard Nixon Presidency Facts

chief of staff. controlled Nixon’s schedule and people’s access to him
national security adviser, later secretary of state
domestic affairs adviser
special counsel, close adviser on W.H. staff
attorney general and long time friend of Nixon
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The Enemy
anyone that did not support Nixon
Nixon ran with Eisenhower as his VP, won
Mao Zedong
Chinese Chairman Nixon met and made peace with and visited to improve relations between the US and China
Leonid Brezhnev
leader of the Soviet Union Nixon met with to discuss nuclear weapon tensions between them, resulting in a deal that improved relations between the US and Soviet Union
The Plumbers
Hunt, Liddy, and McCord. did Nixon’s dirty work; originally put together to stop leaks to the media after the Pentagon Paper issue
Nixon’s early life
-middle class Quaker
-worked in family grocery store as a kid
-adored his mom
-known for being serious
-born/raised in Whittier, CA
-bad at sports
-went to Whittier College instead of Harvard; graduated third in class from Duke Law School
-“Red Hunter” on HUAC
-senate in 1950, VP in 1952, lost to JFK in 1960, president in 1968
Nixon’s abuses of power as president
used CIA, IRA and FBI to cover up stuff, harass people he didn’t like (screw with taxes, etc.), get information on “enemies”
Stagflation, how dealt with by Nixon
-high inflation and high unemployment
-partly caused by oil embargo by OPEC
-led to massive layoffs and increasing prices
-Nixon tried to fight it by raising taxes/cutting spending (which was blocked by Congress); raise interest rates (fail.); and freezing wages, prices, fees in US for 90 days (also fail.)
-EPA: Environmental Protection Agency. created to preserve the US and keep it clean, protect nature
-OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration. created to increase work safety and such
-EEOC: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. created to enforce discrimination laws and prevent issues based on sex, race, etc.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
practical politics, use any means to reach goals
treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
Revenue Sharing
allowed state/local governments to use federal money as they saw fit
New Federalism
gave more power to state/local governments
mentality of Nixon White House
secretive; above the law; anything is okay as long as you win; “us vs them”
People in Watergate Scandal
-Ford (Nixon’s VP after Agnew quit)
-Cox (led Ervin Committee in investigating Watergate)
-Mitchell (leader of CREEP)
-Woodward and Bernstein (Washington Post reporters investigating Watergate)
-Liddy (plumber in CREEP, one of the ones who broke into Watergate and came up with the idea)
-McCord (ran CREEP’s security)
-McGovern (who Nixon ran against in 1972 election)
-Deep Throat/Mark Felt (FBI agent who gave Woodward and Bernstein information for their investigation)
Nixon’s committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a “dirty tricks” campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up
Ervin Committee
committee that investigated the Watergate Scandal. led by Archie Cox
Why Agnew resigned
was caught for connections to Watergate, so he resigned before he could be inpeached
Why Nixon wouldn’t give up the tapes
-executive privilege
-would threaten national security
Nixon’s public statement on the break-in
he had no knowledge or connection and would fully cooperate with investigations
What Nixon gave instead of the tapes
US vs Nixon ruling
Nixon had to give up the actual tapes
“national security”
Nixon’s main reason to withhold the tapes, as they had recordings of meetings regarding nation issues with security, etc.
Executive privilege
right of the president to withhold info from Congress/ refuse to testify; limited by U.S. v. Nixon
Why Nixon was to be impeached
-obstruction of justice
-abuse of power
-failure to abide by House subpoenas
How Nixon avoided punishment for Watergate and such
was pardoned by Ford after he became president
Watergate and checks and balances
Watergate proved the system worked, due to each branch trying and catching Nixon and crew
Effects of Watergate on US opinion of gov’t
made people trust it even less, after Nam and Pentagon Papers got out