Chapter 9: Early Childhood: Cognitive Development

What are the strengths and weaknesses of preoperational thought?
(The book never said that any of these were strengths or weaknesses, they just characterize preoperational thought. If you have thoughts on what may or may not be a strength or weakness, feel free to let me know!)
Weakness: logical thought isn’t possible yet; evident in centration, focus on appearance, static reasoning, and reversibility
Strengths: nonverbal communication is logical. Gestures and understanding comes before language.
What is the difference between egocentrism in a child and selfishness in an adult?
egocentrism: sees the world only from their perspective
selfishness: choose to care only about one’s self, interests, benefits, etc.
How does the animism of young children differ from the animism of adults?
natural object are alive, respect for nature, and the belief in superstition
adults understand that it’s not real, and all just pretend.
How do the toys given to young children scaffold particular behaviors and values?
the children play and animate the toy, emulating the behavior modeled by their family. They get to enforce proper behavior of others
(I have the wrong edition, so this is just my assumptions. If there is something in your book about toys and scaffolding, I would be super appreciative to hear it!)
How does guided participation increase a child’s zone of proximal development?
Children learn best from their peers, so when other students are speaking, then the whole class benefits.
Why did Vygotsky think that talking to yourself is not a sign of illness but an aid to cognition?
Private Speech promotes reflection and allows the individual to work out ideas both audibly and internally.
Is theory-theory as valid for adults as for children?
Yes. Although “adult theories” are much more complex than children’s, it is part of human nature to seek understanding, and that understanding is manifested in theories, regardless of an individual’s age.
Why does a child’s development of theory of mind make it more difficult to fool him or her?
They have a better understanding of the world around them and can speculate about others’ thoughts.
What factors spur the development of theory of mind?
The maturation of the prefrontal cortex. This occurs around age 4 and is not as much affected by experience. Language development, as well as the child’s culture, also plays a major role in developing a child’s theory of mind.
What is the evidence that early childhood is a sensitive time for learning language?
Children engage in fast-mapping, in which they quickly and at times imprecisely learn and categorize words. This mental mapping constitutes a large portion of the vocab. explosion these children experience.
How does fast-mapping aid the language explosion?
It aids the language explosion because they categorize words into a mental map.. Rather than memorizing definitions of that word.
How does overregularization signify a cognitive advance?
First, children speak by repeating what they hear. Second, they learn grammar rules and try to apply them to words that don’t follow grammar rules (exceptions to the rules).
What evidence in language learning shows the limitations of logic in early childhood?
13) ????
What are the advantages of teaching a child two languages?
14) Being less self-conscious about what they say and how they say it along with myelination, quickens the language-learning process for children. Bilingual children’s brains function better overall and may have some resistance to Alzheimer’s.
How can language loss be avoided?
15) By immersion in language, encouragement and appreciation to keep learning and speaking the language is how language loss can be avoided.
What do most preschools provide for children that most homes do not?
Stimulation of the brain- to foster intellectual development. Also social interaction with others and being active. *Might want to double check if this is right, again my book did not state this specifically I only drew conclusion from common sense and the text.
In child-centered programs, what do the teachers do?
They allow for the students to follow their interest and go at their own pace. Allow their students to collaborate together and learn from others. Teachers give tasks that most adults would consider play.
What makes the Reggio Emilia program different from most other preschool programs?
They teach the students to master skills that are usually not mastered until age 7. Very spacious, nice environment that sparks creativity. They encourage and foster artistic ability. Works on long-term projects of their choosing.
Why are Montessori schools still functioning, 100 years after the first such schools opened?
Many aspects of Montessori’s philosophy are in accord with current developmental research. That is one reason this kind of school remains popular. (Pg 278)
What are the advantages and disadvantages of teacher-directed preschools?
Teacher-directed preschools stress academics, usually taught by one adult to the entire group. The curriculum includes learning the names of letters, numbers, shapes, and colors. Every child naps, snacks, and goes to the bathroom on schedule as well. Teachers also give praise for good works. In teacher-directed programs, the serious work of schooling is distinguished from the unstructured play of home. The only problem is that they don’t stress social interaction. (Pg 279)
What are the goals of Head Start?
The program is thought to be effective not only because of the direct teaching in school but also because relieving some of the parent’s stress allows them to provide more cognitive stimulation for their children. (Pg 281)
Why have various evaluations of Head Start reached different conclusions?
Certain children benefited from Head Start more than others did, with benefits most apparent for children with the lowest family incomes, or those living in rural areas, or those with disabilities. (Pg 282)
What are the long-term results of intervention preschools?
Children in intervention preschools scored higher on tests, were more likely to succeed, and more likely to go to college. (Pg 283-284)