Review of Related Literature
This chapter includes the review of related literature and studies. This will give more information about the study. The Online Grading Inquiry System is a dynamic system designed to provide the grades, profile and information about Administrator, Faculty, and Students in a simple and sensitive fashion.
The information is stored in a database. Administrator, Faculty, and Students are provided by the system with their own username and password in order to access to the Online Grading Inquiry System. No member can alter the information provided by the system.
A certain Administrator, Faculty, and Students must have the permission of the assign Admin to edit the information gathered in the system. Once logged in, a member can see the profile system with his or her profile information. (Gregorio et. al, 1976) Letter grades were first used in the United States in the last part of the 19th century. Both colleges and high schools began replacing other forms of assessment with letter and percentage grades in the early 20th century.
While grading systems appear to be fairly standardized in the U. S., debates about grade inflation and the utility of grades for fostering student learning continue. Universities have always evaluated students, but the modern grading system did not always exist. In fact, in the 18th century, there was no standardized means of evaluating students, and certainly no means by which student performance at one institution could be easily compared with student performance somewhere else. It was in the first part of the 20th century that American elementary and high school education also began using standardized grading systems. (http://www. ehow.com/about_5103640_history-grading-systems. html)
It seems as though they have been around forever. But formal testing and evaluation systems in education, and their grading practices, are a very recent educational phenomenon. In the years from 1911 to 1960, school systems experimented with various letter and number reporting conventions. Percentage grading was the most popular system during the latter half of the 19th and the early part of the 20th century. In that system, the teacher assigned each student a number between 0 and 100 supposedly reflecting the percentage of the material that the student had learned.
Determining the proportion of students to receive each letter in a common set of letter grades has been the subject of intense debate among experts in educational measurement. One well-known system, which evenly distributes the grades on either side of a bell-shaped curve, would automatically fail a certain proportion of any given group—even in a group composed of known high achievers. Research has shown that rigid adherence to such practices can be very damaging to students. Student evaluation is a very complex process that should take many factors into account.
Recognizing the limits of various grading practices and balancing them with common sense and good judgment is an important part of the work of professional teachers. (Marita Moll, 1998) Let’s face it, when it comes to grading your students this probably isn’t your favorite part of your job as a teacher. In fact, many teachers feel that the time they take figuring out grades is time that could be better to spend elsewhere, like preparing lessons or meeting with their students.
But the good news is that there are a variety of online grading systems available that can help you save time on administrative tasks and spend more time doing what you love as a teacher. Teachers all over the nation have discovered that when they utilize an online grading system, they are able to quickly and easy update, track, and grade student performance in much less time than they ever thought possible. Parents and students also enjoy being able to take part in an online grading system. This is because students and parents can access an online grading system with a password and can track grades and assignments whenever they need to.
This helps students become more aware of their grades and also helps parents get involved in their child’s schooling. And as any teacher will tell you, when parents and teachers can work together to help a child succeed, that child has a much better chance of getting the most out of his or her schooling. The other great thing about an online grading system is that it can also be used to create report cards, assignment reports, class grade lists, student GPA, seating charts, roll sheets, attendance reports, and more.