Research Study Guide

1. A systematic inquiry into possible relationships among particular phenomena is:
a. Integrative review
b. Research utilization
c. Critique
d. Research
Answer: D
2. The term “testability” when used in research refers to:
a. The concepts or properties that are operationalized and studied
b. A property of a research question that that expresses a measurable relationship between variables
c. The variable that has the presumed effect on the second variable
d. The nonmanipulated variable that the researcher is interested in understanding
Answer: B
A research questions should..
a. Clearly identify the variables under consideration.
b. State the population being studied.
c. Imply the possibility of empirical testing.
d. A and B
e. A, B, and C
Answer: E
A preliminary study with a small sample size to determine the feasibility of a large study is known as?
a. control study
b. pilot study
c. clinical testing
d. meta-analysis
Answer: B
T/F: The findings of one study usually provide sufficient evidence to support a change in practice
Answer: False
1. You read an article and you decide that it is a level III in the evidence hierarchy. Which is a correct description of a level III level of evidence?
a. Single nonexperiemental study
b. Controlled trial without randomization (a quasi experimental study)
c. A systemic review or meta analysis of randomized controlled trials
d. A systematic review of descriptive and qualitative studies
Answer: B
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The design that has the highest level of evidence is
a. Experimental study
b. Meta-analysis of random control trials (ANSWER)
c. Quasi-experimental study
d. Comparative study
Answer: B
Nonexperimental studies provide what type of evidence?
a. Level II
b. Level III
c. Level IV
d. Level V
Answer: C
What level of evidence is a quasi-experimental study on the evidence hierarchy?
a. I
b. II
c. III
d. IV
Answer: C
Which of the following describes a hypothesis:
a. The aims or objectives the investigator hopes to achieve with the research
b. Have four components intervention, population, comparison and outcome
c. A statement about the relationship between two or more variables that suggests an answer to the research question
d. None of the above
Answer: C
What is a hypothesis?
a. research question
b. testable and measurable by the proposed research
c. springs logically from experience
d. all of the above
Answer: D
1. Which of the P’s in these PICOs is correctly written?
a. P: prostate cancer
b. P: obesity
c. P: obesity among adolescents at Proviso East High School
d. P: patients at northwestern memorial hospital
Answer: C
2. In order to create a research question, you can use the PICO approach. Which of the following is NOT one of the aspects PICO?
a. Intervention
b. Outcome that you are looking for
c. Consistencies
Answer: C
3. The research question is often referred to as the __________________.
a) problem statement

b) critique question

c) investigation statement

d) framework question

Answer: A
4. In the PICO approach, what does the C stand for?
a. constancy
b. control
c. care
d. comparison
Answer: D
A good research question should:
a. clearly identify the variable under consideration

b. Specifies the population being studied

c. Implies possibility of empirical testing

d. all of the above

Answer: D
PICO stands for which of the following:

A. Predicament, Indication, Coordination, Outcome

B. Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome

C. Problem, Interview, Coordination, Overview

D. Patient, Intention, Comparison, Overview

Answer: B
The general research process begins with:

A. formulating the research question.
B. designing the study.
C. reviewing literature.
D. selecting and defining the problem.

Answer: D
All of the following are examples of primary sources except:
a. Researchers report on a their study
b. Periodicals
c. Autobiographies
d. Critique article
Answer: D
All of the following are considered primary source databases, except:
a. CINAHL

b. Cochrane Systematic Review

c. MEDLINE

d. PsycINFO

Answer: B
Which of the following should you read when determining if the article pertains to your research question and should be further investigated?
a. Full text article
b. Abstract
c. Hypothesis and research methods
d. Article conclusions
Answer: B
Which of the following is not a reason for doing a literature review?
a. To determine what is known about the problem
b. To determine where there are gaps in literature and research
c. To determine your research question
d. To determine why your study is necessary and useful
Answer: C
5. A literature review does which of the following:
a) determines what is known and unknown about a subject, concept, or problem

b) determines gaps, consistencies, and inconsistencies in the literature about a subject, concept, or problem

c) generates useful research questions and hypotheses

d) all of the above

Answer: D
A general guideline for a literature search is to use a timeline of:

a) 1-2 years

b) 6-7 years

c) 3-5 years

d) 8-10 years

Answer C
The steps for critical reading including several levels of understanding to allow you to critically assess a study’s validity. One of these steps is synthesis, which involved understanding:
a. The parts of the study

b. The whole article and each step of the research process in a study

c. The researcher’s purpose or intent

d. The content – skimming the article

Answer: B
1. In qualitative research, the researcher does all of the following except:
a. Uses questionnaires and measurement devices and are administered in one setting by an unbiased individual
b. Believes that humans are complex human beings whose unique meanings and interpretations of experiences attribute to their lived experiences
c. Wants to study of things in their natural settings and attempt to make sense of a phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them which of the following would be the best form of research:
d. conducts interviews and participant or nonparticipant observation in environments where participants usually spend their time
Answer: A
2. The inductive approach involving a systemic set of procedures to arrive at a theory about basic social processes is an example of what theory method?
a. Ethnographic
b. Phenomenological
c. Grounded
d. Historical
Answer: C
The method for assessing the rigor of qualitative research that involves the truth of the study being judged by participants of the study is:
A. Fittingness

B. Auditability

C. Creditability

D. Triangulation

Answer: C
The qualitative research method that attempts to understand the human experience is:

A. The grounded Theory method

B. Phenomenological method

C. Ethnographic method

D. Case Study method

Answer: B
A research question that begins with the phrase “How does this cultural group express their pattern of…” uses which of the following research methods:

A. Case study method

B. Ethnographic method

C. Phenomenological method

D. Group theory method

Answer: B
The following are all steps in the qualitative research process EXCEPT:

A. Reviewing literature

B. Collecting data

C. Drawing conclusions from your findings

D. Setting strict guidelines for the exact number of participants you will allow in the study

Answer: D
Reviewing relevant literature that pertains to your topic can affect which of the following steps of the Quantitative research process:

A. Theoretical or Conceptual framework

B. Research question

C. Design & methods

D. All of the above

Answer: D
A researcher went to a small city in Africa to study the culture and their beliefs regarding the birthing process in this area of the world. This would be considered which type of qualitative method?
a. Grounded Theory
b. Focus Groups
c. Ethnography
d. Phenomenology
Answer: C
A member of a Chinese culture being studied states explains his personal experiences with medical care and the health system in his town. This is an example of which of the following?
a. Emic view
b. Etic view
c. Reality
d. Outsider perspective
Answer: A
True or False: The over goal of a qualitative study is to record and understand people in their own terms.
Answer: True
The researcher should include enough information in the report to allow the reader to understand how the raw data lead to the interpretation. What does this demonstrate?

A. Credibility

B. Reliability

C. Auditability

D. Fittingness

Answer: C
Which of the following is a type of systematic review applied to qualitative research?
a) meta-analysis

b) qualitative-synthesis

c) meta-synthesis

d) qualitative-analysis

Answer: C
Which of the following beliefs reflect the qualitative research method:
a. Multiple realities exist

b. Statistical explanation, prediction, and control

c. Experimental

d. One reality exists

Answer: A
. Which of the following characteristics best describes phenomenological research?

a. Uses primary and secondary sources
b. Uses “emic” and “etic” view of subjects’ world
c. Research questions focus on basic social processes that shape behavior
d. Central meanings arise from subjects’ descriptions of lived
experiences

Answer: D
The outcome of a research project is related to which component of the research study:
A. Independent variable
B. Dependent variable
C. Design
D. Statistical analysis
Answer: B
Faithfulness to the everyday reality of the participants, described in enough detail so that others in the practice can evaluate the importance of your findings for their practice, research, and theory development is:
A. Credibility
B. Auditability
C. Fittingness or Transferability
D. Instrumentation
Answer: C
A group of nursing students are examining pain intensity and its effect on functional status in older adults. What is the dependent variable in this example?
a) pain intensity
b) functional status
c) older adults
Answer: B
Identify the independent variable in the following hypothesis: There are significant differences in self-reported cancer pain, symptoms, accompanying pain, and functional status according to self-reported ethnic identity.
a. Ethnic identity
b. Self-reported cancer pain
c. Symptoms accompanying pain
d. Functional status
Answer: A
Which of the following is the name for a variable that interferes with the operations of the variable being studied?
a) extraneous variable
b) intervening variable
c) mediating variable
d) all of the above
Answer: D
Which of the following is a type of systematic review applied to qualitative research?
a) meta-analysis
b) qualitative-synthesis
c) meta-synthesis
d) qualitative-analysis
Answer: C
Control in an experiment is important because:
a. It establishes validity
b. It eliminates bias
c. It helps assess the quality of the study and the application to a practice that is evidence based
d. All of the above
Answer: D
2. A homogenous sample is the similarity with respect to the extraneous variables relevant to the study and is most useful for:
e. Qualitative research
f. Quantitative research
g. Generalizability
h. Both A and C
Answer: H
The main purpose of controlling a quantitative study is to
i. Eliminate bias
j. Make study more believable
k. Make the study easier to conduct
l. Include more honest participants in the study
Answer: I
The introduction of one or more constant into the experimental situation is called

A) Manipulating
B) Control
C) Variable
D) Internal validity

Answer: B
A researcher is conducting a longitudinal study of the effects of children who are exposed to second hand smoking. A subject drops out from the experimental group during the study (after the first set of data collection). This is an example of what kind of threat to internal validity?
a. Maturation
b. History
c. Mortality
d. Testing
Answer: C
All of the following are threats to the Internal Validity of a research study EXCEPT:

A. Maturation

B. Mortality

C. Selection effects

D. Selection bias

Answer: C
The factors that can become a threat to External Validity are which of the following:

A. Selection effects

B. Reactive effects

C. Measurement effects

D. All of the above

Answer: D
Studies conducted in laboratories have:

A. Higher internal validity and lower external validity than field experiments.

B. Higher internal validity and higher external validity than field experiments.

C. Lower internal validity and lower external validity than field experiments.

D. Lower internal validity and higher external validity than field experiments.

Answer: A
A researcher studies a group of freshman college students to measure the impact of an HIV/AIDS awareness program on their understanding of the disease. Students attended the program and then were given a 10-question test about HIV/AIDS. Which of the following could be an antecedent variable threatening the internal validity of this study?

A. A televised, public education program started during this period of time.

B. Students had varying degrees of knowledge about HIV/AIDS before participating in the study.

C. Several of the subjects were actually diagnosed with HIV/AIDS during the study.

D. Twenty percent of the subjects dropped out of school before taking the test.

Answer: B
A researcher decides to use six people to help him collect data for a quantitative study. Which one of the following is potentially a threat to the internal validity of this study?

A. History
B. Instrumentation
C. Maturation
D. Selection effects

Answer: B
These are all threats to internal validity except:

a) history
b) reactivity
c) maturation
d) mortality

Answer: B
A quantitative study:
A. Is flexible and emergent, allowing new questions to develop throughout the process

B. Has no dependent or independent variables

C. Uses experimental and quasi-experimental designs and statistical testing on a representative sample

D. Hand-picks a small sample number that have something in common

Answer: C
Randomization of the participants means:
A. Each subject comes from a different background

B. Each subject has an equal chance of being selected
C. Each subject is tested in multiple ways

D. The subjects do not know each other

Answer: B
Which of the following is not a part of the Solomon four group design after samples are selected and subjects are randomized?
a. No base line data is collected, no intervention is applied, and postintervention data is collected
b. Baseline data is collected, intervention is applied and posterintervention data is collected
c. Baseline data is collected, no intervention is applied and no postintervention data is collected
d. Baseline data is collected, no intervention is applied and posterinvention data is collected
Answer: C
Which of the following is not an element of a quantitative research design?
a. Participants (who)
b. Observations (what)
c. Purpose of study (why)
d. Selection of subjects (where)
Answer: C
Graduates of nursing programs were surveyed 6 months postgraduation to determine their perspectives on the adequacy of their nursing education. What type of study is this an example of?

A. A cross-sectional study

B. A prospective study

C. An ex post facto study

D. A longitudinal study

Answer: A
Which of the following questions best exemplifies a correlational study?

a) Is there a difference in Y (dependent variable) between people who have X (independent variable) and those who do not have X characteristic?

b) Is there are relationship between X (independent variable) and Y (dependent variable) in the specific population?

c) Is there a difference in Y (dependent variable) between Group A who received X (independent variable) and Group B who did not receive X?

d) What is it like to have X?

Answer: B
Which of the following beliefs reflect the quantitative research method:
a. Dialogic

b. Active participants

c. Statistical explanation, prediction, and control

d. Multiple realities exist

Answer: C
Which of the following is an advantage of correlational studies?
a. Explores relationship between variables that are inherently not manipulable

b. The ability to draw cause and effect linkage

c. The researcher is unable to manipulate the variables

d. An alternative hypothesis could be the reason for the relationship

Answer: A
. Which does NOT describe quantitative data?
a. designs are predetermined and structured
b. designs are flexible
c. researchers distance themselves from the people they are studying to maintain objectivity
d. methods provide factual, reliable data that are usually generalized to a larger group
Answer: B
The type (s) of experimental design that gather baseline data before subjects are randomized is (are):

a) classic randomized clinical trial
b) Solomon four-group design
c) after-only experimental design
d) both b and c

Answer: A
A true experimental design include (s):
a) randomization
b) control
c) manipulation
d) all of the above
Answer: D
In this type of correlational study the exposure and outcome are evaluated at the same time:

a) cohort
b) case/control
c) cross-sectional
d) longitudinal

Answer: C
Which of the following is defined as encompassing the study of research questions and/or hypotheses that describe phenomena, test relationships, assess differences, and seek to explain cause-and-effect relationships between variables?
a. Qualitative Research
b. Quantitative Research
c. Pilot Study
d. Meta-synthesis
Answer: B
The research question “Is there a relationship between X (independent variable) and Y (dependent variable) in the specified population?” is an example of what type of research question format?
a. Correlational
b. Comparative
c. Experimental
d. Phenomenological
Answer: A
Why are nonexperimental correlational studies used frequently in nursing research?

A. Findings of nonexperimental correlational studies can be generalized to larger populations.

B. Independent variables can be manipulated very precisely in correlational studies.

C. Many of the phenomena of clinical interest do not lend themselves to manipulation, control, or randomization.

D. To determine the best clinical practices, nurses must be aware of cause-and-effect relationships

Answer: C
___________ are critical to qualitative reports as ____________ are to a quantitative study.
a) Quotes; numbers

b) Numbers; quotes

Answer: a

Answer: A
Match the following designs/studies with the appropriate category under which they fall:
a)Experimental Design
b)Quasi-Experimental Design
c) Non-experimental Design

____ Solomon four-group design
____ Correlational study
____ Nonequivalent control group design
____ Survey study
____ Time series design
____ Longitudinal study
____ After-only design

Answer: a, c, b, c, b, c, a
The choice to use qualitative or quantitative methods is guided by the:
a. Secondary sources
b. Phenomenology
c. Research question
d. Key informants
Answer: C
Which design is most suitable for testing cause and effect relationships
a. After-only experiment
b. True experimental
c. One group design
d. Solomon four-group
Answer: B
1. . What is an abstract?

a. the “trunk” of the publication
b. the part of the essay describing the findings
c. a short summary in front of the article that has the highlighted points about what the article is about
d. the concluding paragraph

Answer: C