Which of the following terms refers to an error in which we unjustifiably conclude that our observations for some cases is true for all cases?
Examining the effect of a drug court program on offenders’ drug use is an example of:
Which of the following is not a type of research method?
Knowing how to conduct research leads to valid interpretations of the social world. Which of the following is an aspect of validity?
All of the above
Which of the following is not a consideration when evaluating research questions?
Personal beliefs and philosophies
One of the most important requirements of theory is that it is:
What is the dependent variable in the following research question, “If inmates are visited more frequently will they be more likely to follow prison rules regardless of their gender, age, or ethnicity?”
Frequency of rule violations
A researcher argues that individuals with low self-control are more likely to commit crimes than individuals with high self-control. The independent variable in this proposition can be stated most clearly as:
The intensity of self control
…association between urban gangs and violence. He then constructs a theory stating that violent behavior is a function of deviant subcultures. His research project is an example of:
Knowing how to conduct research leads to valid interpretations of the social world. Which of the following is an aspect of validity?
All of the above
The domestic violence study conducted in 1984 by Sherman and Berk had an ethical concern in that:
They potentially withheld a beneficial treatment
Which of the following is not a current ethical standard?
Subjects should be financially compensated for their time and effort
The ethics of Zimbardo’s prison study have been debated because researchers:
Permitted several “prisoners” to experience severe psychological negative reactions
Which of the following is not an aspect of the requirement that subjects give informed consent to participate in research?
Subjects must be fully debriefed after the study
Committees which review research proposals for adherence to ethical guidelines are called _______ Review Boards
Sara presents subjects with photographs of people and asks them to describe their impressions. In order to get their honest opinions, she does not tell them that she is studying the stereotypes people form based on race and gender. In order to adhere to ethical guidelines as best as possible, she should:
Debrief them at the end
Researchers with a ______ philosophy believe that by being objective and unbiased they can see reality clearly, while researchers with a ______ philosophy believe that they can only achieve intersubjective agreement about the nature of reality.
Understanding the meanings people give reality instead of how reality works is the goal of:
Which of the following is not a positivist guideline about how to conduct research?
Become personally invested in a particular outcome
Which is not one of the eight positivist research guidelines?
Avoid regularities and patterns
In criminological research, disproportionate stratified sampling:
Could be used to provide equal numbers of male and female offenders
Which of the following terms could not be used to describe a random sample?
Haphazard or unplanned.
Systematic, Chance, Representative, and Probability do describe a random sample.
Which of the following is a non-probability sampling method?
Convenient sampling and Quota sampling
One hundred cases are sampled from a population of 1000. Each case is identified by a number on the sampling frame. If the number for a given case is selected, this case is considered to be in the sample but its number is not removed from the sampling frame. Thus, by the time the sample of 100 cases is selected, the same case could be sampled more than once. This procedure:
Is an acceptable way to draw a simple random sample
Which set of section headings most closely matches the components expected in a research study?
Methods, Data Analysis, Findings, Limitations of the Study and Directions for Further Research, References
The section of a research study where you find the goals of the research or the question/problem that a researcher is attempting to answer is:
Introduction- states the goals of the research
When evaluating a research study, what criteria might help you determine if the research is objective towards a particular outcome?
The funding source or sponsor- could give you indication whether the author might have an interest in the outcome of the research study
Choose the group of publication sources below that use the most stringent quality control processes:
National Institute of Health Web Site, Yale University Press, American Journal of Medicine
Which section of a research study explains the evidence about collected data and how it was analyzed in a research process?
Which author below is most likely to have written a quality research study about a tropic in the environmental sciences?
A researcher with a Ph.D in Atmospheric Chemistry who has published articles in The Journal of Physical Chemistry- author with advanced degrees and expertise in a subject area typically perform and publish research to contribute to new knowledge to their field or discipline.
Specifying exactly what we mean and don’t mean by the terms we use un our research is known as
Different aspects of a concept are known as
A proxy used to capture a dimension is known as
Officer Davis believes that all juveniles who wear their pants below their waistline are involved in gang activity and so one evening on patrol when he observes a group of teenagers wearing their pants below their waistlines, he detains them. Which error in everyday reasoning did Officer Davis make?
While studying recidivism rates of offenders released from one prison, Dr. Smith observes that a majority of inmates with substance abuse problems return to prison within six months. Even though the prison Dr. Smith is studying is the only one in the state without a substance abuse treatment program, Dr. Smith concludes that all inmates in the state with substance abuse problems are more likely to recidivate. Which error in everyday reasoning did Dr. Smith made?
Travis reads a collection of journal articles about capital punishment, the majority of which find evidence that capital punishment does not have any long term effect on homicide rates. Later when asked his opinion about capital punishment Travis responds, “I think that the fear of being put to death will deter most crime, especially homicide.” Which error in everyday reasoning has Travis made?
Resistance ot change
Dr. Allan comes from a long line of teachers who all teach by lecturing to students and then testing students to determine how well they learned what they heard in their lectures. Another faculty member tells Dr. Allan about the success attributed in various research studies to using group projects to teach certain concepts. Dr. Allan responds, “That may be useful for you, but my family has had success teaching our way for decades and I don’t see any reason to change.” Which error in everyday reasoning has Dr. Allan made?
Resistance to change
Dr. Johnson is conducting a series of research studies on the effect of technology resources in police patrol vehicles on accident rates among police officers. His study is funded by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) for the purpose of proposing new procedures on the use of laptop computers in patrol vehicles. Which of the follow most accurately describes the motivation for Dr. Johnson’s research from the perspective of IACP?
Cindy is conducting a study that seeks to determine how many inmates in a state prison system suffered from various types of childhood abuse. Which of the following purposes of research most accurately describes her study?
When we conclude that what we have observed or what we know to be true for some cases is true for all cases:
Choosing to look only at things that align with our preferences or beliefs
When we prematurely jump to conclusions or argue on the basis of invalid assumptions, we are using:
The reluctance to change our ideas in light of new information, may occur for several reasons:
Resistance to change
1. ego-based commitments
2. Excessive devotion to tradition
3. Uncritical agreement with authority
Research in which social phenomena are defined and describes
Descriptive research- primary focus of many studies of youth crime and violence
Research in which social phenomena are investigated without a priori expectations, in order to develop explanations of them
Exploratory research- seeks to find out how people get along in the setting under question, what meaning they give to their actions, and what issues concern them.
“What is going on here?”
Research that seeks to identify causes or effects of social phenomena
Explanatory Research- to predict how one phenomenon will change or vary in response to variation in some other phenomenon.
Research about social programs or interventions
Evaluation research- seeks to determine effects of a social program or other types of intervention
A type of explanatory research because it deals with cause and effect.
Dr. Elijah’s current research project examines the meaning of inmate feelings about prison overcrowding. Which of the following purposes of research most accurately describes her study?
Warden Smithers observes that the inmates in cell block D are more prone to violent behavior than the inmates in cell blocks A, B, and C even though all four cell blocks are the same custody level. Smithers hires Dr. Stallings to conduct a study to test whether the size of the cell blocks is related to the frequency of violent behavior in them. Which of the following purposes of research most accurately describes the study Warden Smithers wants?
The Orwell Residential Treatment Center recently introduced a new policy in which offenders are taught empathy skills by caring for baby pigs. The center hires Dr. Farmer to study the effectiveness of the new policy. Which of the following purposes of research most accurately describes this study?
Dr. Adams’ study examined the attitudes and beliefs of police officers regarding the use of tasers on juvenile suspects. It involved intensive interviews of officers following observation of the officers on patrol. Which of the following is revealed to be true in this information about Dr. Adam’s study?
The study uses qualitative methods
Which methods are used more often when the research agendas are exploratory, explanatory, descriptive, or evaluative?
Methods such as surveys and experiments that record variation in social life in terms of categories that vary in amount.
Numbers or attributes that can be ordered in terms of magnitude
Methods such as participant observation, intensive interviewing, and focus groups that are designed to capture social life as participants experience it, rather than in categories predetermined by the researcher.
Mostly written or spoken words, or observations that do not have a direct numerical interpretation
Dr. Morales creates a measure of subject’s devotion to their religion for a study about effect of religion on the recidivism rates of released prison inmates. Before putting his measure to use he attempts to discover whether his measure actually measures devotion to religion. Dr. Morales is concerned about:
Measurement validity- exists when a measure actually measures what we think it does
Dr. Sinatra conducts a study using a sample of Texas police officers, but wants to know if her conclusions can be applied to all police officers in Texas. Dr. Sinatra is concerned with:
Sample generalizability- when a conclusion based on a sample, or subset, of a larger population holds true for a population
Sammy reads a study about the attitudes of municipal police toward the use of cell phones while driving. He wonders if the study’s findings also applied to state level police officers. Sammy is concerned with:
Cross-population generalizability- (external validity) exists when findings about one group, population, or setting holds true for other groups, populations, or settings
Professor Williams observes that class attendance on Fridays has dropped after a local college hangout began offering drink specials on Thursday nights. He thinks that the drink special is affecting his class attendance and wonders if his conclusion is correct. Professor Williams is concerned with:
Causal validity- exists when a conclusion that A leads to or results in B is correct
Graduate student Jill wants to understand the dating habits of elderly people in group homes. She spends several months observing in several group homes for the elderly, eating meals with the residents and having long questions with residents about their dating experiences. Which of the following is NOT a problem with her research?
Authenticity- exists when the understanding of a social process or social setting is one that reflects fairly the various perspectives of participants in that setting
Which of the following is the major problem with the research question: “What effect would the installation of GPS tracking chips under the skin have on the recidivism of sex offenders?”
Lack of feasibility- you must be able to conduct any study within the time frame and with the resources you have
If It is clear before conducting a research study that the findings would not affect people’s lives, the research question the study was designed to answer could be said to suffer from a:
lack of social importance- will it make a difference in society? are you personally motivated by it?
A study that is not grounded in any existing empirical research could be said to suffer from a:
Lack of scientific relevance
According to the text, theory is:
A logically interrelated set of propositions about empirical reality. Examples of criminological theories include social learning, routine activities, labeling, general strain, and social disorganization theory.
Begins with a general idea or theory and develops specific expectations for empirical reality from that idea or theory
Begins with an observation or specific empirical finding and develops from that finding a general idea.
Sal thinks that the police unions with more centralized leadership are more likely to support corrupt management of their retirement accounts. This is an example of a:
Hypothesis- a tentative statement about empirical reality, involving a relationship between two or more variables
Which of the following would be a constant in a study of one prison at one point in time?
Number of cells in a prison
In the following research question, “What effect does inmate visitation have on the rate of violent behavior in prison?”, inmate visitation is an example of a:
In the following research question, “What effect does inmate visitation have on the rate of violent behavior in prison?”, the rate of violent behavior is an example of a:
A researcher does not need to be concerned with how her personal biases might affect the outcome of a study.
Researchers are encouraged to keep procedures used in research private so that research findings will not be questioned unnecessarily.
Researchers need to clarify any assumptions upon which their research is based.
Researchers should conduct thorough reviews of previous studies in order to avoid replicating prior studies.
A theoretical construct may identify what is important to look at to understand, explain, or predict crime
Phil conducts a study using a sample of mentally challenged individuals without considering their ability to consider the costs and benefits of participation in the study. Which ethical standard from the Belmont Study has Phil violated?
Respect for persons
Dr. Jackson’s study evaluating the effectiveness of a new substance abuse treatment may violate which ethical standard if the researcher does not distribute the benefits of the new program fairly?
Bob conducts a study on the effectiveness of a new non-lethal weapon without the use of safety equipment. Which ethical standard has been violated?
Which of the following proposed studies would not require review by an Institutional Review Board?
An exploratory study of the patterns of social interaction in a large public square.
Which of the following is not an ethical requirement for research involving human subjects?
Keeping funding sources anonymous
Which are ethical requirements for research involving human subjects?
Achieving valid results
Protecting the confidentiality of subjects
Minimizing risks to subjects
Dr. Roberts conducts a study on texting while driving that involves teenagers. He recruits teenagers and has them try to text a 10 word message while driving 35, 45, 55, and 65 miles per hour on highways. Which ethical standard has Dr. Roberts violated?
Researchers should expose participants to no more than minimum risk of personal harm
Researchers who follow a ____________ philosophy believe that reality is socially created and that the goal of sociologists is to understand the meanings people give to this creation.
________________ is a perspective that emphasizes how different stakeholders develop their beliefs.
A positivist researcher is concerned with all of the following except:
Constructivist research guidelines include all of the following except:
testing ideas in the context of empirical reality
Identifying stakeholders’ concerns and ideas
Introducing stakeholder claims and concerns to other stakeholders
Focusing information gathering on areas of disagreement between stakeholders
Researchers who follow a positivist research philosophy are concerned with creating positive change in society.
Professor Lewis conducts research on the study habits of students in his classes. Students are told that if they refuse to participate they will fail his class. Which ethical standard has Professor Lewis violated?
Participation in research should be voluntary, and therefore subjects must give their informed consent to participate in the research
Which of the following should be disclosed to research subjects if the ethical standard of informed consent is to be followed?
Purpose of research
Potential risks of the study
Potential benefit of the study
Which of the following is a true statement regarding ethical standards for research?
It is not required to completely eliminate potential risks to subjects
Researchers who follow a ________________ philosophy believe that there is an objective reality that exists apart from the perceptions of it and that the goal of science is to better understand this reality.
In deductive research, one key step is:
Translating portions of abstract theory into testable hypotheses
In inductive research, one key step involves:
Identifying patterns among related observations
Defining concepts is important because:
some research utilizes terms that are not familiar to everyone
some concepts are defined differently by different people or groups
Experts do not always agree on the meanings of some concepts
The process of ______________________ helps researchers to achieve measurement validity.
A single question with five response choices is said to be:
closed-ended or fixed
“What is your opinion concerning the development of new prisons in Sussex County? Please write your answer below” is an example of which type of question?
A question with fixed choices for responses is what type of question?
Which level of measurement is illustrated in the following data set: freshman, sophomore, junior, senior, graduate
Ordinal- numbers indicating the variables value specify only the order of the cases, permitting “greater than” and “less than” distinctions
The length of time spent at a residential treatment center is an example of what level of measurement?
Ratio- the numbers indicating a variables values represent fixed measuring units and an absolute zero point
A list of the municipal police departments in Arkansas would be an example of what level of measurement?
Nominal- variables whose values have no mathematical interpretation; they vary in kind or quality but not in amount
A measure that is valid because it obviously pertains to the subject matter has:
Dr. Henson is able to demonstrate that his measure of fear of crime is related to a variety of other measures specified in theory. His measure has:
When scores on one measure can be accurately compared to those obtained from a more direct or already validated measure, what type of validity has been established?
Professor Zhang is comparing answers that subjects in her study gave to slightly different versions of a survey she is using. She is testing for:
At the beginning of the semester Professor Joo gave his criminology class a survey to determine their knowledge of criminal theory. At the next class session, he gave the same class the same survey. He is trying to establish:
Conducting a study of Florida prisoners, George randomly chooses 100 inmates from each prison in the state. The sample used in this study is:
the 100 inmates
Conducting a study of Florida prisoners, George randomly chooses 100 inmates from each prison in the state. The population used in this study is:
all inmates in Florida prisons
Before drawing a sample of Sam Houston State University students, Janet obtains a list of all students currently enrolled. This list is an example of a:
Sampling Frame- The list from which the elements of the population are selected
Dr. Webster wonders if the sample of police officers he selected from the Decatur police department can be used to draw conclusions about the entire Decatur Police Department’s complement of police officers. Dr. Webster is concerned about:
A researcher wonders if findings from her sample of correctional officers from the state of Texas can be used to draw conclusions about correctional officers in Montana. She is concerned about:
Sampling methods in which the odds of any element being chosen from the population are known are referred to as:
probability sampling methods
Sampling methods in which the odds of any element being chosen from the population are not known are referred to as:
non-probability sampling methods
Random digit dialing is not used in:
Is used in:
simple random sampling
proportionate stratified sampling
disproportionate stratified sampling
Using a complete sampling frame of 1000 potential subjects, Roger decides he wants a sample of 200 and divides 1000 by 200, choses a number between 1 and 20 to identify the case to start from and then choses every 5th case to include in his sample. Roger has used:
systematic random sampling
A graduate student examines the drinking behavior of residents in Harrison County, learns that the county is 52% male and 48% female and deliberately draws a sample that has a 52/48 male to female ratio. She has probably used:
proportionate stratified sampling
Bob wants to use probability sampling, but does not have a complete sampling frame. His best option is to utilize:
Professor Hank wants to draw a quick sample of college students and therefore distributes his sample to the students in the cafeteria at noon for three days. Professor Hank is using:
Dr. Hill wants to ensure that his sample has a specific number of Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Which of the following sampling methods would you recommend for his study?
Dr. Kelvin wants to study the behavior of burglars who have not been caught by law enforcement so he uses his underworld contacts to find one such burglar who then helps him find more burglars. Dr. Kelvin has used:
A sampling technique that most heavily relies upon the knowledge of the researcher to choose subjects who represent different desired types.