Research Final Exam

Quantitative research uses the following methods of data collection except
Participant observation
(Methods are: Surveys, questionnaires, and psychosocial instruments)
One purpose of an institutional review board is to
Ensure that the rights of research subjects are protected
A nurse is reading a research article. This article describes a study in which the subjects had blood measurements taken in a group who exercised regularly as compared with a group who didn’t regularly exercise, with follow up blood pressure measurements over the next 6 years. This would be described as a
Longitudinal Study
Which of the following is not address in Sections of the Nuremberg Code?
Boundaries should exist between practice and research
(In it is voluntary consent, experiment should yield fruitful results, and subjects should be able to bring the study to an end)
The ethical problems of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study include the following
The research subjects were not:
fully informed
given effective treatment for syphillis
treated with beneficence
Which of the following statements is true about research hypotheses?
They are used in quantitative studies
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When conducting a literature review search, two most useful databases for nursing literature are:
MEDLINE and CINAHL
A researcher will use random sampling in a research study. Which of the following statements best describes this procedure
Subjects are randomly selected from a population to take part in the study
Which of the following sections in a review of the literature is considered most important
The gaps identified in the review of the literature
Which of the following sampling strategies is most often used in nursing research studies?
Convenience sampling
Which type of quantitative research design looks for cause and effect between variables
Experimental design
In order for a study to be classified as an experimental design, which three (3) elements must be present?
Control, randomization, & correlation
Providing subjects with an estimate of the potential risks in relation to the potential benefits is called the
Risk-ratio benefit
All of the following groups deserve special protection as subjects in research, except
Men and women over 65
(Special protection is given to: children, prisoners, and the mentally ill)
The feasibility of a study should be considered in light of
Cost and time required to conduct the study, skills required of the researcher, potential ethical concerns
You decide to select a sample of 100 subjects of whom 10% will be Black, 10% Hispanic, and 80% White. Identify the appropriate sampling design
Systematic sampling
Which of the following techniques yield a simple random sample?
numbering all elements of a sampling frame and using a random number table to pick individuals
Individuals who are available and volunteer as subjects in a research study are used in the sampling method called
Convenience
The selection of a sample for a research study affects the study’s
External validity
Journals that determine acceptance of manuscripts based on peer review are referred to as a
referred journal
A situation where the identity of subjects remains unknown to protect subjects participating in a study is referred to as
Anonymity
Which of the following is not a part of a report of a research report?
A one-paragraph resume of the lead author (included is:
Specified methods of data collection, Findings, Conclusions)
The interpretation of a result in a research study is called a
Finding
What determines whether a researcher uses a qualitative or quantitative research method for a particular study
The nature of the research question being asked
Which of the following is a true statement about the results of a quantitative study?
The results are the outcomes of the data analyses that were done
When does a researcher present a study to an Institutional Review Board?
Before the study begins
Which statement is true about descriptive studies?
Descriptive studies use random assignments of participants to treatment groups
In studies that use more than one data collector, how is the consistency of the data evaluated?
Inter-rater reliability
When a convenience sample is used, how is the target population defined?
By the characteristics profile of the sample of the study and the setting(s) from which the sample was recruited
In correlational research when two variables have a very strong relationship, the Pearson r value will be near
One (1)
A nurse is reviewing results in a study measuring the correlation between pain and patients’ activity level. The Pearson r of the association between the two variables is .66. What conclusions can the nurse make about the study results?
There is a high level of association between the two variables
Which of the following results from a sample size that is too small?
Low power to detect a difference in the outcomes of the two groups
What is the main goal of a two-group experimental study?
To determine if one intervention is more effective than the other
Why is a study is categorized as quasi-experimental (as opposed to being called an experimental study)?
Because the intervention and/or setting was not tightly controlled
In a study of the effectiveness of two pain management methods, what is the meaning of the conclusion that one method produced a clinically significant lower pain level than the other method?
The difference in outcome achieved by the more effective method is large enough to make an important difference in patient comfort
The group that receives the experimental treatment condition is called the
Experimental Group
Which of the following does not apply to qualitative research?
Ends with statistical report
In what section of a research report are results of a study explained and interpreted?
Discussion
Another way of communicating findings associated with a research report, other than publication, would be through
Oral presentations
A conscientious, explicit use of best evidence in making decisions about care is often termed
EBP
A hierarchy of research evidence is generally agreed on for the amount of confidence that may be placed in results of intervention testing. Which is the strongest evidence?
Meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
Both open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires are used in research. Which of the following statements is true?
open-ended questions provide qualitative data
In critiquing a research report, where does the researcher state the particular question(s) to be investigated?
Purpose statement
Using the PICO research question “In hospitalized patients, is the use of hand sanitizer as effective as traditional handwashing in controlling infection? The outcome is
Infection rates
Evidence based practice decisions should consider which of the following
Clinical expertise, patient values and preferences, and best research evidence
Choose all of the following which are characteristics of a randomized controlled trial
Randomization, experimental & control group, and use of double blinding
Which of the following is true regarding interpretation of research findings?
Must be careful about reading more into results than there really is
Don’t jump to conclusions
Data should be examined objectively
What type of analysis will be used by researcher who conducts a case study?
Content analysis
Which of the following qualitative research designs seeks to develop an understanding of “lived experience”?
Phenomenology
In which type of research design is the researcher most likely to use bracketing?
Ethnography
Triangulation is often used in mixed methods research to
Enhance the validity of the findings
When conducting a literature review search, two most useful databases for nursing literature are
MEDLINE and CINAHL
A nurse researcher is examining findings from a study and is interested in determining how the data varies between each score and from the mean. What will the nurse researcher look at in the data analyses?
The standard deviation
Which of the following descriptions would not be typical of research utilization?
Considered unnecessary in EBP
Quality improvement may be described as
Essential to patient satisfaction and cost effectiveness
Focused on systems and processes
Aimed at improving the microsystem
Which of the following is not a goal of qualitative research?
Test a hypothesis about a nursing intervention
What determines whether a researcher uses a qualitative or quantitative research method for a particular study?
The nature of the research question being asked
Which research purpose is not a purpose of qualitative research?
To determine the effectiveness of forced-air warming blankets in preventing shivering with women who are actively giving birth
Which of the following data collection methods is not used in qualitative research?
Questionnaires with structures responses
In qualitative research, data saturation occurs when
No new information is forthcoming and all major issues are understood
A nurse researcher aims to produce a rich portrayal of the norms, values, language, roles, and social rules of health amongst Central American immigrants to the United States. What research methodology would work best for this purpose?
Ethnography
A group of researchers are conducting a study with the aim of producing a middle-range theory
Grounded Theory
All of the following are key features of a well-designed experimental study, except:
Data saturation
(Included are: Random assignment to groups, Low level of missing data, Control of extraneous variables)
A common reason for low statistical power in a study is
Small sample size
What is CINAHL?
A database of articles, books, and other information sources for Nursing and allied health
Which of the following organizations does not produce systematic reviews?
National League for Nursing
What should you consider when evaluating the clinical significance of a clinical practice guideline recommendation
The likelihood that implementation of the recommendation will produce good patient outcomes
How are the findings of a qualitative study appraised for clinical credibility?
Based on the richness and informativeness of the findings
What is a peer-reviewed journal?
A journal that mainly accepts articles that have been blindly assessed and judged acceptable by reviewers retained by the journal
Which of the following is the main goal of evidence-based practice?
Patients achieving good outcomes