Research Exam 1

A pediatric RN undertakes a study of the effect of low birth weight on infants’ cognitive development. A developmental psychologist collaborates on the study. A second RN helps by recruiting families into the study. A graduate student is asked to give statistical advice in analyzing the data. This is an example of what type of study?
A) Multisite research
B) Qualitative research
C) Funded research
D) Collaborative research
D) Collaborative research
Which term is not used by qualitative researchers to refer to people who participate in a study?
A) Informants
B) Key informants
C) Study participants
D) Subjects
D) Subjects
Which term is used by both qualitative and quantitative researchers to refer to the abstractions under study?
A) Concept
B) Construct
C) Phenomenon
D) Variable
A) Concept
The RN is reading a research article. The article talks about constructs. Which would most likely be called a construct?
A) Gender
B) Body temperature
C) Uncertainty in illness
D) Blood type
C) Uncertainty in illness
What is the dependent variable(s) in the research question ìIs the quality of life of nursing home residents affected by their functional ability or hearing acuityî?
A) Quality of life
B) Functional ability
C) Hearing acuity
D) Nursing home residents
A) Quality of life
What is the independent variable in the hypothesis ìBaccalaureate degree prepared nurses will practice more rehabilitative nursing measures on a client in an ICU than will associate degree prepared nursesî?
A) Associate degree prepared nurses
B) Baccalaureate degree prepared nurses
C) Rehabilitative nursing measures
D) Type of educational background of nurses
D) Type of educational background of nurses
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What is the purpose of an operational definition in a quantitative study?
A) State the theoretical meaning of the concept.
B) Specify how a variable will be defined and measured.
C) State the expected relationship between the variables under investigation.
D) Designate the conceptual underpinnings of the variable.
B) Specify how a variable will be defined and measured.
Which is a datum from a quantitative study of the labor and delivery experiences of women over age 40?
A) Length of time in labor
B) 107 ounces
C) Infant’s Apgar score
D) Vaginal versus cesarean delivery
B) 107 ounces
Which is a datum from a qualitative research study on the labor and delivery experiences of women over age 40?
A) 14.6 hours in labor
B) 60-minute interviews 1 day after delivery
C) “It was a lot more painful than I ever imagined.”
D) 15 women with a vaginal delivery
C) “It was a lot more painful than I ever imagined.”
Which pair of variables is there most likely to be a relationship that could be described as causal?
A) Degree of physical activity and heart rate
B) Stress and coping style
C) Age and health beliefs
D) Parity and postpartum depression
A) Degree of physical activity and heart rate
What is the basic distinction in quantitative studies?
A) Quantitative and qualitative research
B) Empirical and nonempirical research
C) Experimental and nonexperimental research
D) Population-based and sample-based research
C) Experimental and nonexperimental research
Which is widely used by quantitative nurse researchers?
A) Ask research questions
B) Phenomenological
C) Ethnographic
D) Grounded theory
A) Ask research questions
What is the research tradition that focuses on understanding phenomena within a cultural context?
A) Experimental
B) Phenomenological
C) Ethnographic
D) Grounded theory
C) Ethnographic
What is the research tradition that is an approach to understanding people’s life experiences?
A) Experimental
B) Phenomenological
C) Ethnographic
D) Grounded theory
B) Phenomenological
What is the statement of the researcher’s expectations or predictions about relationships among study variables?
A) Hypothesis
B) Framework
C) Research question
D) Conceptual definition
A) Hypothesis
What is the aggregate of those to whom a researcher wishes to generalize study results called?
A) Gate keepers
B) Population
C) Sample
D) Consumers
B) Population
What is the research design in qualitative studies called?
A) Experimental
B) Narrative
C) Interpretive
D) Emergent
D) Emergent
Where are registered nurses most likely to find research results?
A) Conference presentations
B) Journal articles
C) Books
D) Dissertations
B) Journal articles
What is included in the methods section of a study?
A) Review of the literature.
B) Names of the statistical tests that are going to be used.
C) Strategies used to address the problem.
D) Discussion including recommendations for the research
C) Strategies used to address the problem.
What is the overall plan for answering the research question?
A) Sampling plan
B) Proposal
C) Problem statement
D) Research design
D) Research design
What is a research problem?
A) Situation involving an enigmatic or disturbing situation amenable to disciplined inquiry
B) Articulation of the problem and description of the need for a study through the development of an argument
C) Specific queries researchers want to answer in addressing the problem
D) Specific accomplishments that will be achieved by conducting the study
A) Situation involving an enigmatic or disturbing situation amenable to disciplined inquiry
The nature of the research question is closely allied to paradigms. What is the focus of research questions for a quantitative study?
A) Undertaken because some aspect of a phenomenon is poorly understood
B) Developed within a rich and context bound understanding of the problem
C) Initiated to heighten awareness and create a dialogue about a phenomenon
D)Identified major variables in the study and populations under investigation are present
D)Identified major variables in the study and populations under investigation are present
Which is correct about the research question ìWhat is the decision making process among intensive care unit nurses who decide to assist terminally ill patients to die?î
A) Most likely to be addressed using a quantitative approach
B) Most likely to be addressed using a qualitative approach
C) Not researchable
D) Not appropriately worded
B) Most likely to be addressed using a qualitative approach
Where is the nurse likely to have difficulty getting an idea for research problems?
A) Theories of conceptual frameworks
B) Clinical experience
C) Nursing code of ethics
D) Nursing literature
C) Nursing code of ethics
Which is not considered in determining the feasibility of a research question?
A) Cooperation of participants
B) Ethical concerns
C) Relevant theories
D) Researcher experience
C) Relevant theories
Researchers communicate their aims as problem statements, statements of purpose, research questions, or hypotheses. What are hypotheses?
A) Essential to the conduct of respectable scientific enquiry
B) Needed only when there is an explicit theoretical framework
C) Useful in giving direction to quantitative studies
D) Not appropriate for many nursing research studies
C) Useful in giving direction to quantitative studies
Women who jog regularly are more likely to have amenorrhea than those who do not jog regularly …..is an example of what type of hypothesis?
A) Null
B) Not corrected stated
C) Directional
D) Nondirectional
C) Directional
What is a moderator variable?
A) Affect the strength or direction of a relationship between independent variables
B) Affect the strength or direction of a relationship between the independent and dependent variables
C) Intervene between the independent and dependent variable
D) Help to explain why the relationship exists
B) Affect the strength or direction of a relationship between the independent and dependent variables
What is a complex hypothesis?
A) Predicted relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable
B) Predicted direction of the relationship
C) Anticipated existence of relationships, not their direction
D) Anticipated relationship between two independent variables and two dependent variables
D) Anticipated relationship between two independent variables and two dependent variables
What is the type of hypothesis for a person’s emotional status is not affected by relocation to a nursing home?
A) Directional
B) Nondirectional
C) Research
D) Null
D) Null
Researchers communicate their aims as problem statements, statements of purpose, research questions, or hypotheses. What is the statement of purpose?
A) Summarizes the overall study goal.
B) Specific query researchers want to answer in addressing the research problem.
C) Articulate the nature, context, and significance of the problem.
D) Statement of predicted relationships between two or more variables
A) Summarizes the overall study goal.
The registered nurse knows that which is correct about hypotheses in research reports?
A) Hypotheses derived from theory are generally nondirectional in wording.
B) Hypotheses are more abstract than purpose statements.
C) Qualitative research proceeds with hypotheses.
D) Hypotheses must express the expected relationship among at least three variables
B) Hypotheses are more abstract than purpose statements.
Researchers communicate their aims as problem statements, statements of purpose, research questions, or hypotheses. What does ……subjects receiving antiemetic therapy by a patient controlled pump will be less nauseous …represent?
A) Hypothesis
B) Problem statement
C) Statement of purpose
D) Research question
A) Hypothesis
What type of hypothesis is represented by the statement ….the fewer social supports an elderly person has, the more likely the individual will be institutionalized.?
A) Directional
B) Nondirectional
C) Research
D) Null
A) Directional
What type of hypothesis is represented by the statement ….women who smoke are as likely to have low-birth-weight babies as women who do notî?
A) Directional
B) Nondirectional
C) Research
D) Null
D) Null
What intervenes between the independent and dependent variable?
A) Moderator variable
B) Mediating variable
C) Hypothesis
D) Simple hypothesis
B) Mediating variable
Researchers communicate their aims as problem statements, statements of purpose, research questions, or hypotheses. What does the following statement represent, …….Nausea and vomiting are common side effects among patients on chemotherapy, and interventions to date have been only moderately successful in reducing these effects? New interventions that can reduce or prevent these side effects need to be identified.
A) Hypothesis
B) Problem statement
C) Statement of purpose
D) Research question
B) Problem statement
Not all problems are amendable to research inquiry. Which question cannot be researched?
A) Should voluntary tubal ligations be performed on women without children?
B) What are nurses’ attitudes toward voluntary tubal ligations?
C) What moral dilemmas are perceived by nurses who might be involved in assisted suicide?
D) Do terminally ill patients living with high levels of pain hold more favorable attitudes toward assisted suicide than those with less pain?
A) Should voluntary tubal ligations be performed on women without children?
What is a nondirectional hypothesis?
A) Predicted relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable
B) Predicted direction of the relationship
C) Anticipated existence of relationships, not their direction
D) Anticipated relationship between two independent variables and two dependent variables
C) Anticipated existence of relationships, not their direction
What is a simple hypothesis?
A) Predicted relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable
B) Predicted direction of the relationship
C) Anticipated existence of relationships, not their direction
D) Anticipated relationship between two independent variables and two dependent variables
A) Predicted relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable
What serves as the basis for regulations affecting research by the U.S. government?
A)The Nuremberg Code
B)The Declaration of Helsinki
C)The Belmont Report
D)The Code of Ethics of the American Psychological Association
C)The Belmont Report
In response to human rights violations, various codes of ethics have been developed. What was developed after Nazi atrocities were made public as an international effort to establish ethical standards?
A)The Nuremberg Code
B)The Declaration of Helsinki
C)The Belmont Report
D)The Code of Ethics of the American Psychological Association
A)The Nuremberg Code
What document covers primarily ethical issues for practicing nurses and includes principles that apply to nurse researchers?
A)Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretative Statements
B)Ethical Research Guidelines for Registered Nurses
C)Ethical Guidelines in the Conduct, Dissemination, and Implementation of Nursing Research
D)ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses
A)Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretative Statements
The Belmont Report articulated broad principles on which standards of ethical conduct in research are based. Which is not considered an ethical principle for protecting study participants in the report?
A)Beneficence
B)Respect for human dignity
C)Informed consent
D)Justice
C)Informed consent
What is beneficence?
A)Performance of some good
B)Protection from physical and psychological harm and exploitation
C)Participants right to self-determination
D)Freedom to control their own actions
A)Performance of some good
What is justice?
A)Right to fair treatment
B)Protection from physical and psychological harm and exploitation
C)Participants right to self-determination
D)Freedom to control their own actions
A)Right to fair treatment
Which ethical principle may be violated if a researcher unobtrusively studies interactions among patients in a psychiatric hospital?
A)Confidentiality
B)Freedom from harm
C)Right to self-determination
D)Right to privacy
C)Right to self-determination
What is the safeguard mechanisms by which even the researcher cannot link the participant with the information provided?
A)Confidentiality
B)Anonymity
C)Informed consent
D)Right to privacy
B)Anonymity
What provides prospective participants with information needed to make a reasoned decision about participation?
A)Confidentiality
B)Anonymity
C)Informed consent
D)Right to privacy
C)Informed consent
How can confidentiality of study participants be increased?
A)Avoiding the collection of any identifying information
B)Avoiding introducing the participants to any of the research personnel
C)Placing all identifying information on computer files rather than in manual files
D)Placing all identifying information on manual files rather than in computer files
A)Avoiding the collection of any identifying information
What is an example of a vulnerable group?
A)Women hospitalized for a mastectomy
B)Members of a senior citizen group
C)People who do not speak English
D)Pediatric clients
D)Pediatric clients
What is a major potential risk of research to participants?
A) Monetary gains
B)Access to a new and potentially beneficial treatment
C)Opportunity to discuss personal feelings and experiences with an objective listener.
D)Physical boredom
D)Physical boredom
Researchers can often show their respect for participants and proactively minimize emotional risks by carefully attending to the nature of the interactions they have with them. What are debriefing sessions?
A)Discussions with prospective participants to obtain informed consent
B)Discussions with participants after a study to explain various aspects of the study
C)Discussions with a human subjects committee before a study to obtain permission
D)Discussions before a study that findings will be shared after data have been analyzed
B)Discussions with participants after a study to explain various aspects of the study
In a qualitative study that involves multiple contacts between the researcher and study participants, what can the researcher negotiate?
A)Implied consent
B)Stipend
C)Process consent
D)Risk/benefit ratio
C)Process consent
When is informed consent not obtained?
A)Researcher pays a stipend to study participants.
B)Researcher collects information covertly.
C)Risk/benefit ratio is low.
D)Study is determined exempt by Institutional Review Board.
B)Researcher collects information covertly.
Most institutions where research is conducted have formal committees for reviewing proposed research plans. In the United States, what will the committee likely be called?
A)Research Ethics Board
B)Institutional Review Board
C)Ethical Advisory Board
D)Human Subject Committee
B)Institutional Review Board
What is an expedited review?
A)The committee must consist of five members to carry out the review.
B)Research involving no more than minimal risk can use this procedure.
C)The researcher must have an affiliation with an institution.
D)The research is exempt from the review board process.
B)Research involving no more than minimal risk can use this procedure.
What is an important consideration when nurses choose to use animals as research subjects?
A)Must obtain informed consent from the animal’s owner.
B)Recognize that it is more convenient to use an animal.
C)Recognize that it is less costly to use animals than humans.
D)Recognize that animals need humane care and treatment.
D)Recognize that animals need humane care and treatment.
When can the researcher omit informed consent, when existing data from records and/or specimens are used?
A)The study does not involve an intervention.
B)The researcher is gathering data anonymously.
C)Health professional students are used as subjects.
D)The study is gathering data from records over 10 years old.
B)The researcher is gathering data anonymously.
Under HIPAA regulations, a covered entity such as a hospital can disclose individually identifiable health information from its records if the patient signs an authorization granting access. What does this include?
A)Who will receive the information
B)Why they need the information
C)The Social Security number of the patient
D)If the data is not specifically obtained for the research
A)Who will receive the information
Qualitative studies use an emergent design. When does the research design evolve?
A)During the conduct of the literature review.
B)While the researcher develops a conceptual framework.
C)During the process of doing constant comparisons.
D)While the researcher is in the field collecting and analyzing data.
D)While the researcher is in the field collecting and analyzing data.
Which design feature can apply to both a qualitative and quantitative study?
A)Manipulation of the independent variable.
B)Cross sectional versus longitudinal data collection.
C)Control over extraneous variables.
D)Random assignment of study participants.
B)Cross sectional versus longitudinal data collection.
What discipline does the research tradition known as ethnoscience have its roots?
A)Anthropology
B)Philosophy
C)Psychology
D)Sociology
A)Anthropology
What discipline does the research tradition known as ethnomethodology have its roots?
A)Anthropology
B)Philosophy
C)Psychology
D)Sociology
D)Sociology
The research tradition known as hermeneutics is closely allied with what other research tradition?
A)Ethnography
B)Phenomenology
C)Ethology
D)Symbolic interaction
B)Phenomenology
What do ethnographers strive to acquire?
A)Emic perspective of a culture
B)Etic perspective of a culture
C)Link the etic and emic perspectives into a unified whole
D)Review the hermeneutic of the culture
A)Emic perspective of a culture
What is one method of facilitating bracketing?
A)Tacit knowledge
B)Bricolage
C)Emic perspective
D)Reflexive journals
C)Emic perspective
What are ethnographers conducting when they study their own culture or group?
A)Autoethnography
B)Microethnology
C)Macroethnology
D)Institutional ethnology
A)Autoethnography
Which approach aims to discover theoretical precepts grounded in the data?
A)Grounded theory
B)Ethnography
C)Phenomenology
D)Ethology
A)Grounded theory
The product of ethnographic research is a holistic description of the culture, but sometimes the products are performance ethnographies. What is performance ethnography?
A)Interpretive scripts that can be performed
B)Focus on the organization of professional services from the perspective of the front-line worker
C)Focus on the group or culture to which the researcher belongs
D)Putting together an array of data drawn from many sources to arrive at a holistic understanding of a phenomenon
A)Interpretive scripts that can be performed
What type of qualitative research uses stories as center stage?
A)Discourse analysis
B)Narrative analysis
C)Descriptive qualitative analysis
D)Qualitative content analysis
B)Narrative analysis
What is one type of action research?
A)Participatory
B)Discourse analysis
C)Descriptive qualitative analysis
D)Qualitative content analysis
A)Participatory
What is the greatest strength of a case study?
A)Generalize
B)Obtain depth
C)Use anecdotal material
D)Describe peripheral material
B)Obtain depth
What can be located in archives that are used by historical researchers?
A)Primary and secondary sources
B)Primary and tertiary sources
C)Secondary and tertiary sources
D)Primary secondary and tertiary sources
A)Primary and secondary sources
Qualitative researchers use the conceptual demands of the study to select articulate and reflective informants with certain types of experience in an emergent way. What is a typical qualitative sample?
A)Large, random
B)Small, random
C)Large, nonrandom
D)Small, nonrandom
D)Small, nonrandom
What discipline does the research tradition known as symbolic interaction have as its roots?
A)Anthropology
B)Philosophy
C)Ethology
D)Sociology
D)Sociology
Which approach is associated with symbolic interaction?
A)Grounded theory
B)Ethnology
C)Phenomenology
D)Ethology
A)Grounded theory
What type of research tradition seeks to understand the rules, mechanisms, and structure of conversations and tests?
A)Semiotic analysis
B)Ethnoscientific analysis
C)Hermeneutics analysis
D) Discourse analysis
D) Discourse analysis
There are three broad types of information sought by ethnographers. What is cultural behavior?
A)What members of the culture do
B)What people make and use
C)What people say
D)Where people work
A)What members of the culture do
Many nurse researchers have undertaken ethnographic studies. What is the first phase of Leininger’s observation-participation-reflection enabler model?
A)Primary observation and active listening
B)Primary observation with limited participation
C)Primary participation with continuing observation
D)Primary reflection and reconfirmation of results with informants
A)Primary observation and active listening
What type of phenomena do phenomenologists investigate?
A)Subjective
B)Objective
C)Cognitive
D)Psychomotor
A)Subjective
Qualitative researchers often begin with a sample where potential participants come forward and identify themselves. What type of sample is being used?
A)Convenience
B)Snowball
C)Purposive
D)Purposeful
A)Convenience
Qualitative researchers, like quantitative researchers, sometimes ask early informants to refer to other study participants. What type of sample is being used?
A)Convenience
B)Snowball
C)Purposive
D)Purposeful
B)Snowball
Many qualitative studies eventually evolve to selecting cases that will most benefit the study. What type of sample is being used?
A)Convenience
B)Volunteer
C)Snowball
D)Purposive
D)Purposive
The broad category of purposive sampling involves general goals. What is one of the broad general goals?
A)Find examples that are representative or typical of a specific group on some dimension of interest.
B)Sampling to set up the possibility of comparisons or replications across similar types of cases on a dimension of interest.
C)Find examples that are representative or typical of a broader group on some dimension of interest.
D)Sampling to set up the possibility of comparisons or replications across random cases on a dimension of interest.
C)Find examples that are representative or typical of a broader group on some dimension of interest.
Various purposive sampling strategies have been used by qualitative researchers. What is an important purposive strategy for sampling for representativeness or comparative value?
A)Maximum variation sampling
B)Critical case sampling
C)Criterion sampling
D)Sampling politically important cases
A)Maximum variation sampling
Although many qualitative sampling strategies unfold while in the field, purposive sampling in the sequential category involves deliberative emergent efforts. What is an example of this category of purposive sampling?
A)Opportunistic sampling
B)Reputational case sampling
C)Critical case sampling
D)Stratified purposeful sampling
A)Opportunistic sampling
What type of sample involves selecting cases that are especially important or illustrative?
A)Critical case sampling
B)Maximum variation sampling
C)Homogeneous sampling
D)Typical case sampling
A)Critical case sampling
What type of sample identifies and gains access to a case representing a phenomenon that was previously inaccessible to research scrutiny?
A)Critical case sampling
B)Criterion sampling
C)Revelatory case sampling
D)Sampling politically important cases
C)Revelatory case sampling
What type of sample adds new cases based on changes in research circumstances or in response to new leads that develop in the field?
A)Theory-based sampling
B)Opportunistic sampling
C)Sampling confirming and disconfirming cases
D)Sampling politically important cases
B)Opportunistic sampling
What type of sample selects cases based on a recommendation of an expert or key informant?
A)Homogeneous sampling
B)Typical case sampling
C)Extreme case sampling
D)Reputational case sampling
D)Reputational case sampling
What type of sample selects cases that are intense but not extreme?
A)Typical case sampling
B)Extreme case sampling
C)Intensity sampling
D)Stratified purposeful sampling
C)Intensity sampling
What type of sample occurs when only average, above average, or below average cases are selected?
A)Typical case sampling
B)Extreme case sampling
C)Intensity sampling
D)Stratified purposeful sampling
D)Stratified purposeful sampling
What main qualitative tradition is theoretical sampling guided by?
A)Ethnography
B)Phenomenological studies
C)Grounded theory studies
D)Sociology
C)Grounded theory studies
Which type of sample may require more cases to reach data saturation?
A)Convenience sample
B)Purposive sample
C)Theoretical sample
D)Extreme case sample
A)Convenience sample
What is data saturation?
A)Sampling to the point at which new information is continually obtained
B)Sampling to the point at which new information is continually obtained with no redundancy
C)Sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained with any redundancy
D)Sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained and redundancy is achieved
D)Sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained and redundancy is achieved
What type of researcher often uses key informants who serve as guides and interpreters of the culture?
A)Ethnographers
B)Phenomenologists
C)Grounded theory researchers
D)Sociologists
A)Ethnographers
Phenomenologists typically work with what size sample who meets the criterion of having lived the experience under study?
A)10 or fewer
B)11-15
C)16-19
D)20-30
A)10 or fewer
Grounded theory researchers typically work with what size sample?
A)10 or fewer
B)11-15
C)16-19
D)20-30
D)20-30
Generalizability in qualitative research is controversial. What widely used model of generalizability involves judgments about whether findings from an inquiry can be extrapolated to a different setting or group of people?
A)Analytic generalization
B)Transferability
C)Thick description
D)Proximal similarity
B)Transferability
What is the name of the individual who leads a focus group discussion?
A)Discussant
B)Participant
C)Moderator
D)Research assistant
C)Moderator
When are detailed chronological narratives about personal life experiences elicited?
A)Critical incidents interviews
B)Oral histories
C)Photo elicitation interviews
D)Life history interviews
D)Life history interviews
What is the qualitative method used to learn about cognitive processes such as problem solving?
A) incidents technique
B)Think-aloud method
C)Photo elicitation method
D)Oral history
B)Think-aloud method
What does the first phase of most participant observation studies involve?
A)Observation
B)Participation
C)Reflection
D)Note taking
A)Observation
What type of interview involves discussion with small, homogeneous groups?
A)Focus
B)Unstructured
C)Joint
D)Critical incidents
A)Focus
What is the most frequently used type of data in qualitative studies?
A)Observation
B)Self-reports
C)Descriptive observation
D)Photo elicitation interview
B)Self-reports
Qualitative researchers often confront several fieldwork issues. What does going native mean?
A)Awareness of the part the researcher plays in the study
B)Awareness of the possible effects the researcher has on the data
C)Need to avoid involvement with participants
D)Need to pace data collection to avoid being overwhelmed by the intensity of data
C)Need to avoid involvement with participants
Reflexivity is an important concept in qualitative data collection. What is reflexivity?
A)Awareness of the part the researcher plays in the study and the possible effects the researcher has on the data
B)Gaining participants’ trust
C)Need to avoid involvement with participants
D)Need to pace data collection to avoid being overwhelmed by the intensity of data
A)Awareness of the part the researcher plays in the study and the possible effects the researcher has on the data
Which type of researchers write analytic memos that document ideas about how the theory is developing?
A)Grounded theory
B)Ethnography
C)Phenomenology
D)Ethology
A)Grounded theory
Which method of collecting qualitative data offer respondents and interviewers latitude in their questions and answers and yield rich narrative data?
A)Participant observation
B)Descriptive observation
C)Unstructured self-reports
D)Single positioning
C)Unstructured self-reports
What is a joint interview?
A)Conversational discussions on the topic of interest
B)interviewers are guided by a topic guide of questions to be asked
C)involves discussion with small, homogeneous groups
D)Involves simultaneously talking with members of a dyad
D)Involves simultaneously talking with members of a dyad
What type of approach is used to gather personal recollections of events?
A)Critical incidents interviews
B)Oral histories
C)Photo elicitation interviews
D)Life history interviews
B)Oral histories
What type of qualitative self-report data is being used in which respondents maintain ongoing records about some aspect of their lives?
A)Diaries
B)Oral histories
C)Photo elicitation interviews
D)Life history interviews
A)Diaries
What type of self-report data is stimulated and guided by photographic images?
A)Observation
B)Self-reports
C)Descriptive observation
D)Photo elicitation interview
D)Photo elicitation interview
What type of observation is designed to facilitate comparisons?
A)Descriptive
B)Focused
C)Selective
D)Participant
C)Selective
What type of observation carefully selects events or interactions?
A)Descriptive
B)Focused
C)Selective
D)Participant
C)Selective
Participant observers usually select events to observe through different positions. What is observing from a fixed location called?
A)Fixed
B)Single
C)Multiple
D)Mobile
B)Single
Participant observers usually select events to observe through different positions. What is following a person around the site called?
A)Follow
B)Single
C)Multiple
D)Mobile
B)Single
What are the major methods of recording unstructured observational data?
A)Diaries and journals
B)Diaries and logs
C)Journals and field notes
D)Logs and field notes
D)Logs and field notes
There are several types of reflective notes. What are the field notes in which a participant observer reflects on the meaning of observations?
A)Descriptive
B)Theoretical
C)Methodological
D)Personal
C)Methodological
What is the first major step that a nurse researcher must undertake in a qualitative analysis?
A)A search for major themes
B)Entering information into files
C)The use of quasi-statistics
D)Developing a system for organizing and indexing the data
D)Developing a system for organizing and indexing the data
Before the advent of computer programs for qualitative analysis, what was the main procedure for managing qualitative data?
A)Conceptual files
B)Core categories
C)Memos
D)Themes
A)Conceptual files
What does the actual analysis of data usually begin with?
A)A search for major themes
B)Entering information into files
C)The use of quasi-statistics
D)Developing a system for organizing and indexing the data
A)A search for major themes
Some qualitative analysts use figurative comparisons to evoke a visual and symbolic analogy. What is this called?
A)Themes
B)Categories
C)Metaphors
D)Quasi-statistics
C)Metaphors
What does the process of constant comparison involve?
A)Comparing two researchers’ interpretation of the data
B)Comparing the researchers’ interpretation of the data against study participants’ interpretation
C)Comparing data segments against other segments for similarity
D)Comparing data from the study with data and categories from other similar studies
C)Comparing data segments against other segments for similarity
What is quasi-statistics?
A)Statistical analysis
B)Validation
C)Thematic generation
D)Analytic induction
B)Validation
One approach to analyzing ethnographic data is Spradley’s method, which involves how many levels of data analysis?
A)1
B)2
C)3
D)4
D)4
What type of analysis uncovers cultural themes?
A)Domain
B)Taxonomic
C)Componential
D)Theme
D)Theme
What type of analysis compares and contrasts terms in a domain?
A)Domain
B)axonomic
C)Componential
D)Theme
What type of analysis selects key domains and constructs systems of classification?
A)Domain
B)Taxonomic
C)Componential
D)Theme
B)Taxonomic
Leininger and McFarland provided ethnographers with a four-phase ethno nursing data analysis guide. What is the first phase?
A)Collecting and recording data
B)Categorizing descriptors
C)Searching for repetitive patterns
D)Abstracting major themes
A)Collecting and recording data
In Van Manen’s approach, this involves efforts to grasp the essential meaning of the experience being studied, researchers search for themes. What is the holistic approach?
A)Find common patterns of experiences shared by particular instances.
B)Viewing text as a whole.
C)Pulling out key statements and phrases.
D)Analyzing every sentence in the analysis
B)Viewing text as a whole.
Central to analyzing data in a hermeneutic study is the notion of the hermeneutic circle. What is a hermeneutic circle?
A)Find common patterns of experiences shared by particular instances.
B)Continual movement between the parts and the whole of the text.
C)Pulling out key statements and phrases.
D)Analyzing every sentence in the analysis
B)Continual movement between the parts and the whole of the text.
Hermeneutics has several choices for data analysis. One approach is the discovery of a pattern that expresses the relationships among themes. What is this pattern called?
A)Constitutive
B)Constant comparison
C)Similarity comparison
D)Dissimilarity comparison
A)Constitutive
Benner offers another analytic approach for hermeneutic phenomenology. The interpretative analysis consists of how many interrelated processes?
A)1
B)2
C)3
D)4
C)3
One approach to grounded theory is the Glaser and Strauss (Glaserian) method, in which there are two broad types of codes. What is theoretical code?
A)Empirical substance of the topic is conceptualized.
B)Relationships among the substantive codes are conceptualized.
C)Capture what is going on in the data.
D)Only variables relating to a core category are coded.
B)Relationships among the substantive codes are conceptualized.
Substantive coding involves open coding. What is open coding?
A)Empirical substance of the topic is conceptualized.
B)Relationships among the substantive codes are conceptualized.
C)Capture what is going on in the data.
D)Only variables relating to a core category are coded.
C)Capture what is going on in the data.
Substantive coding involves selective coding. What is selective coding?
A)Empirical substance of the topic is conceptualized.
B)Relationships among the substantive codes are conceptualized.
C)Capture what is going on in the data.
D)Only variables relating to a core category are coded.
D)Only variables relating to a core category are coded.
What are level III codes in the Glaser and Strauss approach?
A)Axial codes
B)In vivo codes
C)Open codes
D)Theoretical constructs
D)Theoretical constructs
Strauss and Corbin’s method is an alternative grounded theory method whose outcome is a full preconceived conceptual description. What is an axial code?
A)Categories are generated.
B)Categories are linked with subcategories.
C)Findings are integrated.
D)Findings are refined.
B)Categories are linked with subcategories.
What is one contentious issue in the debate about quality concerns in qualitative research?
A)The sameness of the two methods
B)Criteria to use as indicators of validity and reliability
C)The place of imagination in qualitative research
D)The need for high-quality research in both traditions
B)Criteria to use as indicators of validity and reliability
The most-often used framework of quality criteria is that of Lincoln and Guba. How many criteria are identified for evaluating trustworthiness of the inquiry?
A)2
B)3
C)4
D)5
D)5
What is credibility in the often-used framework of quality criteria?
A)Confidence in the truth value of the findings
B)Stability of data over time and conditions
C)Objectivity or neutrality of the data
D)Analog of external validity and the extent to which findings from the data can be transferred to other settings or groups
A)Confidence in the truth value of the findings
What is authenticity in the often-used framework of quality criteria?
A)Confidence in the truth value of the findings
B)Stability of data over time and conditions.
C)Objectivity or neutrality of the data.
D)Extent to which researchers fairly and faithfully show a range of different realities and convey the feeling tone of lives as they are lived.
D)Extent to which researchers fairly and faithfully show a range of different realities and convey the feeling tone of lives as they are lived.
The qualitative study has a lot of stability of data over time and conditions. What term is somewhat analogous to reliability in quantitative studies?
A)Credibility
B)Dependability
C)Confirmability
D)Transferability
B)Dependability
What term is the analog of external validity in quantitative studies?
A)Credibility
B)Dependability
C)Confirmability
D)Transferability
D)Transferability
What is confirmability in the often-used framework of quality criteria?
A)Confidence in the truth value of the findings
B)Stability of data over time and conditions
C)Objectivity or neutrality of the data
D)Analog of external validity and the extent to which findings from the data can be transferred to other settings or groups
C)Objectivity or neutrality of the data
In the view of Whittemore and colleagues’ framework, four primary criteria are essential to all quality inquiry. What is one of the primary criteria?
A)Credibility
B)Creativity
C)Congruence
D)Explicitness
A)Credibility
In the view of Whittemore and colleagues’ framework, four primary criteria are essential to all quality inquiry. The terminology overlaps with Lincoln and Guba’s framework regarding two criteria. Which two criteria overlap?
A)Authenticity and criticality
B)Creativity and congruence
C)Integrity and creativity
D)Credibility and authenticity
D)Credibility and authenticity
An alternative framework, representing a synthesis of 10 qualitative validity schemes by Whittemore and colleagues, proposed four primary criteria and six secondary criteria. What is criticality?
A)Researcher’s critical appraisal of every research decision
B)Demonstrated by ongoing self-scrutiny to enhance the likelihood that interpretations are valid and grounded in the data
C)Ability to follow the researcher’s decisions through careful demonstration
D)Involves rich and vivid descriptions
A)Researcher’s critical appraisal of every research decision
An alternative framework, representing a synthesis of 10 qualitative validity schemes by Whittemore and colleagues, proposed four primary criteria and six secondary criteria. What is explicitness?
A)Researcher’s critical appraisal of every research decision
B)Demonstrated by ongoing self-scrutiny to enhance the likelihood that interpretations are valid and grounded in the data
C)Ability to follow the researcher’s decisions through careful demonstration
D)Involves rich and vivid descriptions
B)Demonstrated by ongoing self-scrutiny to enhance the likelihood that interpretations are valid and grounded in the data
An alternative framework, representing a synthesis of 10 qualitative validity schemes by Whittemore and colleagues, proposed four primary criteria and six secondary criteria. What is integrity?
A)Researcher’s critical appraisal of every research decision
B)Demonstrated by ongoing self-scrutiny to enhance the likelihood that interpretations are valid and grounded in the data
C)Ability to follow the researcher’s decisions through careful demonstration
D)Involves rich and vivid descriptions
B)Demonstrated by ongoing self-scrutiny to enhance the likelihood that interpretations are valid and grounded in the data
An alternative framework, representing a synthesis of 10 qualitative validity schemes by Whittemore and colleagues, proposed four primary criteria and six secondary criteria. What is sensitivity?
A)Degree to which an inquiry reflects respect and compassion for those being studied.
B)Interconnectedness between parts of the inquiry and the whole, and between study findings and external contexts
C)Comprehensive data and the full development of ideas
D)Reflects challenges to traditional ways of thinking
A)Degree to which an inquiry reflects respect and compassion for those being studied.
Strategies for enhancing the quality of qualitative data as they are being collected include prolonged engagement. What is prolonged engagement?
A)Vivid recording of information including maintenance of an audit trail of key decisions
B)Strives at achieving adequate depth of data coverage
C)Strives for adequate scope of data coverage
D)Process of using multiple referents to draw conclusions about constitutes the truth
C)Strives for adequate scope of data coverage
What is triangulation?
A)Use of multiple data sources to validate conclusions
B)Use of multiple methods to collect data about the same phenomenon
C)Process of using multiple referents to draw conclusions about constitutes the truth
D)Independent coding and analysis of at least a portion of the data by two or more researchers
C)Process of using multiple referents to draw conclusions about constitutes the truth
What is a strategy for enhancing quality during the coding and analysis of qualitative data?
A)Investigator triangulation
B)Data triangulation
C)Method triangulation
D)Research credibility
A)Investigator triangulation
What is theory triangulation?
A)Use of multiple data sources to validate conclusions
B)Use of multiple methods to collect data about the same phenomenon
C)Use of competing theories or hypotheses in the analysis and interpretation of data
D)Independent coding and analysis of at least a portion of the data by two or more researchers
C)Use of competing theories or hypotheses in the analysis and interpretation of data
What is the purpose of a peer briefing?
A)Internal validity of data
B)Reliability of data
C)External validity of data
D)Reliability and validity of data
C)External validity of data
A formal scrutiny of the research process and audit trial documents occurs by an independent external auditor. What is the term for this process?
A)Negative case analysis
B)Peer debriefing
C)Inquiry audit
D)Research credibility
C)Inquiry audit
There is widespread agreement that qualitative researchers need to devote time and energy to analyzing and documenting their presuppositions, biases, and ongoing emotions. What commitment does this represent?
A)Transparency
B)Absorption and Diligence
C)Verification
D)Reflexivity
D)Reflexivity