Research and Background on Research Methodology
Methodology can be defined as the analysis of rules of methods, techniques and regulations. The methodological analysis involves the systematic survey of methods. Which are applied to analyse the survey or a specific undertaking.
To make the survey planned and increase the trusty in the survey, the different of the methodological analysis can be accepted in the planned of the survey or frame of the survey. The research methodological analysis affecting the aggregation of theory, thought or construct of the survey, comparison of the survey that have different of the attack and single methods that have different of the attack and single methods that are conduced when the research is being performed. These mean that research methodological analysis was the bosom of the survey. It is a peculiar or set of processs.
Research methodological analysis besides can be defined as the system of roll uping informations for surveies project. There are two manner of roll uping the information, either theoretical or practical research. Theoretical research is a procedure of placing a attention set of connections within a subject and the demoing how they fit together or related to the topic. For the practical research is, associating to, governed by or acquired through pattern or action, instead than theory, guess, or thoughts, by free lexicon ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.thefreedictionary.com/practical ) .
Harmonizing to M S Sridhar, ( October 17, 2010 ) says that research methodological analysis is a scientific discipline of analyzing how research is done scientifically. A manner to consistently work out the research job by logically following assorted stairss. Methodology aid to understand non merely the merchandises of scientific enquiry but the procedure itself.
Harmonizing to S M Sindhar ( October 17, 2010 ) besides tell about the benefits of making the methodological analysis of research. The benefits are:
Promotion of wealth of human cognition.
Tool to the trade to transport out research ; provide tools to look at things in life objectively.
Develop a critical and scientific height, disciplined thought or a ‘bent of head ‘ to detect objectively.
Enriches practician and his pattern ; provide chance to analyze a topic in deepness ; enable the research workers to do intelligent determinations ; understand the stuffs which no other lend of work can fit.
As consumers of research end product helps to instill the ability to measure and utilize consequences of earlier research with sensible assurance and take rational determinations.
Making research is the best manner to larn to read and believe critically.
For the societal scientific disciplines are methodologically diverse utilizing qualitative, quantitative and assorted method attacks. Qualitative information is highly varied in nature. It includes virtually any information that can be captured that is non numerical in nature. There is the type of qualitative informations:
Quantitative information is the term that used to depict a type of information that can be countered or expressed numerically. This type of informations collected in experiments, manipulated and statistically analyzed. To stand for the quantitative information is in graphs, histograms, charts and tabular arraies.
Assorted method in research is the combine of quantitative and qualitative informations. In the survey consequences subsequently, there will be the combine of the two informations, the information from the qualitative informations and informations from the quantitative information. It besides can supply more comprehensive replies to research inquiries.
In the instance of research ‘Reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of Information Management ‘ , some method is used consistently to do the consequences of the hypothesis can be more clarify.
In this survey, a batch of information was gathered from two types of beginnings which are printed and electronic beginnings. The printed stuffs can be easy found in Perpustakaan Tun Abdul Razak PTAR, Puncak Perdana Library, and electronic beginnings can be easy happen utilizing internet or any database.
From these beginnings, a batch of information about this article ‘Reading ‘ easy to be found but it difficult to happen when the rubric focused to the specific range, which is ‘Reading wonts ‘ , or ‘Reading wonts among University pupils ‘ and ‘reading wonts among pupils ‘ . So, I forced to broad range to finish this survey.
3.1 TYPE OF RESEARCH AND RESEARCH DESIGN
In this range will stating about the type of the research and the research design that will be use in this survey. Here will be the particular of the type of the research and the research design to do others easy to cognize about this survey.
3.1.1 TYPE OF RESEARCH
Harmonizing to Department of Health and Human Service ( DHHS ) , ( February, 2009 ) says that research wasaˆ¦ .
“ a systematic probe, including research development, proving and rating, designed to develop or lend to generalise cognition. Activities which meet this definition constitute research for intent of this policy whether or non they are conducted or supported under a plan which is considered research for other a plan which is considered research for other intents. For illustration, some presentation and service plan may include research activities ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubject/guidance/45cfr46.htm # 46.102. ”
However, harmonizing to University Research Council, Nipissing University, ( January 29, 2008 ) says that research is any original and systematic probe undertaken in order to increase cognition and apprehension and to set up facts and rules. It comprises the creative activity of thoughts and coevals of cognition that lead to new and significant improved penetrations and/or development of new stuffs, devices, merchandises, and processes. It should hold the potencies to bring forth consequences that are sufficiently relevant to increase cognition. Good brooding enquiry produces theories and hypothesis and benefits ay rational effort to analyse facts and phenomena. This hunt for single facts or informations requires an open-ended inquiry for which is there no ready reply. Datas are gathered through experiments, studies or other methodological analysiss.
So, the research significance is the original plants and systematic probe on cognition by person who have the involvement to make the research. It is besides to increase cognition and understanding on a topic. There are two type of research. However, research can be classified by intent or by method. If the research by intent, it have two classs, basic research and applied research. If the research by method, there are besides have two classs, deductive research and inductive research.
In this survey of ‘reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of Information Management ‘ can be classs as applied research because this survey utilizing the basic research to increase the past theories, cognition and methods to work outing this survey.
3.1.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
Research design is a model or design for carry oning the research undertaking. Harmonizing to the instruction lexicon, ( Jan 14, 2009 ) , research design is a program sketching how information is to be gathered for an appraisal or rating that includes placing the informations assemblage methods, the instruments to be used or created, how to instrument will be administrated, and how the information will be organized and analyze.
There are few constituents of research design. It is:
Specify the information needed.
Design the exploratory, descriptive, and caused stages of the research.
Stipulate the measuring and grading processs.
Construct the pretest a questionnaire or appropriate signifier for informations aggregation.
Stipulate the sampling procedure
Develop a program of informations analysis
There are two type of research design. It is quantitative research design and qualitative research design. In the quantitative research design, there are three constituent of quantitative research design. It is descriptive research, experimental research, and Quasi-experimental research.
For the qualitative research design besides have three constituents in it. It is historical research, ethnographic research and instance surveies research.
So, the research design is the general program on how research goes about replying research inquiry. This research on ‘reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of information direction ‘ will utilize on descriptive research because this type of research can accurately portrays the state of affairs of pupil perceptual experience on reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of Information Management. Descriptive research phenomena as they exist and it will analyze by and large take natural informations and sum up it in a functional signifier. This type of research design that involve doing careful description of the state of affairs of the reading wonts. It is necessary to hold clear image of the state of affairs how the information should be collected and sum up.
The study design conducted indiscriminately to the pupils in Faculty of Information Management semester five and six merely. However, there are four classs in module of Information Management. It is IM221 ( Library Science Management ) , IM221 ( System Management ) , IM222 ( Records Management ) , and IM223 ( Resource Center Management ) for semester five and six. These types of pupil normally know about reading and reading wonts mean in finishing the surveies. The suggestion from them can better reading wonts among pupil and besides can better the stuffs in library that can increase reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of Information Management. The study on pupils will assist the lector, pupil and librarian in Faculty of Information Management to increase the reading wonts and besides foster the spirit of reading among pupils.
The research will utilize questionnaire to acquire back the feedback from the pupil. The questionnaire is a research tool that consists of a series of inquiries defined by the research workers. From the questionnaire, the research workers can cognize and the research besides can make the summarize on the research.
The questionnaire will be distributed among pupil in Faculty of Information Management, UITM Puncak Perdana. In module of Information Management, there are four classs, which are IM220 ( Library Science Management ) , IM221 ( System Management ) , IM222 ( Records Management ) , and IM223 ( Resource Center Management ) . From 100 sets of questionnaire, 25 sets will be distributed for each class.
The distribution of the questionnaire will take the topographic point in the country of Faculty of Information Management, UITM campus Puncak Perdana, Shah Alam. The questionnaire will be collected by custodies of me as a research worker.
3.1.3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
Theoretical position: reading wonts, reading stuffs,
frequence of reading, sum of stuffs in reading,
and reading stuffs types harmonizing to gender.
Independent Variable: Dependent Variable:
Reading stuffs Reading Habits
Frequency of reading
Sum of stuffs in reading
Factor influence reading wonts
In the research works, there are two type of variable that a normally usage. It is dependent variable and independent variable. Dependent variable is the use or introduces the independent variable. This sort of variable is depending on itself. The independent variable is the variable that needs the dependant variable to stand. Independent variable can non stand itself.
This conceptual model indicates the relationship which consists of the dependent and independent variables. This model denotes the four variables which causes to individual variable which were affected by the independent variable.
Reading wonts is dependent variable, the discrepancy in which to be explained by the four independent variables which are reading stuffs, frequence of reading, sum of stuff in reading, and reading stuffs types harmonizing to gender.
The independent variables in this instance are reading stuffs, frequence of reading, sum of stuff in reading, and reading stuffs types harmonizing to gender. Therefore, it is really of import of reading wonts for pupils.
On the other manus, the dependent variable is the reading wonts. It can be seen clearly that the independent variables have influenced the dependant variable. This research indicate and lucubrate clearly that the reading stuffs, frequence of reading, sum of stuffs in reading, and reading stuffs types harmonizing to gender among pupil as an independent variables that will hold an consequence and supported to reading wonts among pupil as a dependent variables.
Reading wonts is the behaviour of the pupil in their reading. It is about the continued and regularly reading the stuff they like to read. Example, the pupil read the newspaper on a regular basis.
Reading stuff is the stuff that the pupil return and like to read, but the stuffs they read for reading wonts is the stuffs that they read on a regular basis. Example, newspapers, magazines, cartoon strips, and novels. However, they must depict what name or types of newspapers, magazines, cartoon strips, and novels they frequently to read.
Frequency of reading
Frequency of reading is how frequent the pupil read the stuffs. How much clip they spend in their reading every twenty-four hours.
Sum of stuff in reading
Sum of stuffs in reading is the Numberss of stuffs they take to read in a twenty-four hours. Means that do the pupil refer to take more than one stuffs in a twenty-four hours for their reading wonts.
Factor influence reading wonts
In the reading wonts there must be the factors that influence people or pupil to read. Usually pupil reading because they want to complete their assignment and plants and they besides influence by their household and friends. There are ever holding influence why people or pupil read and why they take the stuffs as their reading wonts.
3.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodological analysis is the manner that shows the aggregation of informations for the research undertaking. In this subdivision would state about the type of informations and aggregation methods, the population for this survey, and the sampling design for this survey.
3.3.1 PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
To make or to get down the research, the research workers need to cognize what capable that have meet his or her involvement to pull him or her to make the research. Then, there besides must hold the intent of making the research. This is the first measure to make a research, must cognize the ground why the research workers do the research.
There is few intent of the research workers do the research. First intent is account. Every research workers need to cognize the intent of the research that he or she making. The research workers do the research because they want to increase the cognition and develop the new cognition that already has done by the past research workers. So, to make the research is like to explicate on the topic that has being chosen to make. The research workers must explicate why the research must be conducted and explicate his or her involvement on the topic that they have chosen to be their research.
The 2nd intent is anticipation. Doing research is for the research workers make the anticipation. Research is assisting the research workers to measure the state of affairs and give the prognosis what will go on in the hereafter. Type of the information that has high demand in the market now is the anticipation of new merchandise. These besides use to do anticipation that what will go on in the hereafter. This will do the research more interested by the research workers in the hereafter.
The 3rd intent of making research is discovery. Making research like the research workers found something that truly of import and this information will be so valuable in the hereafter. That why research making the research. It is to detect new thought, new cognition, and besides increase the cognition that has being done by the past research workers.
The last intent of making the research is hypothesis. Making the research, the research workers must cognize and make the hypothesis of their research. The research workers should cognize the hypothesis of the research that he or she conducted.
For this survey ‘reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of Information Management ‘ is utilizing the applied research. So, here the intent of the applied research, proving theories, generates the survey, use the survey in the existent universes, and address more than merely the abstract rules. The hypothesis of this survey is promoting pupils to read and do reading as their wonts. After administering the questionnaire and do the analysis of the questionnaire, this survey can be applied by the existent universes as the mention.
3.3.2 TYPE OF DATA AND DATA COLLECTION METHOD
There are two types of informations that normally use in research plant. It is quantitative informations and qualitative informations. Quantitative information is in the numerical information. The information can be countered and showed in the numerical information. Normally this sort of informations collected in experiments, statistical analyzes and manipulated.
For the qualitative information is sort of informations that non in numerical informations. It is much more than words and text. Normally, it showed the exposure, picture, sound recordings and so on. This sort of informations can be collected by making interview, direct observation, and written papers.
The survey ‘reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of Information Management ‘ utilizing the quantitative information. The information for this survey will be collected by distribute the questionnaire. In this questionnaire there must be the inquiry inquiring the respondent about the survey. From the informations that collected by questionnaire, I can acquire the reply about the survey I am making.
Population in research plant is stating about the group of people that where the topic that the research workers taking. The group besides will stand for the plants of the research workers. Before the research workers set the population for his or her research, the research workers must cognize about the community that he or she wants to go his or her population. The characters of the community besides must be known. The community that will became the population in the research works besides must hold experience and cognition about the research that the research workers conduct.
The population besides is a group of the possible participants that will go the researcher population so that the research workers can generalise the consequences for his or her survey. The population of the research for the survey ‘reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of Information Management ‘ is the pupil from semester five and six in the Faculty if Information Management. But, the pupils as the population in this survey come from the 4 classs in the Faculty of Information Management. The four classs is IM220 ( Library Science Management ) , IM221 ( System Management ) , IM222 ( Records Management ) , and IM223 ( Resource Center Management ) .
The selected inquiry will be give one questionnaire and they have to finish the questionnaire. The pupils that will be selected are indiscriminately in the country of pupil semester five and six from the four classs. The feedback that given by the respondent will give the consequence to the survey that conducted.
3.3.4 SAMPLING DESIGN
Sampling design of the research works is one of the procedure, action or technique in the choosing of the sample that the researcher demand to make to acquire the information from the population that he or her mark as the respondent of his or her survey. These samplings besides refer to the communities that represent the information for the survey from the hall community. This mean that there will be some of the community will be taking to be the respondent of the research.
The research workers need to make the sampling design to do the decision from the sample that on the population or from the questionnaire that have been distribute. From the trying design besides the research workers would acquire the reply for his or her research. Sampling design is of import because the sampling can demo the mark of the research workers on the survey.
In this research, the simple random sampling has been used. Selected a group of the topic ( a sample ) and for the survey from the larger group ( a population ) is one of the simple random trying design in the basic technique. Each individual in the population will be selected as the mark respondent.
In the conceptual, simple random sampling was the simplest of the sampling technique. It is non necessitate a big population. In the simple random sample, the research workers must take one of the people in the population and from that, there must non hold any order to take a specific person. Here mean that, there no specific person but choose the individual in the population indiscriminately.
Exploitation and make the sampling design have the advantage. The advantage of making the trying design is it is easy, simple and can be apply in the little population. However, there are disadvantages making this trying design. It is the research worker demand to name the point and individual in a population before making the distribution of questionnaire so the research workers need to make the distribution work in the big population harmonizing to what he or she listed in the sampling design.
In this survey of ‘reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of Information Management ‘ , the questionnaire will be distributed indiscriminately to the pupil on Faculty of Information Management, UITM Puncak Perdana, for the four classs which is IM220 ( Library Science Management ) , IM221 ( System Management ) , IM222 ( Records Management ) , and IM223 ( Resource Center Management ) . There are 80 questionnaire will be distributed indiscriminately to the pupil in Faculty of Information Management and the pupil that have been choose was pupil from semester five and six merely.
3.4 INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT
The instrument is used to mensurating some of the quality or the ability of the topic or the research works. The intent of the instrument is to assist the research workers to do the sampling of the survey to acquire the information for the survey. An instrument can be a trial, signifier, interview, checklist, and a set of classs.
Normally in research plants they use two of this instrument, questionnaire or interview. Questionnaire is the inquiry that have stated by the research workers in the documents and this inquiry must be fill wholly by the respondent. The questionnaire is the open-ended inquiries. Interview is when the research workers go run into person that a professional in the topic that research workers do and making the interview by face-to-face.
The questionnaire is the simple manner to administer the study to the population that has been chooses by the research workers. The questionnaire will be giving and collected by manus by the research workers itself. It is different in making interview study. The research workers need to travel personally making the interview and normally the individual that being interviewed must be professional in the field that the research workers research.
The format questionnaire can act upon the quality of informations collected, but the order of the points in the questionnaire can act upon the reply from the response given. The questionnaire must be stick to the intent of the topic, the topic that have been taking, and the aim of the research. The questionnaire strategically composed utilizing assorted inquiries formats, it is unfastened inquiry and close inquiry. Giving the questionnaire to the respondent is the appropriate for this sort of research which is needed the sentiment and perceptual experience from the respondents on the research subject which is ‘reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of Information Management ‘ .
The questionnaire content three ( 3 ) parts focused on specific countries. The countries of the probe focal point on: answering involvement in reading, respondent reading behaviours, and answering sentiment. Each of the subdivision will be described below:
Part A: Demographic
This subdivision will state about the characters of the respondents that have being chosen.
Part B: Answering Interest IN READING
In this subdivision consist of inquiry on the questionnaire is about the involvement of the pupil in the stuffs the ever read, the stuff that the pupil choose to read as their reading wonts, and why they choose the stuffs as their wonts in reading.
Part C: RESPONDENT READING BEHAVIORS
Answering reading behaviours tell about the times the pupil refer to do the reading, where the topographic point the pupil want to read normally, type of the stuff the pupil refer to read, the type of the entree stuff the pupil choose to read, and how many stuffs the pupil read in a hebdomad.
Part D: Answering Opinion
This subdivision ask the sentiment of the pupil on the bash they agree or disagree with the stuffs they choose can assist them in survey, do the reading spring or increase their cognition and experience, and what the pupil sentiment about the reading wonts and do the reading wonts can assist to determining the personalities of the pupil.
3.5 DATA COLLECTION
Data aggregation is the procedure where the research workers roll uping the information from the respondent that being take either the research workers distribute the questionnaire or interview. Data aggregation besides the manner of colleting the information for the usage in the assorted of survey or doing determination in some state of affairs. Data aggregation is the of import component in the research survey.
Data aggregation can be made in several ways, either the research workers choose to utilize the distribution of questionnaire, interview, or direct observation. To be after the informations aggregation the research workers must carefully believe on the inquiry that he or she will set in the questionnaire or in the interview because the reply or the consequence from the questionnaire and the interview will give impact to the information analysis and the research the terminal of it. The research workers besides must believe how to form the information, the inquiry and information subsequently and before the distribution of questionnaire and interview.
The research workers should believe in this information aggregation, what inquiry or information should he or she put and how much the information the research workers should roll up. In the informations aggregation the research workers should set the information about the sum of the participant that will be in the research, feature of the research, type of the participants, demographic informations and what the research privation to make. All the informations aggregation must associate to the research.
To roll up the information for the research, the research workers must utilize this type of informations aggregation method. It is sentiment study, questionnaire, single interview and group interview, simulation, and direct observation. But, normally the celebrated method in the information aggregation is utilizing the questionnaire and interviews. It is easy to utilize and faster to acquire the informations feedback.
To take the method for the informations aggregation, the research workers must cognize the handiness, dependability and cogency. Availability is about the inquiry that the research workers want to utilize in the questionnaire or in the interview, is it the inquiry is available and is it the information from the consequence subsequently is available to the research. Making the research works, the research must hold the dependability and the cogency. If non there must be job in the research works.
In this survey ‘reading wonts among pupil of Faculty of Information Management ‘ the research workers use the questionnaire in the information aggregation. For the informations aggregation, in the questionnaire, the research workers divide inquiry into four subdivisions harmonizing to the of import of the surveies. The four subdivisions is demographic, answering involvement in reading, answering behaviours and the last subdivision is answering sentiment.
In the questionnaire, there are parts that I do the inquiry utilizing the likert grading. Likert grading is the popular format in the research questionnaire. For this survey, I ‘m utilizing the disposal likert grading, it is each respondent is asked to rate the inquiry have been inquiring in the questionnaire harmonizing the sentiment of the respondent. Example of the disposal likert grading is figure 1 until 5, figure 1 refer to the strongly disagree and figure 5 refer to the strongly agree. In this survey besides have the inquiry inquiring about the sentiment of the respondent on the topic that I take to be his or her surveies. Besides, in the questionnaire, I ‘m inquiring on the behaviour of the respondent about the survey that I conduct.
Using the questionnaire in these surveies has the advantages and disadvantages. The advantage is utilizing the questionnaire, the collected informations faster because I can give to the respondent by manus and acquire feedback besides by manus. But, the disadvantage is some of the respondent will make non desire to reply the questionnaire and if they want to reply, sometimes they do non reply the inquiry.
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS
After the research workers collect the information, the research workers must making the informations analyze to analysis the information that have been get by the research workers. The information analysis is the procedure on to measure the informations that have been collected. There are three plants have to be considered in the information analysis, it is data readying, descriptive statistics, and illative statistics.
Datas that have been get from the respondent must be prepare to analyse it. In this readying of the informations, the respondent must make the checking works, reexamine the information for the truth of the informations, altering the information, and develop the informations and certification the construction of the informations utilizing the assorted actions, either utilizing the computing machines or manual.
Descriptive statistic is used to give the basic visual on the information in the survey. In this descriptive statistic, the action that been taken is making the simple analysis and simple sample of the steps. In this action, there must already hold the simple graph that shows the analysis from the information that have been collected.
The last of the plants in the information analysis that research workers should see is the illative statistic. In this works the research workers do the decision of the informations that the research workers have been prepare, and analyse it in the descriptive statistic. In this subdivision besides the research worker do the hypothesis works.
However, the research workers must cognize about the informations methods of the information analysis that the research workers will used. Is it the informations that the research workers collected is more on the qualitative informations or in quantitative informations.
In this survey ‘reading wonts among pupil in Faculty of Information Management ‘ , I am utilizing the SPSS ( Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ) . SPSS is the characteristic that are truly of import to analyse the statistic for the societal research.
For the decision, the research methodological analysis is stating about the method that being used in the research works by the research workers to complete the thesis. In this chapter, there must be about the type of research that research workers used, research design for this surveies, the variable of the surveies, research method have to used to finish this research works, the informations aggregation, and the information analysis that must make in this research.
In this chapter will state briefly about the research method that must be used before continue to another chapter that more profoundly about this surveies.