Reproduction and Development Topic 4

asexual reproduction
a method of reproduction in whch all the genes passed on to the offspring come from a single individual or parent
cloning
a technique used to make identical organisms
development
the changes that occur from the fertilized egg to a complete individual; occurs by mitosis and differentiation of cells
differentiation
the process that transforms developing cells into specialized cells with different structures and functions
egg
a sex cell produced by a female
embryo
an organism in the early stages of development (prior to birth)
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estrogen
a hormone (produced by the ovaries) that controls female sexual development and the reproductive process
expressed
the way that an unseen gene is seen in an organism as an actual physical trait
fertilization
the process that combines a sperm cell and an egg cell
fetus
the unborn, developing young of an animal during the later stages of develoment
gamete
an egg or sperm cell; a sex cell
gene expression
Activation of a gene that results in the formation of a protein; the result of activated genes
meiosis
the process that results in the formation of sex cells (sperm and eggs)
mitosis
the process that divides the cell’s nucleus into two, each with a complete set of genetic material from the parent cell
ovary (pl.ovaries)
the organ of the human female reproductive system that produces an egg cell, the female gamete
placenta
the organ that enables nutrients and oxygen to pass from the mother’s blood to the fetus, and waste products to pass from the fetus to the mother’s blood
progesterone
a hormone associated with sexual development and the reproductive system
recombination
the additional mixing of genetic material from a sperm and egg which results in a unique combination of genes
sex cell
an egg (female) or a sperm (male)
sexual reproduction
a method of reproduction that involves two parents to produce offspring that are genetically different from either parent
species
a group of organsims that share certain characteristics and can mate with one another, producing fertile offspring
sperm
the male sex cell
testes
the male reproductive organ that produces sperm and the hormone testosterone
testosterone
a hormone associated with male sexual development and reproduction
uterus
the organ, in female animals, where the embryo develops into a fetus
zygote
the cell that results from the joining of the egg and sperm