Religion is a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of life and the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a supernatural agency, or human beings’ relation to that which they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, or divine. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature.
The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with faith or belief system, but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect. Most religions have organized behaviors, including congregations for prayer, priestly hierarchies, holy places, and/or scriptures. The development of religion has taken different forms in different cultures. Some religions place greater emphasis on belief, while others emphasize practice.
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Some religions focus on the subjective experience of the religious individual, while others consider the activities of the community to be most important.
Some religions claim to be universal, believing their laws and cosmology to be binding for everyone, while others are intended to be practiced only by one, localized group. Religion often makes use of meditation, music and art. In many places it has been associated with public institutions such as education, the family, government, and political power. Types of Religions Religion defines who you are, what you are, and your views about the world around you. You must understand, a religion is much more than deity worshiping. Religion is the philosophy of life and a belief system.
There are as many as four thousand and two religions in this world. Surprisingly, people know only a handful of religion. The four largest religious groups by population, estimated to account for between 5 and 6 billion people, are Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism. Four largest religions| Adherents| % of world population| Article| World population| 6. 8 billion| Figures taken from individual articles:| Christianity| 1. 9 billion – 2. 1 billion| 29% – 32%| Christianity by country| Islam| 1. 3 billion – 1. 57 billion| 19% – 21%| Islam by country| Buddhism| 500 million – 1. billion| 7% – 21%| Buddhism by country| Hinduism| 950 million – 1 billion| 14% – 20%| Hinduism by country| Total| 4. 65 billion – 6. 17 billion| 68. 38% – 90. 73%| | Christianity is one of the oldest religions of the world and has a large number of followers. It is estimated that Christianity has over two billion followers around the globe. Christianity practices a few beliefs and traditions of other religions. Like the Judaism and Islam, Christianity as a religion believes in the concept of one God. Hence, Islam, Judaism and Christianity are known as “ethical monotheism”.
Judaism is older than Christianity and this religion is the oldest of Abrahamic religions. Judaism is based on laws and principles of the Hebrew bible known as Tanakh. The Old Testament of Bible describes the struggles of the Hebrews or the Jews. After Moses frees them from the Egyptian captivity, they wander for almost forty years before they reached Jerusalem, the “Promised Land”. Today there are 14 million Jews in the world. Islam has 1. 3 billion religious followers. It is one of the fastest growing religions in the world. Followers of Islam religion worship Allah and consider Muhammad as their prophet.
Like the Christians and the Jews, Muslims believe in one God. Hence, it is one of the three “monotheistic” religions of the world. Quran is their holy book and this religion follows strict religious discipline and customs. The life of a Muslim is guided by the Five Pillars or the five principles such as Shahadah (faith), Sala (ritual prayer), Zakah (alms tax), Sawm (Ramadan fasting) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). Islam is an Arabic term and means surrendering to the will of God. You could say Islam is a system of belief that gives importance to family life, way of dressing, cleanliness and ethics.
It also stresses on the importance of religious rituals and observances. There are many religions that follow their own system of beliefs, rituals and traditions. These religions are classified as prophetic religion, revealed religion, sacramental and mystical religion. Hinduism is considered to be one of the most tolerant religions in the world. The ultimate aim of any Hindu is to attain moksha from the cycle of rebirth. Historians believe over the centuries Hinduism had adopted many spiritual traditions and practices, which are seen even today in the homes of many Hindus.
It is not easy to generalize the beliefs of Hinduism because the practices vary widely among the believers of this religion. Religion in Pakistan The Badshahi Masjid in Lahore, Pakistan, was built during the Mughal Empire Islam is the state religion in Pakistan, which is practised by about 95-97% of the 174,578,558 people of the nation. The remaining 3-5% practice Christianity, Hinduism and other religions. Muslims are divided into two major sects, the majority of them practice Sunni Islam while the Shias are a minority who estimate 5-20% depending on the source.
Nearly all Pakistani Sunni Muslims belong to the Hanafi Islamic law school. The majority of Pakistani Shia Muslims belong to the Twelver (Ithna Asharia) branch with significant minority groups who practice Ismailism, which is composed of Nizari (Aga Khanis), Mustaali, Dawoodi Bohra, Sulaymani, and others. The religion of Islam was first introduced in the territory that is now called Pakistan Umayyad dynasty in the early-8th century led by Muhammad bin Qasim against Raja Dahir, the Hindu ruler of Sindh. The Umayyad Muslims conquered the northwestern part of the Indus Valley, from Kashmir to the Arabian Sea.
The arrival of the Arab Muslims to the provinces of Sindh and Punjab, along with subsequent Muslim dynasties, set the stage for the religious boundaries of South Asia that would lead to the development of the modern state of Pakistan in 1947 as well as forming the foundation for Islamic rule which quickly spread across much of South Asia. Following the rule of various Islamic empires, including the Ghaznavids, the Ghurids, and the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughals controlled the region of Pakistan from 1526 until 1739.
Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal era. The Mughal Empire declined in the early 18th century after the Afsharids and the Afghan Durrani Empire from the west came to take over what is now Pakistan. Constitution of Pakistan on religion The constitution of Pakistan establishes Islam as the state religion, and provides all its citizens the right to profess, practice and propagate their religion subject to law, public order, and morality.
The constitution limits the political rights of Pakistan’s non-Muslims, and only Muslims are allowed to become the President or the Prime Minister. Moreover, only Muslims are allowed to serve as judges in the Federal Shariat Court, which has the power to strike down any law deemed un-Islamic. List of religions in Pakistan Based on information collected from the Library of Congress, Pew Research Center, CIA World Factbook, Oxford University, University of Pennsylvania, U. S. State Department and others, the following is a list of all the religions that are practised in Pakistan.
The percentages are estimations depending on the source. * Islam * Sunni Muslims: 80-95% * Shia Muslims: 5-20% * Ahmadi Muslims: approximately 2. 3% or 4 million * Other religions * Christians: approx. 1. 6% or 2,800,000 people * Hindus: approx. 1. 6%or 2,443,614 people * Baha’is: 79,000 * Sikhs: 20,000 * Zoroastrian/Parsis: 20,000 * Buddhist: Unknown * Jews: Unknown * | Islam The Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, which is the largest mosque of Pakistan and is also one of the largest in the world, was built by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia.
Islam is the state religion of Pakistan, and about 95-97% of Pakistanis are Muslims. The Muslims are divided into 2 sects, Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. The Shia Islam in Pakistan is practised by 5-20% of the Muslims and the remaining larger number of Muslims practice Sunni Islam. There are a number of Islamic law schools called Madhab (schools of jurisprudence), which are called fiqh or ‘Maktab-e-Fikr’ in Urdu. Nearly all Pakistani Sunni Muslims belong to the Hanafi Islamic school of thought while small number belong to the Hanbali school.
The majority of Pakistani Shia Muslims belong to the Twelver (Ithna Asharia) branch, with significant minority who adhere to Ismailism branch that is composed of Nizari (Aga Khanis), Mustaali, Dawoodi Bohra, Sulaymani, and others. Islam to some extent syncretized with pre-Islamic influences, resulting in a religion with some traditions distinct from those of the Arab world. Two Sufis whose shrines receive much national attention are Ali Hajweri in Lahore (ca. 11th century) and Shahbaz Qalander in Sehwan, Sindh (ca. 12th century).
Although members of Ahmadiyya (also derogatorily known as Qadiani) are considered to be Muslims, the government of Pakistan does not consider this group followers of Islam. The Pakistani parliament has declared Ahmadis to be non-Muslims. In 1974, the government of Pakistan amended its constitution to define a Muslim “as a person who believes in finality of Prophet Muhammad”. Ahmadis believe in Muhammad as the best and the last law bearing prophet and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as the Christ of Muslims who was prophesized to come in the latter days and unite the Muslims.
Consequently they were declared non-Muslims by a tribunal, the records of which have not been released to date. In 1984, Ordinance XX was enacted, which made it a crime for Ahmadis to call themselves Muslims or adherents of Islam, to “pose as Muslims”, to call their places of worship Masjid, or to proselytize, punishable by a prison term. According to the last Pakistan census, Ahmadis made up 0. 25% of the population, which is highly disputed due to the already existing state treatment of Ahmadis in Pakistan.
The website adherents. comcited a report according to which the Ahmadiyya Muslim community was represented by 2,000,000 (1. 42%) adherents in 1995. Several other news report however claim adherents amounting to about 4 million, which is difficult to verify.  Christianity Main article: Christianity in Pakistan Saint Patrick’s Cathedral, Karachi. Christians make up 1. 6% of Pakistan’s population, about 2. 8 million people out of a total population.  They are the second largest religious minority community in Pakistan.
Majority of the Pakistani Christian communities belong to converts from the low caste Hindus from Punjab region, from the British colonial era. The community is geographically spread throughout the Punjab province, whilst its presence in the rest of the provinces is mostly confined to the urban centers. There is a Roman Catholic community in Karachi which was established by Goan and Tamilian migrants when Karachi’s infrastructure was being developed by the British during colonial administration between World War I and World War II.  Judaism Main article: Jews and Judaism in Pakistan
Jews (Urdu: ????? pronounced “Yehudi”) are a very small religious group in Pakistan. Various estimates suggest that there were about 2,500 Jews living in Karachi at the beginning of the 20th century, and a smaller community of a few hundred lived in Peshawar. There were synagogues in both cities; while the Karachi synagogue was burnt down.  The one in Peshawar still exists but has fallen into disuse. Nearly all Pakistani Jews have emigrated.   Hinduism Main article: Hinduism in Pakistan Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Karachi
Hinduism has an ancient history in Pakistan, the Rig Veda was believed to have been composed in the Punjab region.  Hindus today are a much reduced community numbering around 3 million or about 1. 6%.  According to the last census 93% of Hindus live in Sindh, 5% in Punjab and nearly 2% in Balochistan.   Sikhism Main article: Sikhism in Pakistan Nankana Sahib Gurdwara in Punjab, Pakistan The number of Sikhs remaining in Pakistan today is very small; estimates vary, but the number is thought to be on the order of 20,000. 7] The shrine of Guru Nanak Dev is located in Nankana Sahib near the city of Lahore where many Sikhs from abroad make pilgrimage to this and other shrines.  Buddhism Main article: Buddhism in Pakistan Like Hinduism, Buddhism has an ancient history in Pakistan. There are no established Buddhist communities and numbers are very few.  Zoroastrianism Further information: Parsi people Before the independence of Pakistan in 1947, major urban centres in what is now Pakistan were home to a thriving Parsi business community.
Karachi had the most prominent population of Parsis in Pakistan and were mostly Gujarati-speaking. After independence, majority of Pakistan’s Parsi populace migrated to India, notably Bombay; however a number of Parsis still remain in Pakistan and have entered Pakistani public life as social workers, business folk, and diplomats. The most prominent Parsis of Pakistan today include Ardeshir Cowasjee, Byram Dinshawji Avari, Jamsheed Marker, as well as the late Minocher Bhandara.  Baha’i Main article: Baha’i Faith in Pakistan The Baha’i Faith in Pakistan begins previous to its independence when it was part of India.
The roots of the religion in the region go back to the first days of the Babi religion in 1844, with Shaykh Sa’id Hindi who was from Multan.  During Baha’u’llah’s lifetime, as founder of the religion, he encouraged some of his followers to move to the area that is current-day Pakistan.  In 1921 the Baha’is of Karachi elected their first Baha’i Local Spiritual Assembly.  By 1956 Baha’i local assemblies spread across many cities, and in 1957, East and West Pakistan elected a separate National Baha’i Assembly from India and later East Pakistan became Bangladesh with its own national assembly. 26] Waves of refugees arrived in 1979 due to the Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan and the Iranian Revolution in Iran.  The Baha’is in Pakistan have the right to hold public meetings, establish academic centers, teach their faith, and elect their administrative councils.  However, the government prohibits Baha’is from travelling to Israel for Baha’i pilgrimage.  Recent estimates are over 79,000 though Baha’is claimed less than half that number.   Kalash Religion This is the religion of the Kalash people living in a remote part of Chitral.
Adherents of the Kalash religion number around 3,000 and inhabit three remote valleys in Chitral; Bumboret, Rumbur and Birir. Their religion is unique but shares some common ground with Vedic and Pre-Zoroastrian religions.  Atheism Main article: Atheism There may also be some atheists and agnostics in Pakistan, particularly in the affluent areas of the larger cities. Some were born in secular families while others in religious ones. According to the 1998 census, people who did not state their religion accounted for 0. 5% of the population, but social pressures against claiming no religion was strong. 7] There is slight of atheism in the country. Pakistan’s laws, which stipulate the death penalty for blaspheming, institutionalize such discrimination. Subsequently, most atheists and agnostics keep their views private and choose to portray themselves publicly as indifferent Muslims rather than non-Muslims. Islam in Pakistan From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Islam in Pakistan ??????? ??? ????? Category| History| Islamic conquest · Arab settlement Islamic rule · Mughal Empire Hindu conversion · Sectarian dispute| Architecture| Mughal · Indo-Islamic · Indo-Saracenic|
Major figures| Mohammad bin Qasim · Baba Fareed Khwaja Sheikh Pak · Bulleh Shah Sir Syed Ahmed Khan · Allama Iqbal Bahadur Yar Jung| Schools of law| Hanafi · Shia · Shafi`i · Maliki · Hanbali| Schools of thought| Shia · Barelvi · Deobandi · Ahle Hadith Sufism · Ahmadiyya| Mosques in Pakistan| List of Mosques -List of mosques in Lahore Faisal Mosque · Badshahi Mosque| Political organisations and movements| Pakistan Muslim League Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam · Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan · Jamaat-e-Islami · Tehrik-e-Jafaria Pakistan · Jamiat Ahle Hadith · Tablighi Jamaat| Culture| Music
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Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas · Barbados · Cuba · Dominican Republic · Grenada · Haiti · Jamaica · Saint Kitts and Nevis · Saint Lucia · Saint Vincent and the Grenadines · Trinidad and Tobago ·| Islam in Oceania[show] Australia Australia · Norfolk Island · Christmas Island · Cocos (Keeling) Islands Melanesia East Timor · Fiji · New Caledonia · Papua New Guinea · Solomon Islands · Vanuatu Micronesia Guam · Kiribati · Marshall Islands · Northern Mariana Islands · Federated States of Micronesia · Nauru · Palau Polynesia
American Samoa · Cook Islands · French Polynesia · New Zealand · Niue · Pitcairn · Samoa · Tokelau · Tonga · Tuvalu · Wallis and Futuna| This box: view • talk • edit| Islam is the official religion of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which has a population of about 174,578,558.  The overwhelming majority (95-97%) of the Pakistani people are Muslims while the remaining 3-5% are Christian, Hindu, and others.  Pakistan has the second largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia. Sunnis are the majority while the Shias make up between 10-20% of the total Muslim population of the country.
Pakistan has the second largest number of Shias after Iran, which numbers between 17 million to as high as 30 million according to Vali Nasr.  Contents[hide] * 1 Umayyad invasion of Sindh and the arrival of Islam * 2 Islam and the Pakistan Movement * 3 Politicized Islam * 4 Muslim sects in Pakistan * 5 Laws and customs * 6 Media and pilgrimages * 7 Islamic education * 8 See also * 9 Further reading * 10 References * 11 External links|  Umayyad invasion of Sindh and the arrival of Islam Main article: Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent
The Badshahi Masjid, literally the ‘Royal Mosque’, was built in 1674 by Aurangzeb. It is one of Lahore’s best known landmarks, and epitomizes the beauty and grandeur of the Mughal era. Islam arrived in the area now known as Pakistan in 711 CE, when the Umayyad dynasty sent a Muslim Arab army led by Muhammad bin Qasim against the ruler of Sindh, Raja Dahir, this was due to the fact that Raja Dahir had given refuge to numerous Zoroastrian Princes who had fled the Islamic conquest of Iran. Mohummad Bin Qasim’s army was defeated in his first thee attempts.
The Muslim army conquered the northwestern part of Indus Valley from Kashmir to the Arabian Sea. The arrival of the Arab Muslims to the provinces of Sindh and Punjab, along with subsequent Muslim dynasties, set the stage for the religious boundaries of South Asia that would lead to the development of the modern state of Pakistan as well as forming the foundation for Islamic rule which quickly spread across much of South Asia. Following the rule of various Islamic empires, including the Ghaznavid Empire, the Ghorid kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughals controlled the region from 1526 until 1739.
Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate and Mughal Empire in South Asia and in the land that became Pakistan.  Islam and the Pakistan Movement The Muslim poet-philosopher Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal first proposed the idea of a Muslim state in northwestern South Asia in his address to the Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930. His proposal referred to the four provinces of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and the NorthWest Frontier — essentially what would became Pakistan.
Iqbal’s idea gave concrete form to two distinct nations in the South Asia based on religion (Islam and Hinduism) and with different historical backgrounds, social customs, cultures, and social mores. Islam was thus the basis for the creation and the unification of a separate state. Allama Muhammad Iqbal in 1937, in a letter to Jinnah wrote, After a long and careful study of Islamic Law I have come to the conclusion that if this system of Law is properly understood and applied, at last the right to subsistence is secured to every body.
But the enforcement and development of the Shariat of Islam is impossible in this country without a free Muslim state or states. This has been my honest conviction for many years and I still believe this to be the only way to solve the problem of bread for Muslims as well as to secure a peaceful India.  But just three days before the creation of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali Jinnah made a different commitment. A commitment to secularism in Pakistan.
In his inaugural address he said, You will find that in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State. This statement of Jinnah is an object of great controversy since then and this vision of a Pakistan in which Islamic law would not be applied, contrary to Iqbal’s perception, was questioned shortly after independence.  Politicized Islam
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, which is the largest mosque of Pakistan and is also one of the largest in the world, was built by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. From the outset, politics and religion have been intertwined both conceptually and practically in Islam. Because Prophet Muhammad established a government in Medina, precedents of governance and taxation exist. Through the history of Islam, from the Ummayyad (661-750) and Abbasid empires (750-1258) to the Mughals (1526- 1858), Safavis (1501–1722) and the Ottomans (1300-1923), religion and statehood have been treated as one.
Indeed, one of the beliefs of Islam is that the purpose of the state is to provide an environment where Muslims can properly practice their religion. If a leader fails in this, the people have a right to depose him. In March 1949, the first constituent assembly passed Objectives Resolution, which declared that the state of Pakistan will be submitted to the sovereignty of God. In 1950, thirty one Ulema passed a demand draft, called Twenty Two Points of Ulema. This drafted demanded preparation of constitution according to Objectives Resolution. It also demanded changes in the law according to Shariah.
In 1977, the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto outlawed alcohol and drugs and changed the weekend from Sunday to Friday, but no substantive Islamic reform program was implemented prior to General Zia-ul-Haq’s Islamization program. Starting in February 1979, new penal measures based on Islamic principles of justice went into effect. These carried considerably greater implications for women than for men. A welfare and taxation system based on Zakat and a profit-and-loss banking system were also established in accordance with Islamic prohibitions against usury but were inadequate. edit] Muslim sects in Pakistan Further information: Sectarian violence in Pakistan and Shi’a Islam in Pakistan Data Durbar in Lahore, Pakistan is the tomb of Ali Hajweri, eleventh century Sufi. People come each year to pay their respects, to say prayers and worship. The large complex also includes Jamia Hajweri, or Hajweri Mosque. According to the CIA World Factbook and Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, 95-97% of the total population of Pakistan is Muslim.  The majority of the Pakistani Muslims are Sunnis, while Shias are estimated 10-20%. 8]     The Muslims belong to different schools which are called Madhahib (singular: Madhhab) i. e. , schools of jurisprudence (also ‘Maktab-e-Fikr’ (School of Thought) in Urdu). The Hanafi school of Sunnis includes the Barelvi and Deobandi schools. Although the vast majority of Pakistani Shi’a Muslims belong to Ithna ‘ashariyah school, there are significant minorities: Nizari Ismailis (Agha Khanis) and the smaller Mustaali Dawoodi Bohra and Sulaimani Bohra branches. The Salafi sect is represented by the Ahle Hadith movement in Pakistan.
Many people on the Makran coast of Balochistan follow the Zikri sect of Islam. The two subsects of Sunni Hanafi school, Barelvis and Deobandis, have their own Masjids. The Shi’a Ithna ‘ashariyah school has its own Masjids commonly termed as Hussainias (Imambargahs). Mustaali Dawoodi Bohra and Sulaimani Bohra also have their own Masjids, while the Nizari Ismailis pray in Jama’at Khanas. The Ahmadiyya community, a minority group is also present. Ahmadis have been declared non-Muslims by the Government of Pakistan.
In 1974, the government of Pakistan amended Constitution of Pakistan to define a Muslim “as a person who believes in finality of Prophet Muhammad”.  For this reason, Ahmadis are persecuted on behalf of their beliefs. Ahmadis believe in Muhammad as the best and the last law bearing prophet and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as the Christ of Muslims who was prophesied to come in the latter days and unite the Muslims. Consequently they were declared non-Muslims by a tribunal, the records of which have not been released to date.
According to the last Pakistan census, Ahmadis made up 0. 25% of the population. However the website adherents. com proposes that the Ahmadiyya Muslim community made up 1. 42% of the population; which is likely to be a less biased source. The Economist puts the figure of Ahmadiyya adherents to 4 million. The Ahmadis claim their community is even larger. Sufism has a strong tradition in Pakistan. The Muslim Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting the millions of native people to Islam.
As in other areas where Sufis introduced it, Islam to some extent syncretized with pre-Islamic influences, resulting in a religion with some traditions distinct from those of the Arab world. The Naqshbandiya, Qadiriya, Chishtiya and Suhrawardiyya silsas have a a large following in Pakistan. Sufis whose shrines receive much national attention are Data Ganj Baksh (Ali Hajweri) in Lahore (ca. 11th century), Baha-ud-din Zakariya in Multan and Shahbaz Qalander in Sehwan (ca. 12th century) and Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai in Bhit, Sindh and Rehman Baba in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. edit] Laws and customs There is no law in Pakistan enforcing hijab and wearing of Hijab by Pakistani women is fairly uncommon. However, the practice of wearing Hijab among younger women in urban centers is slowly growing due to media influence from the Middle East and Persian Gulf countries. The episodes of sectarian violence have significantly decreased in frequency over the years due to the conflictual engagement of the Islamic militant organizations with the state’s armed forces and intelligence agencies.  Media and pilgrimages
Media and pilgrimages has influenced Pakistani Muslims to learn more about Islam as a result the local heterodox beliefs and practices are being replaced with orthodox beliefs from Quran and Sunnah. The inexpensive travel, simpler visa rules and direct air travel to Saudi Arabia has resulted in large number Pakistani Muslims going to Medina and Mecca for Haj and Umrah. This has helped to increase Pan-Islamic identity of Pakistani Muslims. The Muslim print media has always existed in Pakistan which included newspapers, books and magazines.
The Muslim satellite channels are widely available and are watched by Pakistani population.  Islamic education The Study of Islam as a subject is compulsory for all Muslim students up to Matriculation or O’levels in all schools in Pakistan. Islamic education to the masses is also propagated mainly by Islamic schools and literature. Islamic schools (or Madrassas) mostly cater to the youth from impoverished social backgrounds and those learning to be Islamic clerics. More casual and even research oriented material is available in the form of books.
While the most prominent of these schools are being monitored, the latter are being ‘moderated’ by both the government and some of the scholars, thereby also removing in the process the various material present in it that is used by Anti-Islam/Anti-Sunni writers. Oldest and universally accepted titles such as the Sahih Bukhari have been revised into ‘summarised’ editions and some of the old, complete titles, translated to Urdu, the national language, are not available for purchase now. These changes are also a herald to new outbreaks of religious controversy in the region.