Reconstruction and the Debate Between Booker T. Washington and WEB Dubois

What was the Reconstruction?
time after Civil War to bring country back together, 1863 to 1877, attempts to reunite North and South
How did the South reintegrate into the Union?
switched currency, South had to make an official oath of loyalty back into the Union (10% of population of white men per state had to take oath to re-enter the Union)
What laws/organizations were established on the state level?
Freedman’s Bureau
What laws/organizations were established on the local level?
Black Codes
What are Black Codes? How did they help?
series of laws regarding black population in the South during and after Civil War; certain legal rights: recognized black marriages, ownership of property, limited access to the courts
How were the Black Codes restrictive?
skilled laborers had to pay high licensing fees, made it a crime to be unemployed (vagrancy laws), could not testify against whites, could not serve on juries, vote
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What was the 14th amendment?
all persons were citizens of the US if born in the US
What was the catch about the 14th amendment?
1873 court ruling, it protects national citizenship but not state citizenship
What were Jim Crow laws?
series of rigid anti-black laws; believed itself to be that whites were superior to blacks in all aspects of life
What two important concepts did Jim Crow spearhead?
segregation “Seperate but Equal” in 1890 and Plessy v Fergurson 1896
What happened to cause Plessy v Fergurson?
Homer Plessy was a creole with light skin. He sits in white car in New Orleans and is arrested. Plessy’s ability to not be allowed to sit where he wants violates the 14th amendment.
What did the court rule in Plessy v Fergurson?
Even though it violated the 14th amendment, it was actually okay because it was considered “separate but equal”
What were some voting restrictions?
poll tax, grandfather clause
What were some restrictions/issues during reconstruction?
Jim Crow laws, voting restrictions, lynching and violence
Who was Booker T. Washington
once enslaved, leader of the Tuscegee Institute, advisor to Theodore Roosevelt and Taft on racial matters
Why did he receive criticism from WEB Dubois?
because he did many things in secrecy
What speech did he give to whites?
Atlantic Exposition Address
What was the main idea of the Atlantic Exposition Address?
it focused on the economic position of the black community
What famous quote is from this speech?
“Cast down your bucket where you are”
What does “Cast down your bucket where you are mean?”
start from where you are and move forward; by starting from where you are you could accumulate political capital and then could be more supported
What was Booker T for?
He was for communities beginning with what is at their disposal and then build up their trades; blacks and whites must BOTH cast down their buckets
Who holds a critique against Booker T’s ideas?
WEB Dubois
What is WEB Dubois’s critique?
it is an idea of being socially separate but then working together; he believes that Booker T is only furthering economic/social inequality between blacks and whites
What does WEB Dubois believe they should do instead?
create leaders to lead black community (i.e. Talented Ten)
What does WEB Dubois and Booker T both want?
They both want education but just want it to be achieved in different ways
What is Booker T’s idea about Industrial Education?
he thought one should learn a skill and develop it; once a community accumulates capital, develop more opportunities, must be combined with “moral and mental” education
What was Dubois’s idea about Industrial Education and the Talented Ten?
“Not all mean must go to college, but some should”; 1/10 of male population must attend college and learn to be a leader, rest of population can do labor jobs