A) buy comics and story books
B) get their child a library card
C) discuss stories and experiences at home
D) volunteer in the school’s media center
This practice is recommended based upon research by Jim Trelease and the National Institute of Education’s Commission on Reading. Discussing stories and experiences at home promotes family involvement and the increase of oral language and vocabulary development, both critical to achieving literacy success.
A) The overall structure and quality
B) The appropriate use of vocabulary
C) The student’s performance on a specific criterion
D) The levels of performance for each criteria
Holistic rubrics assess the student’s work as a whole, not just portions of the assessment. The overall structure and quality of the rubric is the primary focus and will help the teacher assess properly and with more accuracy.
A) Using a graphic organizer
B) Brainstorming ideas as a class
C) Holding peer conferences
D) Typing their work on the computer
Holding peer conferences is a strategy you use during the revising stage of writing.
A) Providing a copy of the report to all the students in the classroom
B) Writing key words on note cards and referring to the cards during the presentation
C) Memorizing the entire report before the presentation
D) Creating a media based presentation to read the report directly from
Writing key words on not cards and referring to them during the presentation can provide students with the necessary outline of ideas in case they forget any details.
All of these steps are actions taken by a teacher before students being writing.
A) Students identify the beginning, middle, and end sounds in words
B) Students use individual sounds to blend the letters that make up a word
C) Students identify the number of syllables that make up different words
D) Students unlock the meaning of a word by considering the word parts
Structural analysis deals with how the structure of words (including word parts) can help people identify the meaning.
C) graphophonic cues
D) reading fluency
Graph (means print) and phonic (means sounds) – meaning, letter/sound correspondence – the skill identified as troublesome for the student.
A) To measure the student’s level of comprehension
B) To measure the student’s vocabulary development
C) To determine the student’s fluency rate
D) To determine the student’s oral reading progress
Retelling is an informal assessment of reading comprehension.
– Requesting classroom volunteers
– Making regular phone calls
– Establishing a book loan program
All of the above mentioned practices how a teacher’s support of
A) lesson planning
B) cooperative learning
D) parental involvement
Classroom newsletters, requesting classroom volunteers, making positive phone class home, and integrating a book loan program within your classroom all promote parental involvement with their child’s learning.
B) Phonemic awareness
C) Graphophonic cues
The question (Understanding that spoken words consist of a sequence of individual sounds) is clearly defining phonemic awareness.
A) Administering a norm-referenced reading test.
B) Having students complete a CLOZE assessment.
C) Conducting an Informal Reading Inventory.
D) Reviewing the previous year’s SOL scores in reading.
Conducting an Informal Reading Inventory would be the best way to determine the student’s independent, instructional, and frustration reading levels. This information would be helpful to a teacher both for instruction and selection of instructional reading materials.
A) Literacy circles
B) Structural analysis
C) Semantic mapping
D) Word creation
Semantic mapping is a visual strategy for vocabulary expansion and extension of knowledge by displaying in categories words related to one another. Semantic mapping is an adaptation of concept definition mapping but builds on student’s prior knowledge or schema.
A) using a graphic organizer
B) brainstorming ideas
C) peer conferences
D) typing their work on the computer
This strategy is used during the revising stage of writing. Both A and B are performed during the pre-writing stage. Having students type their work does not promote the revising stage of writing. Therefore, it is incorrect.
A) Consonant digraphs
C) Consonant blends
Consonant blends are a sequence of two or three consonants, each of which is heard with minimal change.
A) Deleting phonemes
B) Adding phonemes
C) Substituting phonemes
D) Segmenting phonemes
This is an example of segmenting phonemes.
In the semi-phonetic stage, spelling is characterized by the letter sound correspondence, clearly visible with the way the student spelled his/her sentence.
A) Describe your favorite television show.
B) Write a new episode of your favorite television show.
C) How are the television shows you watch different than the shows your parents watched when they were your age?
D) Should a limit be placed on the amount of time children spend watching television?
This prompt requires students to form a position and support it with reasons.
A) Context clues
B) Self monitoring
C) Semantic mapping
It refers to people using words or sentences around an unfamiliar word to help clarify its meaning, clearly what Gerald did in this situation.
Inferential questions required students to go use their background knowledge and the clues within the story and answer questions based on that. This process is exactly what this student was actively engaged in.
(See Page 49 in Chapter 7 of study guide for picture)
“She jumped up and caught the ball”
A) the student has an emerging understanding of sound symbol relationships
B) the student understands that letters go from left to right, but cannot yet match speech to print
C) the student displays an emerging concept of word boundaries
D) the student understands that each syllable must contain a vowel sound
Analysis of the writing sample indicates that the student has at least an emerging understanding of sound symbol relationships which is an indication of emerging phonemic awareness. Sounds symbol relationships include writing the initial sounds heard in the words: jumped, caught, and ball. The student also attempted the medial and ending sounds in caught.
Prosody is the appropriate use of phrasing and expression to convey meaning, clearly what was described in this question.
A) Venn diagram
B) Cluster diagram
C) Sequence chart
D) Flow chart
A Venn diagram is used to compare and contrast two things in a graphic organizer consisting of two overlapping circles. In this example the teacher is asking the students to compare two characters.
A) Students choose books that appeal to them and are at their own instructional level.
B) Students demonstrate skills such as careful observation, critical reasoning, critical thinking, and the ability to justify or contest existing knowledge.
C) Students express their thoughts, feelings, reactions, and questions about a book they are reading.
D) Students identify the characters, setting, conflict and resolution of the story they are reading.
Reading response journals are utilized in a classroom as a strategy for students to express their thoughts to a book they are reading. It connects reading and writing.
A) Having ELLs listen to recorded versions of stories
B) Giving ELLs books that do not contain illustrations
C) Analyzing story events only in English
D) Having students translate English stories into their native language
Listening to language and stories helps ELL students listening for sounds, and helps them imitate successful reading.
A) decode words into units of sound
B) determine letter sounds
C) identify prefixes and suffixes easily
D) recognize the rhythm of a story
Syllabication is the act of breaking big words up into smaller parts so they can be pronounced and spelled more easily.
A) Wanted, sorted, branded
B) Ticked, ditched, nipped
C) Fringed, dodged, hummed
D) Attached, angled, invented
The correct pronunciation of the -ed in these three words is /t/.
B) sight words
C) phonological awareness
D) concept of print
The student has identified the beginning sounds of words but did not continue to decode the other sounds in the words. This area needs to be strengthened so that the student can master the manipulation of spoken sounds before connecting those sounds to their corresponding letters.
A) Reader’s workshop
B) Shared reading
C) Round robin
D) Guided reading
Shared reading is an interactive reading experience. Children join in the reading of a big book or other enlarged text as guided by a teacher or other experienced reader.
B) Shared writing
C) Guided writing
D) Interactive writing
This scenario describes the teacher modeling a strategy for students to mimic.
When counting phonemes a consonant blend /str/ stands for 3 sounds, after, it is followed by the long /a/ sound and the final /t/ sound for a total of 5.
A) Said and task
B) Brush and ruler
C) Apples and grapes
D) Rug and ready
Context will determine the meaning of these words (brush: art vs. geography; ruler: math vs. social studies).
Syllabication is the forming of syllables or the division o f words into syllables. In this case, both words can be divided into 4 word parts. Ac-com-mo-date and te-le-vi-sion
A) Man, came, well, in
B) We, him, get, so
C) Do, said, was, of
D) How, had, make, not
Irregular words are those in which one or more letters do not represent their most common sounds. For answer choice C – all of these words have irregular pronunciations.
Listen,/man/. What sound does /man/ start with? Change the first sound in /man/ to /p/. What is the new word? Now change the last sound in /pan/ to /t/. What is the new word?
What skill is Mr. Diaz assessing?
A) Print awareness
B) alphabetic principle
C) decoding in context
D) phoneme substitution
Students who have firm phonemic awareness are able to manipulate sounds in words to make new words.
A cluster diagram is most helpful during the planning of prewriting stage when a writer is still organizing and generating his ideas.
B) Phonological awareness
The answer is phonemic awareness because students are practicing oral pre-reading skills without relying on text.
A) Develop evaluative comprehension
B) Identify textual evidence to support their ideas
C) Understand how characters impact a story
D) Make predictions from details from the text
By speculating how the story would be different, the students will see how the character impacted the events in the story.
(See chart on page 52 of Chapter 7 of study guide)
Which of the following skills does the third column (III) help students to develop?
A) Making inferences
B) Finding textural evidence to support ideas
C) Understanding character motivation
D) Making predictions
When readers make inferences they interpret ideas not stated explicitly in the text and draw appropriate conclusions. They go beyond what the author has written on the page. Readers put together clues from the text and make evidence-based guesses about character motives, the plot, the problem, the solution, etc.
A) Identifying important details about the story on a graphic organizer
B) Locate and define unfamiliar words
C) Select reading material that is easier for the student
D) Record questions, thoughts, ideas on sticky notes as he is reading
Metacognitive awareness (being able to think about one’s own thinking) is a critical component of learning, because it enables learners to assess their level of comprehension and adjust their strategies for greater success.
B) Anticipation guide
C) Concept web
D) Story map
Also known as reaction guide or prediction guide, is a prereading strategy that encourages students to react to various statements in order to determine a purpose for reading and stimulate interest.
– I checked the paper for complete sentences.
– I double-checked for correct spelling.
– I capitalized all proper nouns.
At which stage of the writing process would the above checklist be most helpful for third-grade students?
During the editing stage, students correct errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.
“The first week of August hangs at the very top of summer, the top of the live-long year, like the highest seat of a Ferris wheel when it pauses in its turning…[T]he first week of August is motionless, and hot. It is curiously silent, too, which blank white dawns and glaring noons, and sunsets smeared with too much color. Often there is lightning, but it quivers all alone. There is no thunder, no relieving rain.”
A fifth-grade teacher selects the above passage to introduce a new strategy her students can use while they are reading. Which of the following reading comprehension strategies does this selection best help to develop
The passage describes the setting of the novel. The rich imagery lends itself to visualization.
Which of the following strategies has Mr. Smith employed?
A) paired reading
B) oral cloze
C) shared reading
Think-pair-share means that students will (1) think individually about a topic or answer to a question; (2) pair with a partner and discuss the topic or question; and (3) share ideas with the rest of the class. The teacher has used this strategy to encourage critical thinking during interactive read aloud.
A) Asking the students to make a list of sensory images
B) Encouraging the students to use a thesaurus to find synonyms for some of their word choices
C) Explaining how the students can incorporate transition words
D) Suggesting that the students combine sentences
Making a list of sensory images describing the event would help the students to add details about the topic.
A) Listen to these word parts: /p/…/i/…/ck/. What is the word?
B) Which two words rhyme: fun, sun, tan?
C) Listen to this word: sad. How many sounds do you hear?
D) Which two words have the same medial sound: fit, bin, can?
When segmenting words into sounds, the student listens for and identifies phonemes in the word.
A) Concept of print
C) think aloud
D) alphabetic principle
The teacher is demonstrating concept of print by using her pointer to show one-to-one correspondence for the words in the song.
C) Syllables and affixes
D) Derivational relations
The student is a letter-name speller because he has letter-sound knowledge and is ready to move on to more complex, single-syllable words.
How would the story of “Goldilocks and the Three Bears” be different if it took place near the Arctic Circle?
Which of the following does this assignment help to develop?
A) Make connections between previous experiences and reading selections.
B) Compare and contrast settings, characters, and events.
C) Draw conclusions about how setting impacts a story.
D) Understand basic plots of fairy tales, myths, folktales, legends, and fables.
By changing the setting of the story, the students would draw conclusions about how details in the setting would be different.
The word shade has three phonemes: /sh/-/ā/-/d/. Phonemes roughly correspond to the letters but the connection is not one-to-one. It can be confusing because early readers will want to segment the word into four parts /s/-/h/-/ā/-/d/.
A) I think the boy is going to get in trouble when his mother finds out
B) I don’t understand why the boy lied.
C) This reminds me of a time when I got in trouble for lying.
D) I see now that the boy was angry with his brother and that’s why he lied.
With this statement, the student is clearly connecting something from his life to the story being read.
A) Create a KWL chart
B) Preview titles, headings, captions, maps, charts, and graphs
C) Create a concept web to help build background knowledge.
D) Formulate questions about the text.
Previewing headings, captions, maps, charts, and graphs would help students to determine the type of information that is contained and understand the structure of the text.
A third-grade student wrote the above paragraph about her summer vacation. Which of the following areas should the teacher focus on during a writing conference with the student?
A) Word choice
B) Sentence variety
D) Fragments and run-ons
The writer begins most of her sentences with “We.” She would benefit from assistance with combining sentences or finding different ways to begin her sentences to add variety.
A) Informal Reading Inventory
B) Basal Reader Spelling Inventory
C) Word Study Journeys Development Spelling Analysis
D) A list of recognized sight words
In order to tailor instruction appropriately for students, it is important for teachers to learn about their students’ orthographic understandings. The Developmental Spelling Analysis enables teachers to readily and confidently identify individual students’ stages of spelling development. It can also highlight specific strengths and weaknesses in featural knowledge so instruction can be timely and appropriate. Progress is also monitored over time using this assessment.
A) Text selection
B) Observe and analyze individuals
C) Re-group students according to ability
D) Meet with the guided reading groups about three to five times per week
Teachers should observe and analyze individual students to establish small guided reading groups. Students cannot be grouped unless the teacher knows their reading level/ability.
A) Spelling inventory
B) DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills)
C) Sight-word assessment
D) Running record
Marie Clay is credited with creating the concept of running records. Running Records are a tool for coding, scoring, and analyzing a child’s precise reading behaviors. Marie Clay’s book, “An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement,” contains a complete and thorough description of this technique and provides a running record form that is to be used for that purpose.
A) On the other hand, however, in addition to
B) As a result, therefore, because
C) At the same, finally, then
D) Such as, for example, most importantly
These are transition words used to compare things.
A) Word-by-word matching in reading
B) How to write familiar words
C) Letter identification
D) Construct meaning from texts
In concepts of print assessments, the teacher reads a small book while working with a child. other concepts of print assessments would include the student matching word-by-word matching in reading, book handling skills, locating words in print, distinguishing between the idea of letter and word, the meaning of punctuation, and the other details of print. Concepts of print are the third step of the guided reading assessment procedure.
A) Using a glossary to define unfamiliar terms
B) Generating questions from the subheads
C) Using the index to locate information
D) Preview charts and other graphics
Only choice B helps students set a purpose for reading. Knowing they will have to answer these questions when they are finished with the passage helps students find a specific purpose for reading.
A third-grade student wrote the above sentence in his journal. Which of the following teacher actions will most likely help the student improve his writing?
A) Having the student read aloud the journal entry and put appropriate punctuation where needed
B) Providing a list of rules for capitalization that the student can use for reference
C) Suggesting that the student add adjectives to his writing to make it more descriptive
D) Circling misspelled words and having the student use a dictionary to find the correct spellings
This would help the student identify the separate sentences contained in this run-on sentence.
A) Monitoring comprehension
D) Using prior knowledge
Thinking about what is already known about a subject helps readers make connections between the story and their knowledge.
A) Using concrete objects and cues to help teach phonemic awareness
B) Drilling students to promote phonemic awareness skills
C) Introducing phonemic awareness skills one at a time
D) Using work stations to teach phonemic awareness skills
Teachers should consider various dimensions of phonemic awareness instruction when planning and designing learning activities. When teaching effective phonemic awareness development it is helpful to increase the use of concrete objects and cues to represent sounds and to provide more phonemic awareness instruction that also includes familiar letters. Current research suggests that concrete cues can increase the effectiveness of phonemic awareness instruction.
A) Prepares an introduction to the story
B) Talks about the whole story
C) Confirms students problem solving attempts and interacts to assist with problem solving at difficulty
D) Assesses the students understanding of what they read
During the reading, teacher should listen in and observe the reader’s behaviors for evidence of strategies used. Teachers should also interact with individuals to assist with problem solving at difficulty when it is appropriate.
A) Finding the authorship and copyright information for the website
B) Comparing and contrasting different search engines
C) Identifying key words that can be used for the search
D) Skimming through the information on different websites
Key words in the question can be used as search terms in a search engine, thereby giving students direction and a strategy to use in answering the questions.
A) Vowel digraphs (ou as in round, ee as in sheet)
B) Short vowels (a as in apple, e as in bed)
C) Consonant clusters (squ as in squid, nk as in sink)
D) Consonant digraphs (th as in think, ch as in which)
Initially teaching short vowels is the best way to teach phonemes to young readers. Learning short vowels first enables students to connect syllables and read longer words. Students who begin with short vowels will encounter vocabulary that is more familiar and they will have more reading material to choose from until they reach multi-syllabic words.
A) A teacher can collect as much assessment data on students as possible.
B) A teacher is permitted to teach what students need to know.
C) A teacher can increase academic accountability of her students.
D) A teacher develops a better grasp on classroom management.
Conducting flexible grouping provides teachers with the opportunity to tailor instruction and address individual needs.
A) Explain why or why not schools should have sports teams.
B) How are baseball and football similar?
C) Describe the characteristics of a great athlete.
D) Can athletes be considered heroes?
With this prompt, students are being asked to utilize imagery, descriptive words, and vivid language to make their idea of a great athlete come alive for the reader.
A) A reading portfolio of student samples
B) A computer-assisted program for reading
C) A running record
D) A benchmark assessment
A running record is a type of miscue analysis assessment teacher use to determining what type of reading errors students are making. It also provides teachers with a clear picture of a student’s reading strengths and areas of need.
– Can you show me the proper way of holding this book?
– Where is the cover page of this book?
– Can you point to the title of this book?
– Which of these words has a capital letter?
What skill is Mrs. Hill most likely assessing this student on?
A) Concept of word
B) Decoding skills
C) Vocabulary skills
D) Morphological skills
All above-mentioned questions relate to the topic of concept of word.
B) Decoding a word
C) Chunking words
D) Counting phonemes in a word
Counting phonemes is an element of phonemic awareness along with adding and deleting syllables or sounds and sound substitutions.
A) Phoneme segmentation
B) Phoneme blending
C) Phoneme identity
D) Phoneme categorization
Phoneme identity refers to the ability of recognizing the same sound in different words.
“When the tinkling little melody began, Winnie’s sobbing slowed. She stood by the stream, her hands still over her face, and listened. Yes, it was the same music she had heard the night before. Somehow it calmed her. It was like a ribbon tying her to familiar things.”
Which of the following elements of writing does this passage model?
C) Figurative language
“Somehow it calmed her” is an example of personification. “It was like a ribbon tying her to familiar things” is a simile.
A) How did you know what that word was?
B) Where do you start reading?
C) Were there enough words as you read it?
D) Did that sound right?
The question is ideal for identifying if the student understands that we read text from left to right.
– Discriminating the speech sounds in words.
– Using written letters to represent speech sounds.
– Distinguishing double vowels, vowel digraphs, and diphthongs.
All of the above mentioned skills are part of which of the following reading components?
B) Phonological awareness
All of the above mentioned tasks are related to phonics. They all relate to the sounds-symbol relationship of becoming a skillful reader.
A) Encouraging students to sound out the word when it is encountered
B) Asking students to make a picture dictionary using those words
C) Inviting students to create new words by adding or deleting sounds
D) Presenting the word visually and asking students to say the words
This is the very first strategy a teacher utilizes when introducing high frequency words to students.
A) Give students the free access to explore WebQuests websites
B) Share with students a WebQuest completed by older students
C) Prepare students with basic internet skills and internet safety
D) Allow students to select any WebQuest of their choice
Preparing students with the appropriate internet skills such as typing a URL, using search engines, manipulating a mouse, following hyperlinks, and internet safety can ensure students begin a WebQuest with the appropriate foundation needed to be successful.
This activity will be most challenging for a student who:
A) Has difficulty identifying the number of syllables in words
B) Has difficulty identifying phonemes in words
C) Has difficulty segmenting phonemes in words
D) Has difficulty blending phonemes in words
The task would be most difficult for a student who has difficulty blending phonemes into words because the task requires the student to blend the sounds (/c/…/a/…/t/) in order to say the word “cat”.
A) Listen: I will clap the parts to your name: Jus…tin. How many? (students answer 2)
B) Listen: Hat. Say it with a /b/ at the beginning (students answer bat.)
C) Listen: If you are having fun, draw a _____ (students draw a rhyming word like sun).
D) Listen: Car. What is the last part? (students answer /ar/)
Choice B is an example of phonemic awareness (a specific type of phonological awareness). Students must manipulate individual phonemes in order to be successful with the task.
A) She points to each word as she reads aloud.
B) She makes predictions about what will come next in the story.
C) She sounds out phonetically regular words.
D) She selects books with alliteration or rhyming patterns.
Pointing to each word as she reads aloud would model concepts of print by promoting student awareness that text is made up of individual words. It also models other concepts of print: text is read one page at a time, form top to bottom, and left to right.
“We hav a hamstr. His name iz merfy.”
(We have a hamster. His name is Murphy.)
Which of the following strategies would be most helpful in helping this student develop his spelling skills?
A) Expose children to word families, spelling patterns, word structure.
B) Study affixes, root words, and homophones.
C) Develop proofreading skills.
D) Teach letter names with letter forms.
This student is in the phonetic stage of spelling development and would benefit from this strategy.
A) the “i” in kite
B) the “a” in car
C) the “a” in case
D) the “a” in cat
The “a” in case represents the long “a” sound. When “a” and “i” appear together in a syllable, they usually represent the long “a” sound.
A) Information about the student’s attitude toward reading
B) Information about decoding and word analysis strategies the student uses
C) Information about whether the student is monitoring
D) Information about the student’s comprehension
Informal reading inventories do not include a reading attitude assessment.
A) Left-to-right orientation
B) Cover of the book
C) Word segmentation
D) Recognition of a capital letter
Word segmentation is a component of phonemic awareness, not concepts about print.
B) Charts and tables
C) Copyright page
The copyright page would tell when the book was published, thereby letting the student know if the information contained was the most current.
A) Teach the student using third grade texts
B) Speak louder and slower to the student
C) Place the student in the low reading group
D) Use differentiated, individualized instruction
In order to assist this student who is just learning English, the teacher will need to provide differentiated instruction that has been individualized to meet his needs.
When considering the progression of difficulty in phonemic awareness, students have less difficulty with rhyming than with the other responses.
A) Reading aloud multicultural literature
B) Individual seat work
C) Sharing students’ writing
D) Class meeting time
When children are working individually at their seats and not interacting with the teacher and each other, they cannot learn about each other’s cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
A) Participating in daily independent reading
B) Participating in repeated readings
C) Prompting students to point to each word as they read
D) Participating in readers theater
Using a finger to point to each word as it is read slows down reading and fluency.
A) Independent reading
B) Explicit phonics instruction
C) Writing word definitions
D) Direct instruction of vocabulary words
Research consistently shows that the best way to increase vocabulary is through wide reading. Learning vocabulary by reading is faster than word study and provides students with a more complete knowledge of words.
Structural analysis is the use of prefixes, suffixes, and root words to understand an unknown word. The word “abnormal” is the only word that has a prefix and a root word, so would be useful in teaching structural analysis
A) makes the other vowel have a long sound
B) makes the other vowel and consonant have a blended sound
C) makes the other vowel have a short sound
D) changes the other vowel into a long “e” sound
When e is added to a word with a consonant-vowel-Consonant (CVC) combination, the initial vowel has a long sound. For example, “can” is a CVC word with a short a sound. When i is added to the end, the word becomes “cane” and the a has a long sound.
A) Provide explicit instruction, using think-alouds to improve oral reading fluency
B) Provide explicit instruction in writing words, to improve memorization
C) Provide explicit instruction in letter-sound correlation, to improve phonemic awareness
D) Provide explicit instruction in word study of high-frequency words, to improve oral reading
Explicitly instruction in word study of high-frequency words is the best method for improving oral reading. By instructing the student in learning how to read high-frequency words quickly, the teacher can help the student establish a large repertoire of words that can be read on sight without resorting to phonetic analysis.
Student: The first sound in van is /v/.
The activity above represents which of the following phonemic awareness instructional strategies?
A) Phonemic isolation
B) Phoneme categorization
C) Phoneme blending
D) Phoneme segmentation
The student is isolating the initial sound /v/ from the rest of the word. Phonemic isolation requires the recognition of individual sounds within a word, which is what the student is doing in identifying the first sound in “van” as /v/.
A) Several times a week the teacher selects different books from the classroom library and reads short passages to the students
B) The teacher selects a favorite book from the classroom library and reads the entire story to the class.
C) The students are allowed to choose any book from the classroom library and then read it aloud to the class.
D) On a monthly basis, students are assigned to read any book they choose and then write a short summary.
By introducing several books throughout the week to the class, the teacher encourages students’ interest in selecting books for independent reading. Since the teacher is reading just a short part of the book, the students will want to read the book to find out the rest of the story.
A) Station, motion, nation
B) Comment, ornament, cement
C) Lament, ferment, predicament
D) Detachment, replacement, excitement
The set of words in Choice D are the only words that have a suffix (-ment). A suffix is an affix that is added to the end of a word or stem and that serves to form a new word or that functions as an inflectional ending, such as -ness in “gentleness,” -ing in “walking,” -s in “sits,” and -ment in “detachment.” The suffix -ment refers to an action, process, or act of a specified kind, i.e., detachment is the act of detaching. The suffix (-ment) forms nouns (“detachment,” “replacement,” “excitement”) by attaching to verbs (“detach,” “replace,” “excite”).
A) buy comic books
B) get their child a library card
C) discuss stories and experiences at home
D) volunteer in the school’s media center
This practice is recommended based upon research by Jim Trelease and the National Institute of Education’s Commission on Reading. Buying comic books does not guarantee a child will engage in reading independently. Obtaining a library card does not ensure a child will go to the library and get books to read independently. Although volunteering in the school’s media center is a nice practice, volunteering does not promote family involvement in literacy activities.
A) Beginning short vowel sounds
B) Middle short vowel sounds
C) Beginning long vowel sounds
D) Middle long vowel sounds
All of the five objects have a short vowel sound at the beginning (“igloo,” “umbrella,” “egg,” “octopus,” “apple”).
A) A student opens a familiar book and recalls enough of the language and plot to “read” it without actually identifying any of the words.
B) A student has a set of 26 cards with letters of the alphabet on them and stacks them to make a high structure.
C) A student takes turns with a partner to read a chapter in a nonfiction book and then record new information.
D) A student reads independently from a self-selected fiction book for fifteen minutes.
Emergent readers understand that written language conveys messages. They may pretend to read by turning the pages of a book and invent the story by using pictures and their memory of the story. “Emergent” is the first stage of early literacy development and is followed by “early,” “early fluent,” and “fluent” stages.
(See chart on page 61 of Study Guide)
Which of the following can Emory’s teacher accurately conclude about his literacy development from this profile?
A) Emory’s level of literacy development indicates that he needs special services.
B) Emory is developing comprehension skills and needs more practice with in-class discussions.
C) Emory has some understanding about print and is beginning to construct meaning from print.
D) Emory has difficulty identifying letters and needs work with cloze activities and predicting strategies.
Emory has some understanding about print and is beginning to construct meaning from print. He consistently knows that print is read from left to right, that print is oral language written down, and what a letter is. He can identify a letter and what a word is, and he can identify a word. In addition, Emory sometimes is aware of environmental print, recognizes some words by sight, can identify letters by name, associates some sounds with letters, and asks questions about letter names, words, and sounds.
– Writing audience
– A list of writing topics
Which of the writing stages in Mrs. Richards’ class currently working on?
All of the steps are actions taken by a teacher before students begin writing. The remaining steps do not support the drafting stage of writing.
– Requesting Classroom Volunteers
– Making Positive Phone Calls Home
– Establishing a Book Loan Program
All of the above mentioned practices show a teacher’s support of
A) lesson planning
B) cooperative learning
D) parental involvement
Classroom newsletters, requesting classroom volunteers, making positive phone calls home, and integrating a book loan program within your classroom all promote parental involvement. The other strategies are effective in the classroom but do not promote parental involvement.