History of Radio in Bangladesh
Bangladesh Betar or BB is the state-owned radio broadcasting organisation of Bangladesh. It was also known as Radio Bangladesh between 1975 and 1996. Radio transmission in the region now forming Bangladesh started in Dhaka on December 16, 1939. Initially, the station was located in old Dhaka. Later, the station was relocated to Shahbag. It played an important role during the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971.
On March 26, 1971, the broadcasting center of Radio Pakistan was used to transmit a declaration of independence, which was picked up by a Japanese ship in the Chittagong Harbor and retransmitted. During the war, it was known as Shwadhin Bangla Betar Kendro (Independent Bengal Radio Station). Due to heavy shelling, the station had to be relocated several times, and ultimately moved to Calcutta on May 25, from where it would broadcast until the end of the war. On December 6, it was renamed Bangladesh Betar. Today we have 10 radio stations running in Bangladesh. Those are:
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- ABC Radio (Bangladesh)
- Bangladesh Betar
- DHAKA FM 90
- Radio 2fun
- Radio Amar
- Radio Dhaka
- Radio Foorti
- Radio Metrowave
- Radio Today
Types of Radio
FM (Frequency Modulation) Radio
FM is widely used for a variety of radio communications applications. FM broadcasts on the VHF bands still provide exceptionally high quality audio, and FM is also used for a variety of forms of two way radio communications, and it is especially useful for mobile radio communications, being used in taxis, and many other forms of vehicle. n view of its widespread use, frequency modulation, FM, is an important form of modulation, despite many forms of digital transmission being used these days. FM, frequency modulation has been in use for many years. However its advantages were not immediately apparent. In the early days of wireless, it was thought that a narrower bandwidth was required to reduce noise and interference. As FM did not perform well under these conditions, AM predominated and FM was not used.
However, Edwin Armstrong, an American engineer looked at the use of wideband FM for broadcasting and introduced the idea against the trend of the thinking of the time. Since its first introduction the use of frequency modulation, FM has grown enormously. Now wideband FM is still regarded as a very high quality transmission medium for high quality broadcasting. FM, frequency modulation is also widely used for communications where it is resilient to variations in signal strength. FM, frequency modulation basics
The most obvious method of applying modulation to a signal is to superimpose the audio signal onto the amplitude of the carrier. However this is by no means the only method which can be employed. It is also possible to vary the frequency of the signal to give frequency modulation or FM. It can be seen below that the frequency of the signal varies as the voltage of the modulating signal changes. Concept of frequency modulation The amount by which the signal frequency varies is very important. This is known as the deviation and is normally quoted as the number of kiloHertz deviation.
As an example the signal may have a deviation of ±3 kHz. In this case the carrier is made to move up and down by 3 kHz.
Community radio stations are community owned and operated entities that serve either localized geographic communities or communities of interest, such as minorities, religious groups and universities. Community radio is unique because the stations are run by the communities themselves. They are owned and managed by the people they serve. The management is usually a small team of paid staff with the programming onducted by volunteers. Unlike commercial stations, community stations are not allowed to run for profit. They must be established as voluntary associations, not-for-profits or trusts. The station’s constitution must say that any profit will be channeled into further developing the station. To ensure the stations are not run for profit they are usually subject to strict advertising controls. Commonly the regulator stipulates that advertising content ought to be capped to allow, for example, a maximum of five minutes per hour of programming. New stations often start with a public meeting.
Members of a community (either geographic or community of interest) come together as a working group to create a vision for the station, plan programming and develop facilities. Over time, more and more members of the community are recruited and trained (FETAC training is available through) to help out behind the scenes, produce and present programmes reflective of their community and experience. 100 day broadcasting licenses are secured from the BAI and as a track record is built with regards to programming, operations, and community involvement, a multi-year licence becomes available.
To operate full licenses, groups constitute themselves as cooperatives or limited companies with no share capital, and a board is elected from the community to manage the station transparently and with accountability in the interests of all. Community Radio has the capacity to reinforce what is good about Irish Society and to help find solutions to its failings. Community Radio facilities individuals, groups, and communities to tell their own diverse stories, to share experiences, and in a media rich world to become active creators and contributors rather than passive consumers.
It presents a unique vehicle for the community and voluntary sector, civil society, agencies, NGOs & citizens to work in partnership to make a difference. Community Radio offers- * rare and direct media access for all perspectives in our communities, * the potential for innovation inherent in non-profit, community owned and operated media * Diversity in the provision of programming, especially where there would be insufficient profit for the commercial sector and too much cost for the public service sector. Offers a resurgence of local media highlighting local issues, opinions and voices in contrast to mainstream medias increasingly centralised content production. * The skills, resources and the opportunity to understand media by members of our communities through actively participating in its creation and delivery. * a unique mechanism to engage with social exclusion by acting as a vehicle for outcome-driven personal and professional training and development * a powerful tool in providing services and supports to communities, especially disadvantaged and excluded communities. the opportunity to promote democracy, human rights and sustainability. * a challenge to global media blandness in reinforcing local identities while acting as a catalyst for integration and inclusion.
Public broadcasting is broadcasting made for the public, funded by the public (through tax) and controlled by the public (through parliament). The defining feature of public broadcasting is its inclusiveness. Public broadcasting must be accessible to all and diverse enough to appeal to all.
Unlike state broadcasting, which serves the interests of the state, public broadcasting is uniquely positioned to serve the public in all its diverse forms. Further, public service broadcasters (PSBs) are protected from political and commercial pressures, which positions them to best serve the public’s rights to freedom of expression and freedom of information. This is why public broadcasting has such a crucial role to play in democratic societies. Defining features of public service broadcasting: * Accessible to all * Serving the public interest in all its shapes Emphasis on quality, balance and impartiality * Provisions for minorities * Commitment to education of the public * Freedom to produce challenging and controversial programming * Independent from political and commercial interference * Forum for expression of national cultural identity Independence of a public broadcaster is vital: independence for the board and editorial independence for management. Securing independence means overcoming the prevailing mindset among those in power that the airwaves belong to the state.
MISA believes the independence of a public service broadcaster in Swaziland will only be ensured if it is guaranteed in law. MISA is advocating for such a law to include the following: * A description of the composition of the PSB board to ensure it is broadly representative of the public and excludes office bearers with the state and people with financial interests in broadcasting; * A public and transparent board appointments procedure that minimizes political and commercial interference; * A stipulation that no one has a right to influence the work of the board; * Editorial freedom for the PSB management; Accountability of the PSB is to the public through parliament, not an individual minister or ministry; * An adequate and secure funding mechanism that protects from arbitrary interference. For more detail on public service broadcasting law see the Article 19 Model Public Service Broadcasting Law under Law Reform. MISA calls on the government to: * Enact legislation establishing a public broadcasting entity, recognizing its full independence and public service mandate. * Conduct organizational restructure allowing the merger of television and radio with one independent board to develop the organizational policy. Allow editorial policies that capture the unique responsibilities of public broadcasting. * Ensure training of management and staff on the ethos and purpose of public broadcasting. * Secure a reliable funding mechanisms that will support program diversity and innovation. -------
Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution.
Programming may be exclusively by students, or may include programmers from the wider community in which the radio station is based. Sometimes campus radio stations are operated for the purpose of training professional radio personnel, sometimes with the aim of broadcasting educational programming, while other radio stations exist to provide an alternative to commercial broadcasting or government broadcasters. Campus radio stations are generally licensed and regulated by national governments, and so have very different characteristics from one country to the next.
One commonality between many radio stations regardless of their physical location is a willingness — or, in some countries, even a licensing requirement — to broadcast musical selections that are not categorized as commercial hits. Because of this, campus radio has come to be associated with emerging musical trends, including genres such as punk and New Wave, alternative rock, indie rock and hip hop, long before those genres become part of the musical mainstream. Campus radio stations also often provide airplay and promotional exposure to new and emerging local artists.
Many campus radio stations carry a variety of programming including news (often local), sports (often relating to the campus), and spoken word programming as well as general music. Often the radio format is best described as a freeform, with a lot of creativity and individualism among the disc jockeys and show hosts. A number of these radio stations have gained critical acclaim for their programming and are considered by the community in which they are embedded to be an essential media outlet.
Although the term campus radio implies full-power AM or FM transmission over the air, many radio stations experiment with low-power broadcasting, closed circuit or carrier current systems, often to on-campus listeners only. Some radio stations are distributed through the cable television system on cable FM or the second audio program of a TV radio station. Some universities and colleges broadcast one or more Internet radio feeds — either instead of, or in addition to a campus radio station — which may differ in radio formats significantly from licensed traditional campus radio.
Internet Radio - Internet Radio describes a technical achievement which allows audio to be digitized and split into small pieces for transmission across the Interent. The ultimate effect is to create the illusion of "radio". The audio is "streamed" through the Internet from a server in one location and reassembled on the listener's end by a software player on a computer or Internet Radio receiver. Internet Radio is not really radio by the traditional definition but an incredible simulation.
This term also describes the conglomeration of streaming audio which is available on the Internet which can be listened to by using a software player or browser which supports streaming audio. In another way, an audio broadcasting service that is transmitted through the Internet. Internet radio is similar in nature to Internet broadcasting, also called webcasting. However, those listening to the continuous stream audio broadcast have no control over the stream, similar to traditional radio broadcasting.
Many radio stations worldwide offer their broadcast via Internet radio to a worldwide audience. Today dedicated hardware devices, commonly called Web radio or Internet radio appliances , can be purchased that connect to a home network and then to the Internet to play live audio streams. Internet radio is also called e-radio. The benefits of an internet radio_ More station choice An internet radio gives you access to more than FM or DAB digital radio, including some foreign language stations. Find new stations
The menus on an internet radio enable you search by different methods including by genre. So you could search for all of the rock stations available and find new stations that play the types of music you love. Podcasts and BBC listen again You can access podcasts from BBC and commercial stations and just as you might use listen again on BBC iPlayer or Radio player on your computer, you can access listen again to shows through an internet radio, too. Music player/ media sharing Most internet radios have a music player mode for streaming music from devices on your home network.
If you keep your music collection on your computer at home you can use the radio’s screen to choose music from your collection and listen using the radio's speakers. Forget DAB reception Internet radio works using your internet connection. It doesn't rely on getting a signal from a transmitter the way DAB and FM do, so it doesn't matter if DAB reception is poor where you live - you can get your digital radio fix via the internet.
Education System in Bangladesh
The education system and structure of Bangladesh has three major stages-primary, secondary and higher educations.
Primary education is a 5-year cycle while secondary education is a 7- year one with three sub-stages: 3 years of junior secondary, 2 years of secondary and 2 years of higher secondary. The private schools also receive strong financial support from the state. The tertiary education (3-5 years) is provided through universities (31 public and 51 private universities) and affiliated colleges under supervision of University Grants Commission. Establishment of private universities has gained momentum in recent years. At all levels, students can choose the medium of education from Bangla or English.
The Ministry of Education is the supreme state office for education which again is subdivided in different directorates for each level while running numerous development projects (Education Projects and Technical projects). According to the article 17 of the Constitution, all the children of Bangladesh are supposed to receive full free education up to secondary level. Secondary and higher secondary schools are affiliated under ten (10) education boards. The boards administer two public examinations - one is the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination and the Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) Examination.
The higher secondary schools are known as colleges. There are also Madrasah (religiously inclined) and English medium schools which are enrolled under Madrasah Education Board and Foreign Education Board respectively. Besides this, a Technical Education Board has been established to administer the vocational training schools at post-secondary level in Education Board. The National Curriculum and Textbook Board is the authority to develop, approve and manage the curriculum and text books for primary, junior, secondary and higher secondary level.
Government has also established Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) which keeps educational information at all levels. Bangladesh Government has published an Education Policy which is developed based on the inputs taken from different education commissions over the years. There are also many non-profit organizations which operate informal and semi-formal education for underprivileged children under supervision of Bureau of Non-formal Education.
Linking Radio with Education
Due to potential diversity, the CR technology can most effectively be used for non formal education for adult people, awareness programs, youth development programs, local community knowledge sharing, recycling of knowledge, ethnic community preservation programs and in areas, where density of population is sparse, where access to school is difficult like char (land within a river) and hilly areas of the country and also isolated places because of less access to road or other communication, and where access of qualified teachers are very few. Sweeney and Parlato (1982, p. 3) stated, “Radio plays an effective educational role both as the sole medium or in conjunction with print and group support". So, Community Radio has a prospect for education expansion and community schools. Community Radio can also help, develop and mobilize social capital. This technology is cheaper too. For example, Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) is a well-tested teaching and dissemination method that is inexpensive, accessible and flexible. In Africa, Community Radio has speeded up and expended the process of information exchange. The second goal of MDGs is to achieve universal primary education.
Education is the backbone and foundation for a nation. This is one of the fundamental goals as Nobel Lauriat's Amarta Sen argues, “Development is freedom and education is the royal road of freedom” (Daniel, 2006). As most developing countries underscore its educational potential and importance, many writers have proposed that educational radio can be most effective when supported by trained facilitators, group learning, group discussion, feedback and the use of multimedia approaches, thus interactive and independent learning help develop social software which is considered essential for quality education.
The dynamic potential of radio in motivating listeners to take action, modifying behavior, and undertaking activities is evident in the literature thus far.
Learning is the liberating force of human development and every individual has a right to education. To serve the aforesaid considerations, ODL helps create democratization in education for flexible learning system. In ODL, student centered teaching approach is used. Tutors and learners are hysically separated in the system, and distance education institutes usually use technology like state-owned Radio and Television for a particular time to disseminate contents of learning to the learners, which might not be effective and accessible to all distance learners due to inflexible time allocation. Since CR is covering a limited geographical area and focusing on the local needs, culture and social events, educational and academic programs can be incorporated into the CR programs at any time of any location as it is more flexible than national broadcasting.
In addition, distance education institutes have long experiences in using the technology of Radio and TV. They can apply their experience for CR on segment base as well as programs base. Most distance learning organizations generally have several outlets for tutorial or other instructional services in distant and remote areas. Having their own infrastructures, these distant teaching outlets could be turned into Community Radio Learning Centers (CRLC) for the open and distance learning institutes and these stations can be worked as local facilitators for the academic programs of both formal and non-formal education.
Anyanwk (1978 p. 15-16) mentions, "Through collective listening, discussion, and the use of audio-visual aids, the radio can contribute substantially to the process of transformation of agricultural traditions, as well as some social and economic attitudes in general". Radio has been used extensively as an educational medium in developing countries like India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, South Korea, Mali, Guatemala, Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, Uganda, Mexico, Philippines and also proved its impact and efficiency in health, agriculture and other development issues.
Radio-based educational opportunities are very much commensurate with the delivery system of ODL. After 15 years of the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU), it has accumulated huge resources in terms of technology and media oriented human resource and infrastructures to put forward a new look to the Community Radio applications.
Bangladesh Open University needs to adopt the segment base strategies to provide education for all. The case of Bangladesh is similar as to Louw’s (Paris, France 2007) statement, “. to ensure that communities who have been denied access to resources, take part in producing ethical, creative and responsible radio that encourages them to communicate with each other, to take part in decisions that affect their lives, and to celebrate their own cultures".
The reason for establishing Bangladesh Open University nearly echoes Louw's statement as in the Mission statement, of the BOU Act 1992 envisages that "the objectives of the University shall be to expand all levels of education, knowledge and science by a diversity of means, including the use of any communication technology to improve the quality of education and to provide opportunities for education to the general public through mass-orientation of education and to create efficient manpower by improving the quality of education in general".
To accomplish these goals of BOU mission statement, it is no denying the fact that BOU needs immediate steps for adopting the Community Radio approach. In terms of preparation, BOU has Media Centre fully equipped with the transmission equipment, full-fledged radio recording studios, editing suites, portable radio recorders and modern radio broadcasting technology. However, BOU has already sought the permission from the Government for having its own frequency allocation.
About adult education Dhaka University VC Prof Arefin was highlighting on the role of mass media in the socio-economic and the educational development of a developing country. His message was that both the print and broadcast media can play a vital role in enhancing education in a developing country. It can shape and create public opinion towards on related issues by applying its strength and bring changes among individual.
Bangladesh is now in a state of “Media Expansion”, we have lot of TV and radio channels and every day new channels are coming. Broadcasting media is the most common & popular media in our country. In the cases of developing countries, like Bangladesh, implementation of education fully depends on appropriate use of broadcasting media technology. And the government as well as private organizations are using Radio and television for meeting these demands.
A significant result has already been achieved in the field of mass education of Bangladesh by using broadcasting media. All the TV and Radio channels present various educational programs for the students. These programs become very popular in the country. Bangladesh is now in a state of media expansion. A large number of people here depend on newspapers and broadcast media for entertainment. But media also has an important educational role: Adult students from rural even from city areas can take lesson from watching certain television programs Like “BBC Janala.
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