quiz 1

Pictograms
simple drawings of everyday objects
Ideograms
symbols representing thoughts or ideas
By 3100 B.C., Egyptian hieroglyphics incorporated
ideograms, allowing for the expression of more abstract concepts than the more literal pictograms. A symbol for an ox could mean food.
Phonograms
symbols for spoken sounds
By 1600 B.C., the Phoenicians had developed
phonograms.Their symbol for ox, which they called aleph, was used to represent the spoken sound “A” and beth, their symbol for house, represented the sound “B”.
• The alphabet
a set of symbols representing spoken sounds
It is the Phoenicians who are generally credited with developing the first true alphabet that could be combined to represent spoken language.
3000 BCE Early Sumerian Writing
Theydevelopeda writing system whose wedge-shaped strokes would influence the style of scripts in the same geographical area for the next 3000 years.
• Pictogramsonclay tablets
3000 BCE Egyptian Hieroglyphics
Hieroglyphs, characters in any system of writing in which symbols represent objects (such as tools, animals, or boats) and ideas (such as motion, time, and joy).
• The ancient Greeks first used the term hieroglyph (meaning “sacred carving”) to describe decorative characters carved on Egyptian monuments.
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2000 BCE Papyrus
Egyptians used the Cyperus Papyrus to make a paper- like material called papyrus.
• The pith of the papyrus plant was used in Egypt at least as far back as the first dynasty, for boats, mattresses, mats and as a writing surface.
1800 BCE Chinese Calligraphy
Abstracted pictographs and logograms
• A symbol that represents a whole word
• Carved into bones and shells
• Write on bronze objects like coins, containers and weapons.
• Use bamboo pens to write on silk cloth and on wooden and bamboo slats.
1500 BCE Phoenician Alphabet
ThePhoenicianalphabetisone that consists of 22 letters and they are all consonants.
• Itwascreatedasaresultofthe need to record their activities in trade.
• Eachlettersrepresentsasingle syllable. This helped them to have more freedom in writing and made it much faster.
1000 BCE Greeks Adopt Phoenician Alphabet
• Theadoptionof Phoenician letter forms and continues to the present day.
• TheGreekalphabetwas developed by a Greek with first-hand experience of contemporary Phoenician script.
300 BCE Wood Tablet “book”
• 300 BCE Wood tablet “book” came into use in Greece and Rome, very similar to today’s books
190 BCE Invention of Parchment
• Apaper-likewritingsurface mad of leather was developed in Turkey.
• Parchment:Flexibility, Availability and Portability
• Parchmentisaspecially treated form of leather that is soft and durable, making it an excellent writing material
100 BCE Roman Letterforms Develop
• The Latin alphabet that we use today was used by the Romans, but is believed to have grown out of a combination of Greek, Semitic, and southern Italian influences.
• Square capitals
• Has only square capital
letterforms
• Rustic capitals
• Less forma: narrower and more rounded letterform
100 CE Uncials
• Greek had developed round letterforms called uncials
• The Greek writing style known as “uncials” used rounded letters with fewer strokes to increase writing speed.
Paper Invention
105 CE Chinese invent paper
200 CE Half Uncials
• Half uncial differs from early uncial script in its minuscule appearance; only one letter (N) remained more or less unchanged from the capital form.
• The distinguishing letter forms in half uncial are a, b, d, g, h, l, m, r, and s: there was no attempt to confine letters between a single pair of lines, as they had gained distinctive ascenders and descenders.
• Half-uncials are the precursors to lowercase letters.
200 CE Pens with Nibs
• Greeks were writing on papyrus, parchment, metal, leather, wood and wax and clay tablets using pens made from reeds with metal nibs attached to the ends to better regulate the flow of the ink.
300 CE Roman Literate Class and Libraries
• Rome had a literate class of merchants, scholars, priests and governmental officials, and thirty public libraries to support their reading and reference needs.
• Literacy was growing.
400 CE Illuminated Manuscripts in Europe
• Illustratedandilluminated books were popular as a method for preaching to the illustrate.
• Handwrittentexttoilluminate, or reveal, their meanings
• ItwaspopularinEuropeuntil the fifteenth century CE when movable type was first used in Europe
500 CE Celtic Half-Uncials and Word Spacing
• Half-Uncials began to gain popularity (Ireland among the Celts)
• Economical: less space then uncials, easy to read
• Legibility:addspacesbetweenwords,makingwhere words began and ended
700 CE Woodblock Printing in China
• In China, a commercial book trade existed as early as the first century of the common era.
• Books were also commissioned by religious institutions and by the state.
• The earliest dated printed book was discovered in a cave temple at Tun-huang.
700 CE Woodblock Printing in China
• A scroll about sixteen feet long, it is a acopy of the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, bearing a date equivalent to 868.
•Thequalityoftheprintingisremarkablyhigh,suggestedan established print industry.
789 CE Carolingian Minuscules
• Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
• It was used in Charlemagne’s empire between approximately 800 and 1200.
1400 CE Movable Type Used in China
• Pi Sheng became renowned as a master of movable type and he may have been its inventor.
• Pi Sheng affixed individual clay stamps, each bearing a relief of a Chinese character, in sequence on a waxed iron plate that could then be used like a woodblock to print an entire page at once.
1200 CE Blackletter Scripts
• Blackletter script dominated throughout Western Europe beginning about 1150 CE.
• Far easier to write than other letterforms, the script was used to produce illuminated sacred texts, and works for study in universities.
• Blackletter typeface is one of the oldest typefaces often described as Gothic script.
1276 CE First Watermark
• A watermark is made by impressing a water- coated metal stamp or dandy roll onto the paper during manufacturing.
• These watermarks were first introduced in Bologna, Italy.
1300 CE Whiteletter Script
• Whiteletter was emerging in Italy and southern Europe.
• It evolved from Carolingian minuscule scripts.
• Lighter, rounder and less ornate than blackletter scripts of the era.
1300 CE Block Printing Industry Flourishes
1400 CE First Printed Books In Europe
• Text and images were cut into the same block of wood for printing
• Religious in theme
A Brief History of Type
The fifteenth century was a pivotal time for written communication. Manuscripts were treasured possessions which rarely appeared outside monasteries or the courts of royalty.The written word was reserved for the privileged few. In fact, less than one-tenth of the European population could read.
Moveable Type and Printing
The next 50 years witnessed an explosion of printing throughout Europe and, by the year 1500, more than 10 million copies of nearly 3500 works were printed and distributed.
An unprecedented diffusion of technical and social knowledge spread throughout the Western world and the education of the masses had begun.