PY 201: Exam 2-Ch. 6-9

Information processing model
assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of 3 stages-encoding, storage, retrieval.
3 processes of memory
1. putting it in(encoding) 2. keeping it in(storage) 3. getting it out(retrieval)
encoding
set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form thats usable in the brains storage system.
storage
holding onto information for some period of time.
retrieval
getting the information they know they have out of storage; long term memory.
3 stages of memory
sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory.
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sensory memory
point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems-eyes and ears; first stage of memory.
short term memory
memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used; second stage of memory.
long term memory
system into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently; third stage of memory.
serial position effect
tendency of information at the beginning and end of the body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information.
3 barriers to successful problem solving
1. functional fixedness 2. mental set 3. confirmation bias
functional fixedness
thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions.
mental set
tendency for people to persist in using problem solving patterns that have worked for them in the past.
confirmation bias
tendency to search for evidence that fits ones beliefs while ignoring any evidence that doesn’t fit those beliefs.
sensorimotor stage
birth-2 years; infants use their senses and motor abilities to learn about the world around them.
preoperational stage
2-7 years; developing language, and concepts.
concrete operations stage
7-12 years; capable of conservation and reversible thinking.
formal operations
12 years-adult; abstract thinking is possible.
Visual sensory memory is known as
Iconic memory.
In spite of the loud music and many conversations at the party, Rachel was able to hear her friend say
her name. Rachel’s ability to hear her name regardless of the background noise is an example of
Selective attention.
Short-term memory tends to be encoded primarily in
auditory form.
George Miller concluded that the capacity of the STM is
from five to nine bits of information.
Eve is able to remember her Social Security number by breaking it into three parts—three numbers-two numbers-four numbers. Eve is using the process of
chunking.
What memory is like a giant filing system in which the “files” are individual bits and pieces of memories stored in a highly organized and interconnected fashion?
Long term memory.
Which of the following is a way of transferring information from short-term memory into long-term memory by making the information meaningful in some way?
elaborative rehearsal.
Once you learn how to tie your shoes, the action becomes part of
procedural memory.
An example of an episodic memory would be
a special gift you received on your 13th birthday.
You walk into a room and know that there’s something you need, but in order to remember it, you have to go back to the room you started in and use your surroundings. This illustrates
the importance of retrieval cues in memory.
What is the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if the physical surroundings available when the memory is first formed are also available when the memory is being retrieved?
encoding specificity.
Chris learns her vocabulary words while listening to upbeat, happy music, and is then better able to remember them later if she is happy. This is called
state-dependent learning.
People’s memories of September 11, 2001, are best described as
flashbulb memories.
The constructive processing view says that every time a memory is retrieved,
it may be altered or revised in some way.
Kevin was in a study during which he was shown a photo of a man with straight hair. Later he was asked if he noticed the man’s curly hair. Kevin was then convinced that the man in the photo had curly hair. This is an example of
the misinformation effect.
While hypnosis may make it easier to recall some memories, it also
makes it easier to create false memories.
Ebbinghaus found that forgetting
is greatest after learning.
Quincy had a terrifying experience in which he was attacked by a dog. This memory is likely stored in the
amygdala.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), a key protein involved in the formation of memories, is stimulated by
continued everyday learning.
In order for people to be able to tell you how many televisions they have in their house, they would
probably use
mental image.
What is an example of a superordinate concept?
Fruit.
What form as the result of people’s experiences with concepts in the real world?
natural concepts.
Whether a whale is a fish or a mammal is an example of a
prototype.
A person’s schema for a library would most likely include
books and bookshelves.
Algorithms
are also known as mechanical solutions.
The representative heuristic can be used to create and sustain
scripts
A boy and his father are in a car accident. The father is killed, and the boy is rushed to the hospital. At
the hospital, the doctor says, “I can’t operate on this boy. He’s my son!” How is this possible? If a
person thinks about this problem without using a particular method, and the answer just comes to them
after a period of time, the person solved this problem with
insight.
Erik dropped a note under his car seat and couldn’t find it. He looked all through the glove
compartment for a flashlight so that he could get a better look under his seat. He later realized he could
have just held his cell phone under the seat to help illuminate the area. This is an example of
functional fixedness.
People who believe that aliens have come to earth may disregard evidence that crop circles are human-made. This is an example of
confirmation bias.
Making a list of all the ways one could use a butter knife requires
divergent thinking.
Brainstorming, keeping a journal, and subject mind mapping are all
strategies to stimulate divergent thinker.
Gardner theorized that there are ____ types of intelligence
nine.
Sternberg’s three types of intelligence are analytical, creative, and
practical.
According to Sternberg’s theory, ____________ intelligence is measured in academic achievement tests
analytical.
Standard deviation is the average variation of scores from the
mean.
According to Noam Chomsky, humans have an innate ability to understand and produce language
through
the language acquisition device.
In some languages, changing the ______ of a spoken word can change its entire meaning
morphemes.
Csikszentmihalyi found that
creative people are not necessarily unconventional in all aspects of their lives
Researchers have found that animals ________ with one another
use language.
A psychologist observes a group of nine-year-olds and a group of thirteen-year-olds during recess at
school in order to assess changes in play group preferences of boys and girls between these two ages.
This researcher’s study uses a ________ design.
cross-sectional.
The view of most psychologists regarding the relationship between heredity and environmental factors
in determining development is that all we are and all we become is the result of
the interaction between nature and nurture.
________ studies the issue of nature versus nurture.
behavioral genetics.
Genes that tend to fade into the background when paired with a more dominant gene are called
recessive.
The moment at which a female becomes pregnant is called
conception.
________, which may be used to grow new organs or tissues for transplant or to repair neurological
damage, develop during the germinal period.
stem cells.
A child may see a dog and say, “Cat!” because both have fur. When corrected, the child may change her
scheme for cat to “furry” and “pointy ears.” This is
accommodation.
Animism is the belief
that anything that moves is alive.
Three-year-old Kara loves Barbie dolls, so she decides to give one to her mother for Christmas. This is
egocentrism.
Piaget suggested that children become able to deal effectively with abstract concepts during the
________ stage.
formal operations.
In his theories of development, Piaget focused on
the child’s internal cognitive development.
With respect to their babies’ needs, mothers of ______ babies are unresponsive, insensitive, and coldly
rejecting.
avoidant.
When adolescents move into Piaget’s final stage of formal operations, what becomes possible?
abstract thinking.
A child who criticizes his parent for speeding because speeding is against the law is demonstrating
________ morality.
conventional morality.
Men
go through a time of sexual changes similar to but less dramatic than menopause
In Erikson’s view, unfinished issues of identity lead to ______ in young adulthood.
isolation.
________ parents seem to be too involved with their children.
Permissive indulgent.
Children raised with an authoritarian style of parenting are often.
insecure and resentful.
The generativity versus stagnation developmental crisis occurs during the ________ stage
middle adulthood.
In cellular-block theory, telomeres _________, which ultimately causes aging.
die.
________ is the final completion of the ego.
euphoria.
In extrinsic motivation, a person is motivated
to work for an outcome that is separate or external from themself.
Claire is intrinsically motivated to play tennis. Why does she play?
She enjoys the exercise and the game because playing is enjoyable and rewarding to her
The biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals are
called
Instincts.
Which of the following instincts is responsible for our reaction to run away if we sense danger?
flight.
A(n) __________ is a requirement of some material, such as food or water, that is essential for survival
of the organism.
need.
____________ is the psychological tension and physical arousal created when there is a need that
motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension.
Drive.
Gloria has many friends and is very popular at work. In addition, she continually talks with her friends
on the telephone as well as going out with them several nights per week. A psychologist would say
Gloria has a need for
affiliation.
According to Maslow, peak experiences are
times in a person’s life during which self-actualization is temporarily achieved
Which of the following are the three levels of Clayton Alderfer’s revised hierarchy?
Existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs
According to Ryan and Deci’s research, when a person feels a strong sense of autonomy and competence
when completing a task, his/her ____________ increases.
drive reduction.
Which of the following is NOT an element of emotion?
anticipation of what another human being may feel.
The physical arousal of emotion is created by the
sympathetic nervous system.
Which part of the brain is associated with emotion?
cerebral cortex
In a social situation, an American may display anger outwardly by shouting or banging on a table, but a
Japanese person may not show anger outwardly at all and will remain calm. This is an example of
Display rules.
Adam wants to feel happier. According to the facial feedback hypothesis, what should Adam do?
smile more.