This means that speakers must acknowledge their audience’s expectations and situations. Example is today’s audiences respond favorably to speakers who take a personal and conversational approach use stories in their presentations and include visual materials
Explain “audience-centered communication” and give an example
refers to rational appeals based on logic, facts, and objective analysis
examples- examples of logos include the deployment of scientific evidence and the kinds of arguments prosecutors and defense attorneys use in court of law
Explain logus and an example
refers to appeals to our emotions
example- when they display poignant photos to convince us to contribute to charitable organizations
Explain pathos and an example
rest on the speaker’s credibility
example- speaking anywhere the audience subconsciously, evaluates your trustworthiness and believability
Explain ethos and an example
focuses on the values and beliefs embedded in cultural narratives or stories
Much has changed for public speakers over the past 2000 years or so. In your own words, touch on at least four of the six changes mentioned in your textbook.
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1.) becoming more confident and managing speech anxiety
2.) finding and using reliable information
3.) organizing ideas and information effectively
4.) presenting Ideas and Information Effectively
Transferable skills can be transferred from one context or occasion to another. Name at least four of the six skills you will learn in you public speaking class.
SENDER or RECEIVER- human communication as moving in one direction
FEEDBACK- audience members responses to a speech
CHANNELS- a mode or medium of communication-in person, print, or electronic.
NOISE- refers to any interference that prevents messages from being understood (EXTERNAL- sounds that prevent listerners from easily hearing what the speaker has to say) (INTERNAL- daydreaming or thinking about something else)
CONTEXT- the (situation) within which a speech is given, such as a conference room or grocery checkout line.
ENVIRONMENT- (think of it as the physical setting) the external surroundings that influence a public speaking event
Principles of communication- Communication begins with the self. Communication involves others.Messages occur on two levels: content and relational. One cannot NOT communication.Communication is irreversible and unrepeatable. Communication is NOT a panacea (as is in more is not better, it does not solve all problems).
Name as many elements of the communication model as you can along with a one line explanation of each. You may also include the “principles” of communication.
Speech Anxiety=fear of public speaking
Communication Apprehension=nervousness or anxiety that a person experiences
Trait apprehension—based on personality
State apprehension—based on the situation
What is Speech anxiety? List three types of speech anxieties or uncertainties which affect public speakers and the questions they force the speakers to ask themselves.
visualization- you think through the sequence of events that will make up the speech with a positive, detailed, concrete, step by step approach.
Relabeling- involves assigning positive words or phrases to the physical reactions and feelings associated with speech anxiety. ex.) stop using phrases like fearful and apprehensive in replace of thrilled and delighted
Relaxation- help reduce the physical symptoms of stress, such as increased heart rate and tense muscles
Discuss why visualization, re-labeling, and relaxation are three methods you can use to view public speaking in a more positive way. Can you think of any others aside from what is mentioned in the text?
you’ll focus more on it and less on yourself. choose topics you feel confident talking about, find compelling and believe will interest your audence
In what ways is choosing the topic of your speech important to the success of your speech?
1.) Consider your attire.
2.) Make sure you have all of your materials put together in an organized manner.
3.) Arrive to the venue (classroom) early.
4.) Breath calmly.
Briefly mention four ways to manage your anxiety on the day of your speech.
Display a confident attitude (fake it if you have to).
Acknowledge that you will experience anxiety, but turn it into positive energy.
Avoid dwelling on your anxiety especially commenting on it.
Look to your audience for positive feedback. They are your main focus.
In what ways can you turn your fear of public speaking into something positive?
Discuss the two main causes of speech anxiety, giving examples of each cause.
1.) you determine your general purpose
2.) you evaluate and select your speech topic
3.) you combine your general purpose and topic to identify your specific purpose
4.) you phrase the thesis of your speech as you develop your topic
What four key moves make up the early part of speech preparation?
General Purpose=broad goal of the speech
To inform- your goal is to describe, explain or demonstrate something.
To persuade- attempt to reinforce, modify, or change audiences members beliefs attitudes, opinions, values, and behaviors.
To entertain- seeks to captivate audiences members and have them enjoy the speech.
The general purpose of your speech typically corresponds with one of the three most common types of speeches. Name these types of speeches and briefly explain them. And what is the definition of General Purpose?
Brainstormin—generating ideas without evaluation.
Things you should do.
-Something you already know
-Something that you do not know that you would like to know about
-Issues about which you hold strong opinions and beliefs
-Browse all forms of reference materials and media
Things you should do after you have brainstormed.
-Does it meet the assignment?
-Can this topic be covered within the time limit?
-What does my audience already know about this topic?
-It the topic relevant to the audience?
-Is the topic too trivial for the audience?
-Is the topic too technical for the audience?
-Does the topic fit with the occasion?
Briefly describe the process of brainstorming for possible topics. Include some of the things you should and should not do and some of the key questions to ask yourself during the process.
Combine the GP and the topic to write a specific purpose.
Indicates what the audience should know or believe at the end of the speech
Should be written as a clear, concise, understandable statement.
Can also consider beginning it with this phrase: At the end of my speech, the audience…..
For the following speech topic, construct a general purpose statement and a specific purpose statement. Topic: Building Effective Study Habits FINISH!!
Guides you during the initial stages of topic development
Helps to keep you focused on your general purpose
Helps clarify your specific purpose
Please note that there are two other types of outline: Complete Sentence and Presentation
The working outline provides a tentative plan for your speech which may or may not change as your speech develops. What forms the basis of your working outline?
An informative speech is personally meaningful, accurate, clear
Explain the three characteristics of an informative speech.
-Speeches about (objects and places)
ex.) Topic= blogs, Title= “What Makes a Successful Blog?”
-Speeches about people and other living creatures
ex.) Topic= dinosaurs, Title= “When Dinosaurs Ruled the World”
-Speeches about (processes)
ex.) Topic= fighting wildfires, Title= “What I Learned Fighting Wildfires”
-Speeches about (events)
ex.) Topic= the AIDS Walk, Title= “The AIDS Walk in Our Community”
-Speeches about (ideas and concepts)
ex.) Topic= Binge Drinking, Title= “Binge Drinking: What are the Risks?”
Give one sample speech topic and title for each type of informative speech.
Binge Drinking= To help my audience understand the risks of binge drinking
Now, develop a specific purpose statement for one of the topics created for the above question.
-The chronological pattern-how someone or something has developed over time (highlight the steps in the development)
-The spatial pattern
-The topical pattern
-The narrative pattern—emphasizes dramatic unfolding of events
-The cause-and-effect pattern—an action produces a particular outcome
Explain how a topical pattern of organization is used for an informative speech topic. Write a general purpose, specific purpose, thesis, and main points for the topic: Career Services Center. MUST FINISH
Explain how the cause-and-effect pattern of organization is used in informative speaking and give an example including the general purpose, specific purpose, thesis, and main points.
-Keep your speech informative
-Make your speech topic come alive
-Connect your topic to your audience
-Inform to educate
-Use presentation media to inform
Explain the guidelines for effective informative speeches.
when developing a speech you typically develop the body and transition first, the introduction second, and the conclusion last. You need to know what you’re going to say in the body before you develop the introduction and the conclusion
When you present a speech, you proceed from the introduction through the body to the conclusion. When you are putting together your speech, however, you typically develop the parts of the speech in a different order. What is that order and why is it the logical way to proceed?
words, phases, sentences, or paragraphs to move from the introduction to the body, from one point to the next, and from the body to the conclusion.
Explain what transitions are and how they are used in a speech. Then provide an example of a transition that may be used in a speech. FINISH!!
1.) working outline- for initially identifying the main ideas you want to address
2.) complete-sentence outline- for elaborating on your points
3.) presentation outline- for giving your speech
What are the three types of outlines your will use when developing you speech and the function of each?
Chronological- the way in which something develops or occurs in a time sequence
Spatial- The physical or geographical relationship between objects or places
Causes-and-effect- Shows how an action produces a particular outcome
Problem- describes a problem and provides possible solutions
Name four of the six patterns of organization speakers commonly rely on as and include a brief definition of each.
introduction, body, transitions, and conclusions
What are the four main parts of any speech? In what order are they written when developing a speech?
1.) Gain the audience’s attention and interest. 2.) Reveal the topic of the speech. 3.) Establish credibility and good will of the speaker. 4.) Preview of the body of the speech.
Give a brief explanation of what should be included in the introduction of a speech.
The first element of an introduction, designed mainly to create interest in a speech.
Explain why it is important to develop an effective attention getter to begin your speech.
review main points, reinforce purpose, provide closure
An effective conclusion to your speech should include what three important functions?
Signal the end of the speech.
Use a verbal clue—”in conclusion”, “today I’ve talk about…”
Delivery style can also signal the end—must be worked out to fit your personal style and the topic choice.
1.) While preparing look for good ending material.
2.) Conclude with a bang NOT a whimper.
3.) AVOID being long-winded.
4.) Make sure to be well prepared.
5.) NO NEW INFORMATION
List a few of the many strategies for providing closure in your conclusion.
An audience is more likely to pay attention to recall what speakers present at the beginning of a speech than what they present in the speech body
A phenomenon known as the “primacy effect” means having an effective introduction to your speech is all that much more important. Define the primacy effect.
the brief mention of your experience tells the audience you have some expertise on the topic.
Why is enhancing a speaker’s credibility in the introduction of a speech important? How is credibility communicated to the audience in the introduction?
audiences perception of the speaker’s qualifications to speak on the topic
shows the speaker has the audience’s best interest in mind
Making sense of the world and sharing that sense with others (this is not my personal definition, it was created by someone else but the original source has not been located)