Public Speaking Unit 1-5

Which of the following is NOT a skill that employers are seeking in potential employees?
Ability to plan parties
Transforming ideas and thoughts into messages is called
The purpose of an informative speech is to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, or acts of others.
The medium through which the speaker sends a message is referred to as the ________.
When selecting a speech topic, a speaker should be guided solely by the audience’s interests.
Outlines are based on the principle of
coordination and subordination.
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Supporting material for a speech clarifies, elaborates, and verifies the ideas in the speech.
Interference with the message is known as noise.
______________ are objects, models, pictures, graphs, audio, video, etc. that can help listeners process and retain information, and make a speech memorable.
Presentation aids
The practice of oratory, called rhetoric, began in Egypt.
Noise is physical, psychological, or environmental interference that serves as a barrier to effective communication.
A speaker should develop either a working outline or a speaking outline, but not both.
The process of interpreting a message is referred to as
______________ occurs between two people.
Dyadic communication
What are the five (5) canons of rhetoric?
Delivery, invention, style, memory, and arrangement
Delivery refers to adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case.
Which type of outline is used when practicing and actually presenting a speech?
Speaking outline
The context refers to anything that interferes with the communication process between speaker and audience so that the message cannot be understood.
Coordination and subordination are different speech structures whose purpose is twofold: to help the audience follow the speaker’s ideas, and to arrange those ideas to optimum effect.
The _______is the person who creates and delivers a message through a process called_________.
source; encoding
This is a single phrase or sentence that precisely states what a speaker wants the audience to learn or do as a result of the speech.
Specific purpose
When selecting a speech topic, a speaker should first consider which of the following as a guide?
his or her interests
The content of a message can be expressed both verbally and nonverbally.
Which of the following is the least formal type of communication?
dyadic communication
An informative speech marks a special occasion, such as a wedding, funeral, or dinner event.
Noise is the medium through which a speaker sends a message.
The ___________ is the first part of a speech, in which the speaker establishes the speech’s purpose and its relevance to the audience and previews the topic and the main points.
Stephen began to panic as soon as his instructor gave the speech assignment to the class. Stephen experienced
pre-preparation anxiety.
_________________ is anxiety experienced when a speaker begins to rehearse a speech.
Pre-performance anxiety
Using relaxation techniques before, during, and sometimes after a speech rarely gives a speaker a sense of control over physical manifestations of anxiety by activating the relaxation response and overcoming the fight-or-flight response.
Feeling _________ is one reason many people are uncomfortable about public speaking.
For works created from 1978 to date, a copyright is good during the author’s lifetime plus ____ years, and can be extended thereafter.
NOT: 20
The most effective speakers stand perfectly still behind a podium and do not walk around.
Pre-preparation anxiety can present itself for some people the moment they learn that they must give a speech.
The ____________doctrine permits the limited use of copyrighted works without permission for use in scholarship, criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, and research.
fair use
Lack of positive experience is key to overcoming speech anxiety.
What are some of the strategies that a speaker can use to boost their confidence?
Prepare and practice.
Modify thoughts and attitudes.
Visualize success.
ANSWER: All of the above
If a particular type of speech is legal, it is also ethical.
Properly channeling one’s nervousness boosts a speaker’s performance.
Recognizing and respecting the audience’s values are imperative to ethical speaking.
What are some of the potential sources of public-speaking anxiety?
Lack of positive experience
Being the center of attention
Feeling different
ANSWER: All of the above
The Greek word ethos means character.
Trustworthiness is a combination of honesty and dependability.
________________is a combination of honesty and dependability; it is important for speaker credibility and ethical public speaking.
Legal protection afforded the creators of original literary and artistic works is called
If something is common knowledge, it does not need to be cited.
Public-speaking anxiety fear or anxiety associated with a speaker’s actual or anticipated communication to an audience.
Gaining confidence in public speaking comes about through preparation and practice.
Research reveals that people place their greatest trust in speakers who exhibit all of the following except
regular use of emotional appeals.
The explicit aim of audience analysis is to enable the speaker to adjust or adapt the speech in ways that will be meaningful to the audience.
Listeners tend to pay attention to all of the following except
information that is unrelated to their interests.
“Have you ever been to a professional hockey game?” is an example of
NOT: an open-ended question.
?scale question
The continual adjustment between speaker and listener is called the ________________.
feedback loop
Demographics are the ways in which people perceive reality; they are our conceptions of what is true and what is false.
Noise, movement, light, darkness, heat, and cold are all examples of internal distractions.
Open-ended questions are designed to elicit a small range of specific answers supplied by the interviewer.
When evaluating evidence, the listener should determine if the sources of the evidence are credible.
When we engage in scriptwriting we focus on what the speaker will say next.
Active listening, includes differences in dialects, accents, nonverbal cues, gestures, word choice, and physical appearance.
Selective perception is the conscious act of receiving, comprehending, evaluating and responding to messages.
This is a type of question that contains a limited choice of answers, such as “Yes,” “No,” or “Sometimes”.
fixed-alternative question
What are some of the characteristics typically considered in the analysis of a speech audience?
Age, cultural background, socioeconomic status, and gender
________________is the process by which a speaker gathers and analyzes information about an audience to discover the listeners’ needs and interests to the fullest extent possible.
Audience analysis
In a survey questionnaire, fixed-alternative questions measure the respondent’s level of agreement or disagreement with specific issues.
Though speakers should set goals, it is unimportant for listeners to do so.
It is important for a speaker to understand an audience’s beliefs and attitudes, but not their values.
During a speech, members of a voluntary audience may be less positively disposed toward the occasion than members of a captive audience.
The physical setting in which a speech occurs can have a significant impact on the outcome of a speech.
All audience members bring the same set of expectations and emotions to a speech event.
Which of the following is NOT a common obstacle to listening?
Minimize external distractions.
Minimize internal distractions.
?Practice scriptwriting and defensive listening.
NOT: Beware of laziness and overconfidence.
________________is the open sharing of ideas in an atmosphere of respect in order to achieve understanding.
Dialogic communication
People’s most enduring judgments about what is good and bad in life are called attitudes.
An example of an idiom would be
the phrase “king of the hill.”
This is language specific to a certain region or group of people.
_______________, a technique that involves the spontaneous generation of ideas, is one of the most popular ways to select a topic.
To narrow a speech topic, you need to consider time constraints, audience expectations, and the nature of the occasion.
What are statistics not useful for?
providing firsthand information
________ are documented occurrences that include events, dates, times, people involved, and places
The authors suggest restricting your main points to between ____ and ____.
two; five
The mean is the most frequently occurring score in the distribution.
Hypothetical examples are effective for making a point about something that has already occurred.
Lay testimony can be considered either real or imaginary tales that help us make sense of our experience.
In Western societies most people require some type of evidence before they will accept a speaker’s position or claims.
A statistic illustrates something that could happen in the future if certain events were to occur.
If a speech is informative, its thesis statement represents what you are going to prove in the address.
The authors suggest selecting a topic that you are not interested in and don’t care about.
A ________________is a story that illustrates a moral or religious lesson.
A thesis statement is a single statement that expresses the theme or central idea of the speech and serves to connect all parts of the speech.
Which of the following is NOT suggested as a way to find a topic.
Select a topic that your audience might be tired of hearing about
The purpose of a(n) _________ speech is to increase the audience’s understanding and awareness of a topic.
Speeches that try to change core values about highly charged topics tend to be successful.
Which type of example offers a single illustration of a point?
Cherry-picking is one way to present statistics ethically.
Most people require some type of evidence, usually in the form of facts and statistics, before accepting someone else’s claims or position.
_______________is provided by professionals who are trained to evaluate or report on a given topic.
Expert testimony
Word associations help a speaker generate topics by writing down words and phrases as they come to mind.
A percentage is the quantified portion of a whole and can clearly express proportion, showing how similar or different categories are.
Frequencies can help listeners understand comparisons between two or more categories.
The thesis statement and the specific purpose are not related.
Disinformation refers to something that is not true.
Books of quotations and poetry collections are not examples of reference works.
Secondary sources contain information about famous or noteworthy people.
Any ideas not your own should be orally cited in your speech.
A(n) __________ is a regularly published magazine or journal.
Companies that pay engines or directories for inclusion in an index of results without a guarantee of ranking are practicing
paid inclusion
_____________________is the practice some search engines engage in of charging for guaranteed higher rankings.
Paid placement
Blogs can be searched through search engines such as __________ or _________________.
Technarati; Google Blog Search
When conducting an interview, questions should not to be prepared in advance.
This type of source has been evaluated by experts before being published and supplies citations for the information it contains.
Refereed journal
The purpose of propaganda is to instill a particular attitude and to encourage you to think a particular way.
Misinformation is the deliberate falsification of information.
Some periodical databases are devoted to individual disciplines.
Original or firsthand research conducted by the speaker is primary research.
General search engines (e.g., Google Scholar) conduct a narrower but deeper search into a particular field.
Secondary sources provide firsthand accounts or direct evidence of events, objects, or people.
Primary research does not include
information gathered by others.
___________ are words and phrases that describe the main concept of topics.
These types of sources include all information collected and produced by federal agencies.
Government publications
Using a library portal allows you to access multiple resources such as full-text databases, reference works, books, and statistical resources.
This consists of the large portion of the Web not available through general Internet search engines.
The deep web
Individual search engines compile their own databases as well as scanning a variety of others.
Which type of reference work summarizes knowledge that is found in original form elsewhere?
Atlases are collections of maps, text, and accompanying charts and tables. They are especially
helpful when the topic involves a geographical location.
Which types of search engines are devoted entirely to one topic?
NOT: specialized search engines
NOT: general search engines
Boolean operators are words placed between keywords in a search that specify how the keywords are related.
Feedback from other people can help a speaker learn to do better in the next speech.
A paraphrase is information that is a restatement of someone else’s statements, ideas, or written work in the speaker’s own words.
Ethics are statements that are made verbatim and should always be acknowledged.
Persuasion is any speech that involves issues of importance to the greater community at large.
Which of the following are suggestions for offering constructive and compassionate feedback?
Be fair and honest in your evaluation.
Adjust to the speaker’s style.
Be selective in your criticism.
ANSWER: All of the above
Topic mapping lays out precisely what you want the audience to get from the speech.
Preparation anxiety is the process of seeing yourself give a successful speech and is a highly effective way to reduce nervousness.
In any given situation, no two listeners process information in exactly the same way.
One of the most successful strategies a speaker can use in inspirational speaking is
employing a dynamic speaking style.
How can speakers enhance their credibility?
By being honest and straightforward.
Because controversial humor is popular on late-night television, you should make ample use of it when speaking on formal occasions.
An excellent means of appealing to buyer psychology can be achieved through the use of the _________.
motivated sequence