the art of gaining fair and favorable consideration for our points of view
8 differences between persuasive and informative speeches
1) informative speeches reveal options, while persuasive speeches urge a choice among options 2) informative speakers act as teachers; persuaders act as advocates 3) informative speeches offer supporting material to illustrate points; persuasive speeches use supporting material as evidence that justifies advice 4) the role of the audience changes dramatically from information to persuasion (informed listeners expand their knowledge, while persuaded listeners become agents of change) 5) persuasive speeches ask for more audience commitment than do informative speeches 6) leadership is even more important in persuasive than in informative speeches 7) appeals to feelings are more useful in persuasive than in informative speeches 8) the ethical obligation for persuasive speeches is even greater than that for informative speeches
Persuasion that works through suggestion, colorful images, music, and attractive spokespersons more than through evidence and reasoning. It avoids the ethical burden of justification.
persuasion built on evidence and reasoning
elements of persuasion
evidence and proof
elements of evidence
facts and figures, examples, narratives, testimony
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guidelines for ethical use of evidence
1) provide evidence from credible sources 2) identify your sources of evidence 3) use evidence that can be verified by experts 4) be sure such evidence has not been corrupted by outside interests 5) acknowledge disagreements among experts 6) do not withhold important evidence 7) use expert testimony to establish facts, prestige testimony to enhance credibility, and lay testimony to create identification 8) quote or paraphrase testimony accurately
a witness who testifies against his or her apparent self-interest
the speaker’s interpretation of evidence that gives the audience a good reason to agree with the speaker
a form of proof that makes rational appeals based on facts, figures, and expert testimony. used to increase awareness and understanding.
a form of proof that relies on the audience’s perception of the speaker’s dynamism, good will, competence, and credibility. used to ensure the audience that you are a credible speaker and that you know what you are talking about.
a form of proof that allows the audience to connect to the cultures and traditions of a group of narratives. used to connect a problem to group culture.
the audience’s assessment of a speaker’s ethos prior to giving the speech
the changes in the audience’s assessment of a speaker’s ethos as he or she gives his or her speech
the audience’s assessment of a speaker’s ethos after the speech has been given
reasoning from principle
argumentative reasoning that is based upon shared principles, values, and rules
arguing from a general principle to a specific case
the statement of a general principle on which an argument is based
the statement of a specific instance that relates to the general principle on which the argument is based
the ending of a speech, which summarizes the message and leave slisteners with something to remember. also, the final statement of the relationship between the major and minor premises of an argument
pattern of deductive reasoning as it occurs in persuasion about public issues. includes major premise, minor premise, and conclusion. term coined by aristotle.
procedures when reasoning from principle
1) if there is any doubt, remind listeners why they honor the principles from which you reason 2) demonstrate the conditions relevant to the principle you invoke actually exist 3) show how these conditions and principles are related and why that relationship requires action 4) check for flaws in your reasoning 5) make it easy for listeners to enact what you advance
reasoning from reality
emphasis on factual evidence in guiding one’s general conclusions and decisions
reasoning from specific factual instances to reach a general conclusion
tests for reasoning from reality
1) are your observations objective? 2) have you observed enough? 3) are your observations recent? 4) are your observations representative of the situation? 5) do your observations adequately justify your conclusion? 6) have you read widely enough to see if experts agree? 7) if experts disagree, will you acknowledge their disagreements and explain and defend your preferences among them? 8) have you verified your experts’ credentials so you can present them in your speech?
reasoning from parallel cases
presenting a similar situation and how it was handled as the basis of an argument. often called analogical reasoning
creating a strategic perspective on a subject by relating it to something similar about which the audience has strong feelings
Guidelines to Building a Powerful Argument
1) Provide clear definitions of basic terms 2) Justify arguments by reasoning from accepted principles 3) Remind listeners of why they honor these principles 4) Convince listeners that your arguments are based in reality 5) Create a vivid sense of problems 5) Use a similar situation as a model from which to draw comparisons that illustrate and favor your position 7) Build arguments to answer questions reasonable listeners might ask
Toulmin model of argument
1) Data 2) Claim 3) Warrant 4) Backing 5) Reservations 6) Qualifier
the factual evidence in an argument as featured in the Toulmin model
the conclusion the speaker draws based on the data in the argument. Also, conclusions that go beyond factual statements to make judgments about their subjects.
the principle that justifies moving from data to claim in an argument
support for the warrant
acknowledge conditions under which the claim may not follow
guidelines to building ethical arguments
1) emphasize logical reasoning based on facts, statistics, and expert testimony 2) always supplement proof by pathos with hard evidence 3) never allow proof by mythos to become a mask for intolerance or an excuse to attack the rights of an individual who resist group values and culture 4) test the ethics of any persuasive strategy by considering how it will be judged by a thoughtful listener 5) strive to maintain consistency among attitudes, beliefs, values, and actions 6) acknowledge conditions that might disprove your argument 7) as you research a problem, keep an open mind so that you can understand the various sides in a dispute
errors in reasoning that make persuasion unreliable
terms that address the force of the claim, taking into account possible reservations
the coming together and interaction of body, voice, and speech content to produce a larger-than-life communication experience for all of those who share it
the act of offering a speech to an audience, integrating the skills of nonverbal communication with speech content
requirements of integrated communication
1) listeners must be able to hear you easily 2) your pronunciation must not be a barrier to understanding 3) nonverbal behavior should not be distracting 4) avoid pompous pronunciations, an artificial manner, and overly dramatic gestures 5) your speech should sound natural and conversational
expanded conversational style
a presentational quality that, while more formal than everyday conversation, preserves its directness and spontaneity
a quality of successful communication achieved when the speaker and audience experience a sense of closeness
to encourage immediacy:
1) reduce the distance between yourself and your audience 2) smile when appropriate 3) maintain eye contact 4) use gestures to clarify and reinforce your ideas 5) let your voice express your feelings
Aspects of Speech
1) Pitch 2) Rate 3) Loudness 4) Variety 5) Articulation 6) Pronunciation 7) Enunciation 8) Dialect
the position of the human voice on the musical scale
the voice level at which people speak most frequently
the voice level at which people can produce their strongest voice with minimal effort and that allows variation up and down the musical scale
the speed at which words are uttered
rate patterns of vocal presentation within a speech
ORAL PUNCTUATION MARKS. short silences throughout the speech that highlight importance and give listeners time to contemplate what the speaker has said.
filler words such as “er,” “um,” and “you know” used in place of a pause
to speak with proper loudness:
1) use good breath control 2) speak loudly and clearly, but don’t be overwhelmingly loud
a vocal tactic in which the speaker varies his or her pitch, rate, and loudness
patterns of speaking
articulation, enunciation, pronunciation, dialect
the manner in which individual speech sounds are produced
the manner in which individual words are articulated and pronounced in context
the use of correct sounds and of proper stress on syllables when saying words
a speech pattern associated with an area of the country or with a cultural or ethnic background
communication achieved when using facial expressions, eye contact, movement, and gestures
components of body language
facial expressions, eye contact, movement and gestures (the factor of distance and the factor of elevation), and personal appearance
the study of how human beings use space during communication
2 principles of movement
factor of distance and factor of elevation
factor of distance
the actual distance between speakers affects their sense of closeness/immediacy
principle of proxemics involving the control of space
the factor of elevation
elevation affects the closeness between speakers and listeners
principle of proxemics dealing with power relationships implied when speakers stand above listeners
clothing/grooming affect how you are perceived and how your message is received
4 types of presentation
1) impromptu speaking 2) memorized text presentation 3) reading from a manuscript 4) extemporaneous speaking
Definition: a talk delivered with minimal or no preparation Use: When you have no time to prepare or practice Advantages: Spontaneous; can meet demands of the situation; is open to feedback Disadvantages: Is less polished, less well-rehearsed, less organized; allows less use of supporting material PREP formula: A technique for making an impromptu speech; state a Point, give a Reason or Example, restate the Point
Reading from a Manuscript
Definition: A speech read from a manuscript Use: When exact wording is important, time constraints are strict, or your speech will be telecast Advantages: Allows planning of precise wording, can be timed down to seconds Disadvantages: Requires practice and an ability to read well; inhibits response to feedback
Definition: A form of presentation in which a speech, though carefully prepared and practiced, is not memorized or written out. Use: For most public speaking occasions Advantages: Is spontaneous, encourages responding to audience feedback, encourages focusing on the essence of your message Disadvantages: Requires considerable preparation and practice; experience needed for excellence
Suggestions when Reading from Manuscript
1) use large print to prepare manuscript so you can see it without straining 2) use light pastel instead of white to reduce glare from lights 3) double or triple space the manuscript 4) mark pauses with slashes 5) highlight material you want to emphasize 6) practice speaking from manuscript so you can maintain as much eye contact as possible w/ audience
speaker’s perception of how audience members react to the message during and after the presentation
Types of feedback
Feedback of misunderstanding, feedback that signals loss of interest, feedback that signals disagreement
Ethics of Presentation: Rules
1) Don’t use presentation skills to disguise faults of content 2) Don’t judge character of others by how they stand 3) Don’t let culturally-based variations in eye contact, loudness, or gesture control how you respond to speakers 4) Don’t speak unless you’re convinced of the value of your message. THen let your entire body confirm that fact to the listeners
8 steps to handling question/answer sessions
1) practice answering tough questions before an audience of friends 2) repeat or paraphrase the questions you are asked 3) maintain eye contact with the audience as a whole as you answer 4) defuse hostile questions by rewording them in unemotional language 5) don’t be afraid to say, “i don’t know.” 6) keep answers short and to the point 7) handle nonquestions politely 8) bring question-and-answer session to a close by reemphasizing your message
Making Video Presentations
1) rely on subtle changes in tempo, pitch, inflection, and pauses to drive your point home 2) rehearse presentations in the studio 3) avoid distractions as you practice 4) if you make a mistake, keep going! 5) relax
Steps to practicing for a presentation
1) Practice standing up and speaking aloud, if possible in the room where you will be making your presentation 2) Practice first from your formal outline; then switch to your key-world outline when you feel you have mastered your material 3) Work on maintaining eye contact with an imaginary audience 4) Practice integrating your presentation aids into your message 5) Check the timing of your speech. Add or cut if necessary 6) Continue practicing until you feel comfortable and confident 7) Present your speech in a “dress rehearsal” before friends. Make final changes in light of their suggestions
Steps to taking the stage
1) Adopt the attitude that every public communication situation is an opportunity to influence, inspire, and motivate others 2) Have the conviction that what you bring to others will have great value 3) Create the character of leadership as you speak 4) Follow a great script. You should have a simple, clear, positive message 5) Use the language of leadership. Your words should be forceful and should avoid indirection and self-correction. Don’t overuse phrases like “in my opinion” or “Maybe I’m wrong but.” don’t soften your point or subvert yourself. 6) Believe in your views.
a speech in which the speaker shares knowledge with the listener
a measure of how much new and important information or understanding a speech conveys to an audience
Ethics of Informative Speaking
1) Be sure you can defend the morality of your choice of topic 2) Mention all major positions on a topic when there are differing perspectives 3) Present all information that is vital for audience understanding 4) Do sufficient research to speak responsibly on your subject 5) Don’t omit relevant information because it is inconsistent with your perspective 6) Strive to be objective
Forms of Informative Speaking
Speech of Description, Demonstration, and Explanation
Speech of description
an informative speech that creates word-pictures to help the audience understand a subject
speech of demonstration
showing the audience how to do something or how something works
speech of explanation
offers an understanding of abstract or complex subjects
Rules for Effective Information Speaking
1) speeches of description should come alive through colorful language 2) speeches of demonstration should present a clear, orderly sequence of steps 3) speeches of demonstration are helped by presentation aids 4) speeches of explanation need clear definitions of important terms 5) speeches of explanation require good examples
How to Help Listeners Learn
Motivation, Attention, and Retention
why is your message important to your audience?
Attention is affected by 6 factors
1) intensity 2) repetition 3) novelty 4) activity 5) contrast 6) relevance
attention factor concerning how much an object contrasts with its background (vocal emphasis, etc.)
repeating sounds, words, or phrases to attract and hold attention
the quality of being new or unusual
holding the audience’s attention by offering vigorous presentation, telling exciting stories, and using language that creates the sense of action
arranging supporting material to highlight abrupt changes in presentation, dwelling upon opposites or framing the pros and cons of a situation
holding attention by pointing out a subject’s importance or value to vital interests
the extent to which listeners remember and use the speaker’s message
7 attention techniques
motivate listeners by showing them how they can benefit from your message, speak with intensity by developing word-pictures that vividly depict your topic, use strategic repetition to amplify your message, rely on novelty by using fresh expressions and providing new examples, use active language to make your subject come to life, present contrasts to show what your topic is not, highlight relevance to connect your subject directly to the experience of listeners
6 speech designs
spatial, sequential, chronological, categorical, comparative, and causation
a pattern for an informative speech that orders the main points as they occur in actual space. use when your topic can be discussed by how it is positioned in a physical setting or natural environment. it allows you to take your audience on an orderly “oral tour” of your topic
a pattern for an informative speech that presents the steps involved in the process being demonstrated. use when your topic can be arranged by time. it is useful for describing a process as a series of steps or explaining a subject as a series of developments.
a pattern of speech organization that follows a sequence of important events in a historical pattern. use when your topic can be discussed as a historical development through certain defining moments
the use of natural or customary divisions within a subject as a way of structuring an informative speech. use when your topic has natural or customary divisions. each category becomes a main point for development. useful when you need to organize large amounts of material
a pattern for an informative speech that relates an unfamiliar subject to something the audience already knows or understands. use when your topic is new to your audience, abstract, technical, or simply difficult to comprehend. it helps make material more meaningful by comparing or contrasting it with something the audience already knows and understands
a comparison made between subjects within the same field
a comparison made between things that belong to different fields
comparison and contrast
an informative speech design that points out similarities and differences between subjects and ideas
a pattern for an informative speech that shows how one conditions generates, or is generated by, another. use when your topic is best understood in terms of its underlying causes or consequences. may be used to account for the presentation or predict future possibilities
a short, informative presentation offered in an organizational setting that focuses upon plans, policies, or reports
How to do a briefing
1) A briefing should be what its name suggests: brief 2) Organize your ideas before you open your mouth 3) Rely heavily on facts and figures, expert testimony, and short examples for supporting materials 4) Adapt your language to your audience 5) Present your message with confidence 6) Be prepared to answer tough questions
3 Types of Persuasive Speaking
1) Speeches that Focus on Facts 2) Speeches that Address Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values 3) Speeches that Advocate Action and Policy
Speeches that focus on facts
Speeches designed to establish the validity of past or present information or to make predictions about what is likely to occur in the future. Techniques: Strengthen claims of past, present, and future fact by citing expert testimony and supporting factual and statistical evidence. Create lively pictures of the contested facts through narratives and images that lend them the aura of reality.
Forecasts of what we can expect in the future, often based on projections of trends from past occurrances
Speeches that address attitudes, beliefs, and values
Speeches designed to modify these elements and help listeners find harmony among them. Techniques: reawaken appreciation for values through stories, examples, and vivid words. inform listeners about situations that invite the application of these values, encouraging audience to form attitudes or beliefs that will make the values operational.
Speeches that advocate action and policy
Speeches that encourage listeners to change their behavior either as individuals or members of a group. Techniques: Show that the program of action will solve the problem by mentioning previous successes in similar situations. Prove that the plan is practical and workable. Picture audience enacting the plan of action. Show the consequences of acting and not acting. Visualize success.
The discomfort we feel because of conflict among our attitudes, beliefs, and values.
The clash of opposing ideas, evaluations, and policy proposals on a subject of concern.
McGuire’s 5 Stages of Persuasion
Awareness, Understanding, Agreement, Enactment, and Integration
The first stage in the persuasive process includes knowing about a problem and paying attention to it. (sometimes called consciousness raising)
This second phase in the persuasive process requires that listeners grasp the meaning of the speaker’s message.
The third stage in the persuasive process, which requires that listeners accept a speaker’s recommendations and remember their reasons for doing so.
The fourth stage of the persuasive process in which listeners take appropriate action as a result of agreement.
Final stage of the persuasive process in which listeners connect new attitudes and commitments with previous beliefs and values to ensure lasting change.
8 Ways to Apply McGuire’s Model to Persuasive Speeches
1) Arouse attention with your introduction 2) Relate your message to your listeners’ needs and interests 3) Define complex terms, use concrete examples, and organize your material clearly 4) Emphasize facts, statistics, and expert testimony to gain acceptance of your position 5) Present a clear plan of action 6) Use vivid language to make your message memorable 7) Ask listeners to make a public commitment 8) Relate your proposal to your audience’s values
Challenges of Persuasive Speaking
Audience that is reluctant to listen, possibly hostile; audience that is uncommitted, even uninterested; audience that is friendly, but not yet committed
A way of approaching reluctant audiences in which the speaker attempts to establish goodwill, emphasizes shared values, and sets modest goals for persuasion.
How to approach an audience that is reluctant to listen or possibly hostile
1) Establish identification and goodwill early in the speech 2) Start with areas of agreement before you tackle areas of disagreement 3) Emphasize explanation over argument 4) Cite authorities that the audience will respect and accept 5) Set modest goals for change 6) Make a multisided presentation that compares your position with others in a favorable way
A possible audience’s reaction to a speech that advocates too much change. The audience will react by opposing your position even more strongly.
great expectation fallacy
The mistaken idea that major change can be accomplished by a single persuasion effort.
A speech in which the speaker’s position is compared favorably to other positions.
Preparing an audience for an opposing argument by answering it before listeners have been exposed to it.
A delayed reaction to persuasion.
Strategies to removing barriers to commitment
Provide information needed to arouse their interests and encourage their commitment. Connect their values with your position. Become a model of commitment for them to follow.
Strategies to approaching a friendly but not yet committed audience
Remind them of what is at stake. Show them why action is necessary now. Give them clear instructions and help them take the first step. Picture them undertaking this action successfully.
Tips to Encouraging Uncommitted Listeners
1) Provide missing information that will help listeners decide in your favor 2) Show how your proposal meets listeners’ needs and strengthens their values 3) Borrow ethos by citing authorities they respect 4) Do not overstate your case or rely too heavily on emotional appeals
Tips to Moving People to Action
1) Remind listeners of what is at stake 2) Provide a clear plan of action 3) Use examples and stories as models for action 4) Visualize the consequences of acting and not acting 5) Demonstrate that you practice what you preach 6) Ask for public commitments 7) Make it easy for listeners to take the first step
Guidelines for Ethical Persuasion
1) Avoid name calling: Attack problems, proposals, and ideas–not people 2) Be open about your personal interest 3) Don’t adapt to the point of compromising your convictions 4) Argue from responsible knowledge 5) Don’t try to pass off opinions as facts 6) Don’t use inflammatory language to hide a lack of evidence 7) Be sure your proposal is in the best interest of your audience 8) Remember, words can hurt.
Categorical, Comparison/Contrast, Sequential, Problem-Solution, Motivated-Sequence, Refutative (3 most suited for persuasive speeches: problem-solution, motivated sequence, and refutative design)
When to use Categorical Design
Use when your topic invites thinking in familiar patterns, such as proving a plan will be safe, inexpensive, and effective. Can be used to change attitudes or urge action.
When to use Comparison/Contrast
Use when you want to demonstrate why your proposal is superior to another.
When to use sequential design
Use when your speech contains a plan of action that must be carried out in a specific order
When to use problem-solution design
Use when your topic presents a problem that needs to be solved and a solution that will solve it.
When to use motivated-sequence design
Use when your topic calls for action as the final phase of a five-step process that also involves, in order, arousing attention, demonstrating need, satisfying need, picturing the results, and calling for action.
When to use refutative design
Use when you must answer strong opposition on a topic before you can establish your own position. The opposing claims become main points for development. Attack weakest point first and avoid personal attacks.
a persuasive speech pattern in which listeners are first persuaded that they have a problem and then are shown how to solve it
the major general questions a reasonable person would ask before agreeing to a change in policies or procedures
motivated sequence design
a persuasive speech design that proceeds by arousing attention, demonstrating a need, satisfying the need, visualizing the results, and calling for action
a persuasive speech design in which the speaker tries to raise doubts about, damage, or destroy an opposing position
Ceremonial speaking (ceremonial speech)
Speaking that celebrates special occasions, such as speeches of tribute, inspiration, and introduction, eulogies, toasts, award presentations, acceptances, and after-dinner speeches. Their deeper function is to share identities and reinforce values that untie people into communities.
Techniques of Ceremonial Speaking
1) Identification 2) Magnification
The feeling of closeness between speakers and listeners that may overcome personal and cultural differences
3 ways to promote identification
1) The Use of Narrative 2) The Recognition of Heroes and Heroines (talk about your role models to inspire future action) 3) Renewal of Group Commitment (share with listeners what their future can be like if their commitment continues)
a speaker’s selecting and emphasizing certain qualities of a subject to stress the values they represent
Techniques to promoting identification
1) Tell stories that remind listeners of shared experiences 2) Remember, listeners who laugh together identify with one another 3) Create portraits of heroes and heroines as role models 4) Revive legends and traditions that remind listeners of their shared heritage and values 5) Offer goals and visions to inspire listeners to work together
Techniques to promote magnification
1) Show how people have overcome obstacles to success 2) Point out how unusual the accomplishments are 3) Underscore superior features of the performance 4) Emphasize unselfish motives behind the achievement 5) Show how listeners and society as a whole have benefited 6) Use speech designs (comparison, chronological, causation, and narrative) that promote magnification
6 Types of ceremonial speeches
Speech of Tribute, The Acceptance Speech, The Speech of Introduction, The Speech of Inspiration, The After-Dinner Speech, and the Master of Ceremonies
speech of tribute
A ceremonial speech that recognizes the achievements of individuals or groups or commemorates special events. Use when you wish to honor a person, group, occasion, or event. Subtypes include award presentations, eulogies, and toasts.
Developing Speeches of Tribute
1) Do not exaggerate the tribute 2) Focus on the person being honored, not on yourself 3) Create vivid images of accomplishment 4) Be sincere
A speech of tribute that recognizes achievements of the award recipient, explains the nature of the award, and describes why the recipient qualifies for the award.
A speech of tribute presented upon a person’s death.
When planning a eulogy:
1) While eulogies should acknowledge a shared sense of grief, remember that your primary purpose is to offer comfort to the living. Remind them of how much they meant to the deceased. Try to provide words that will continue to console them in the days, months, and years later. 2) Share stories that highlight the humanity of the person. Use gentle humor to recall his or her endearing qualities. 3) Focus on how wonderful it was to have shared the life of the person more than on the pain of the loss. Make the eulogy a celebration of life. 4) Focus on the meaning of the person’s life for those who live on.
A short speech of tribute, usually offered at celebration dinners or meetings.
A ceremonial speech expressing gratitude for an honor and acknowledging those who made the accomplishment possible.
speech of introduction
A ceremonial speech in which a featured speaker is introduced to the audience.
Guidelines for a speech of introduction:
1) Be sure you know how to pronounce the speaker’s name 2) Find out what the speaker would like you to emphasize 3) Focus on aspects of the speaker’s background that are relevant to the topic, audience, and occasion. 4) Announce the title of the speech and tune the audience for it. 4) Make the speaker feel welcome. Be warm and gracious 6) Be brief!
Speech of inspiration
A ceremonial speech directed at awakening or reawakening an audience to a goal, purpose, or set of values.
Suggestions in preparing the inspirational speech:
1) You must seem personally inspired by your own message 2) Demonstrate sincerity and personal commitment in your presentation 3) Set forth goals that will challenge listeners but not discourage them 4) Tell dramatic stories that catch listeners up in the inspiring action and revitalize their values 5) Draw upon the past to portray a better future that will reward audience commitment and effort
A brief, often humorous, ceremonial speech, presented after a meal, that offers a message without asking for radical changes
master of ceremonies
A person who coordinates an event or program, sets its mood, introduces, and provides transitions
Guidelines when being the master of ceremonies:
1) Know what is expected of you 2) Plan a good opener for the program 3) Be prepared to introduce the participants 4) Be sure you know the schedule and timetable so that you can keep the program on track 5) Make certain that any prizes or awards are kept near the podium 6) Plan y our comments ahead of time 7) Practice your presentation 8) Make advance arrangements for mealtime logistics 9) Be ready for the inevitable glitches 10) End the program strongly
Stories inserted within speeches that illustrate the speaker’s points
vicarious experience narrative
Speech strategy in which the speaker invites listeners to imagine themselves enacting a story
form of speaking in which the entire speech becomes a story that reveals some important truth
Speech structure that develops a story from beginning to end through a sequence of scenes in which characters interact (3 components: prologue, plot, epilogue)
an opening that establishes the context and setting for a narrative, foreshadows the meaning, and introduces major characters
the body of a speech that follows narrative design; unfolds in a sequence of scenes designed to build suspense
the final part of a narrative that reflects upon its meaning
gathering of people who interact with one another to reach goals
A problem that occurs when the cultural differences in a group are so profound that they create tensions that block constructive discussion.
Guidelines to preventing cultural gridlock
1) Allow time for people to get acquainted before starting work 2) Provide enough physical space so that people don’t feel crowded 3) Distribute an agenda in advance of the meeting so people know what to expect 4) Summarize discussions as the meeting progresses. Post key points of agreement. 5) Avoid using jargon that some participants may not understand. 6) Be sensitive to cultural differences in how people relate to one another and nonverbal communication.
Occurs when a single, uncritical frame of mind dominates group thinking and prevents the full, objective analysis of specific problems
When is groupthink most likely to occur?
When participants place a higher value on harmonious interpersonal interactions than on performing effectively. Other factors that cause groupthink are a leader’s obvious preference for a certain position or the lack of a clear set of procedures for working through problems.
How to prevent groupthink:
1) Remind participants to evaluate the support behind recommendations 2) Urge members to delay decisions until all have had a chance to express their views 3) Encourage critical questions from participants 4) Bring in outsiders to talk about the issues under consideration 5) Encourage debate of all recommendations
Reflective Thinking Approach (used in problem-solving groups)
1) Defining the Problem 2) Generating Potential Solutions 3) Evaluating solution options 4) Developing a Plan of Action 5) Evaluating the Results
Step 1: Defining the Problem
1) Describe the problem as specifically as possible 2) Gather enough information to understand the problem 3) Explore the causes of the problem 4) Investigate the history of the problem 5) Determine who is affected by the problem 6) Consider the consequences if the problem is solved or not solved
technique that encourages the free play of the mind
Step 2: Generating Possible Solutions
1) Present your ideas enthusiastically 2) Give voice to all your ideas. The more options the better 3) Don’t evaluate the ideas presented. Don’t criticize to generate more and better potential solutions 4) Don’t be afraid to combine ideas to come up with additional options 5) Be sure that everyone contributes
Process of Brainstorming
1) Leader asks each member in turn to contribute an idea during each round of participation. If a member does not have an idea, he or she can pass. 2) A recorder writes all ideas on a flip chart or marker board so everyone can see them. 3) Brainstorm until all members have passed. 4) The suggestions are reviewed for clarification, adding new options, or combining options 5) The group identifies the most promising ideas 6) The leader appoints members to research each idea and to bring additional information to a later evaluation meeting 7) The process of gathering solution possibilities should remain open. Additional ideas may be considered during the next phase of the problem-solving process.
A group technique in which participants generate ideas in computer chat groups or by email.
Criteria for evaluating solution options:
1) Costs of the option 2) Probability of Success 3) Ease or difficulty of enacting the option 4) Time constraints 5) Additional benefits that might accrue ) Potential problems that might be encountered
collaborative problem solving
In group communication, an approach that gathers participants from separate areas of public or private sectors for their input on a problem.
A group assembled to explore the underlying assumptions of a problem but not necessarily to solve tit.
Role of facilitator of dialogue groups
1) Seat the group in a circle to create a sense of equality 2) Introduce the problem 3) Ask people to share an experience in which dialogue led to “good communication” 4) Ask members to consider what leads to good communication 5) Ask participants to talk about their reactions 6) Let the conversation flow naturally 7) Intervene only to clarify problems of communication 8) Conclude by asking all members to comment however they choose
To be an effective group member:
1) Come to the discussion prepared 2) Listen to others; don’t dominate the conversation 3) Listen constructively
task leadership behavior
A leadership emphasis that directs the attention and activity of a group toward a specified goal
special leadership behavior
Occurs when leaders focus upon building and maintaining positive, productive relationships among group members
A leader who makes decisions without consultation, issues orders or gives direction, and controls the members of the group through the use of rewards or punishments.
A leader who seeks input from group members and gives them an active role in decision making.
A leader who leaves members free to decide what, how, and when to act, offering no guidance.
A leadership style based on power relationships that relies on reward and punishments to achieve its ends
A leadership style based on mutual respect and stewardship rather than on control.
Those characteristics that make a speaker appear honest, credible, powerful, and appealing.
When to call meetings
when people need to: 1) discuss the meaning of information face-to-face 2) decide on a common course of action 3) establish a plan of action 4) report on the progress of a plan, evaluate its effectiveness, and revise it if necessary
How to plan meetings
1) Have a specific purpose for holding a meeting 2) Prepare an agenda and distribute it to participants before the meeting 3) Keep meetings short 4) Keep groups small 5) Select participants who will interact easily with each other 6) Plan the site of the meeting 7) Prepare in advance
Conducting an effective meeting
1) Begin and end the meeting on time 2) Present background information concisely and objectively 3) Lead, don’t run the meeting 4) Be enthusiastic 5) Get conflict out in the open so that it can be dealt with directly 6) Urge all members to participate 7) Keep discussion centered on the issue 8) At the close of a meeting, summarize what the group has accomplished.
A set of formal rules that establishes an order of business for meetings and encourages the orderly, fair, and full consideration of proposals during group deliberation.
Formal meeting procedure:
1) The chair calls the meeting to order 2) The secretary reads the minutes of the previous meetings, which are corrected, if necessary, and approved 3) Reports from officers and committees are presented 4) Unfinished business is considered 5) New business is introduced 6) Announcements are made 7) The meeting is adjourned
Formal proposals for group consideration
A motion must receive a “second” before group discussion can proceed; ensures that more than one other member wishes to have the motion considered
motion to amend
A parliamentary move that offers opportunity to modify a motion presently under discussion
call the question
A motion that proposes to end discussion and bring a vote.
table the motion
A parliamentary move to suspend indefinitely the discussion of a motion
motion to postpone consideration
A motion that defers discussion until some specified tme
To plan a group presentation, the leader should:
1) Designate which group members will present which parts of the report 2) Assign other duties such as preparing or coordinating presentation aids 3) Develop an outline or agenda for the presentation 4) Determine who should handle questions and answers 5) Schedule and oversee a rehearsal of the group presentation
presentation that summarizes the deliberations of a small group to inform a larger audience of decision makers
A small group formed to reveal the feelings or motivations of customers or clients
Group presentation in which speakers address different areas of an issue
a group presentation that features an organized pattern of exchanges among speakers, directed and controlled by a moderator
interactive way of informally exchanging ideas, information, or opinions within a small group before a larger audience
presentational format in which a group of specialists in different areas of a subject respond to questions from an audience