Public Speaking Chapter 11-20

Why is a formal, full-sentence outline an indispensable tool of speech preparation/organization?
-it provides a detailed, logical plan for a speech
-it helps you keep track of the points you hope to cover
-it increases the chances that your audience will understand your message
Full sentence outline
the thesis statement, the main points, and at least the first level of subpoints are sated as declarative sentences
Why is the use of consistent and logical symbols important in creating an outline?
-laying out your ideas in a logical order on paper forces you to select the points that support your thesis and to demonstrate how they fit together.
-It helps you visualize the relationships among the ideas of your speech by using standard rules for outlining.
Why should you phrase sub points in concise and parallel structure?
-because you want to phrase key ideas so they are similar to each other (parallel) but also stand out when you give a presentation.
-ideas that that are phrased in concise, parallel language are more likely to be remembered by both the speaker and the listener, it ensures that your sub points are clear and memorable to your audience.
What is a transition? Why are they essential to a speech? Why are they used? What are some examples of well worded transitions?
– a transition connects ideas and signals to listeners how two ideas are related.
-they serve as bridge between points and can chance the message of a speech
-examples: “the second cause of inflation is” “to show you what I mean, I will explain three examples” “the final point we should consider is…”
Why can transition be used an internal previews or summaries? How is this helpful to the speaker? How does it help the listener?
– Internal preview: a kind of connective that provides a link by forecasting the points that are yet to be developed. It helps guide the listener to the end idea of your message
– Internal summary: a kind of connective that provides a link among parts of the speech by recapping what has been covered so far.
– This helps the speaker because it will help you keep your speech organized and it will help the listener by keeping them informed about the overall structure of your speech and make it easier to follow.
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Why does the audience need to be engaged at the outset of the speech?
– When you offer them a reason to listen, the audience is willing to listen more closely to your message, potentially improving your ability to persuade. You need a strong opening material that will capture your audience’s interest and carry the speech forward.
-In an intro, you engage the audience __________ first and _________ second.
psychologically first and logically second.
What is involved in those two phases of the introduction?
1. Psychological orientation
2. Logical orientation
Psychological orientation
creating a bond with your listeners and generating enthusiasm about your topic.
– Create a personal bond: you can do this by referencing everyday occurrences. If your listeners can visualize you going to the dentist, seeing a movie, etc. they will be more conscious of you as a human being and not merely as a distant speaker
– Establish credibility, establish common ground, refer to setting or occasion, flatter your audience, refer to the person who introduced you or to some other person present, use humor.
– Generate enthusiasm for you topic
Logical orientation
show your listeners how you will approach and develop your topic-in effect, giving them an intellectual road map. In this phase you preview the parts to reveal how they fit with the larger context of your speech.
– Establish a context for your speech: give your audience a perspective on your topic by using one or more of the following approaches to establish context.
– Fit your topic into a familiar framework, place your topic historically, place your topic conceptually, and provide new definitions and concepts.
-preview
Preview
the speaker gives his or her listeners a reassuring road map to carry through the speech, one that will help them avoid feel lost
Why does the audience need to know how you will approach the topic?
– Reassuring your audience of what you are going to cover will reduce uncertainty and confusion.
Avoid common pitfalls
– Don’t draw negative attention to yourself prior to speaking
– Don’t apologize “I’m really nervous” “sorry I’m not that prepared”
– Don’t name drop
– Don’t start with a long quotation
In a conclusion, you conclude logically first and psychologically second. Why does it work in reverse of the introduction?
– People are more likely to remember what they hear last, so we must choose our final words carefully. In the conclusion you end with psychological closure because you want the listeners to walk away satisfied and feel like you have touched them.
Psychological closure
This is important because you have to think about how you want your listeners to feel at the end of your speech.
Placing your ideas in a larger context is important for your listeners because
you want to show them how they tie back to the original larger picture. You also might want to build on the points you established in order to highlight broader implications or ramifications of your topic
Clincher
a powerful, memorable closing. Speakers who have not prepared one tend to keep summarizing while trying to devise a good exit line. “I guess that’s all I have to say”
Conclusion pitfalls
– Ending with an apology “so I guess I rambled long enough”
– Don’t trail off
– Don’t introduce a whole new set of points
– Don’t read your conclusion
– Don’t make it too long
The key to effective conclusion is
the ability to capture the essential elements of your speech concisely, including logical and psychological closure. The best speakers end memorably with a powerful challenge, quotation, proverb, or story, creating a definitive sense of completeness.
Supporting materials
clarification or proof that can include definitions, examples, statistics, or testimony
4 forms of verbal support
1. D- Definition
2. E- Examples
3. S- statistics
4. T- testimony
Why speeches must contain varied verbal support
– It boosts your credibility by citing sources of support clearly, sharing the most relevant aspects of who, why, when, and how.
Lead-ins for citing sources
– To support this idea
– This point is verified by
– In the words of ____
– _____ put it well by saying
Reasoning
intellectual merit of your speech. Reasoning is made up of claims, data and warrants.
Claims
any statement that you need to substantiate because they are not taken for granted by your listeners
Data
the supporting material used to bolster your points
Warrant
link between claim and the data to support it. This allows the audience to bridge the connection between data and claim to understand the speakers reasoning.
The reasoning offered in a speech is essential because
it provides a bridge to span the distance between the evidence and the claim. Through reasoning a person’s interpretations of evidence becomes clear and the logic of the argument is revealed
4 forms of reasoning
1. Inductive reasoning
2. Deductive reasoning
3. Causal Reasoning
4. Reasoning by analogy
Inductive reasoning
consist of collecting enough instances to establish a pattern
Deductive reasoning
consist of making verbal statements, or premises, according to formal rules
Causal Reasoning
the backbone of all speeches that deal with policy and problem solving. Example: two events occur together or in sequence without one causing the other. Morning sickness and weight gain occur together, but neither causes the other; they are the result of a third party condition; pregnancy. To prove causal relationship you must show both concurrent presence and concurrent absence
Reasoning by analogy
we compare two things that can be placed in the same category. People look to similar examples when they want to understand something
Fallacies

reasoning used improperly, drawing unjustified conclusions

by learning to link evidence to a claim through reasoning, a speaker can help make meaning together with the audience.

Style
your choice of words and the way you string them together
In what core ways do oral style and written style differ?
Written style is more permanent. Listeners expect to hear patterns that reflect the norms of conversation. Oral speeches, listeners have but one contact with each word, and memory is the only replay. Because a listener cannot look back or ahead, oral styles uses more repetition, sign pointing, internal summaries, and internal previews to ensure comprehensions and make the organization clear.
Differences between written and oral style
Written style
As mentioned above
That is unlikely to resultOral style
as I said a few min ago
well. Maybe

Why is clarity important in your language?
Because if you are not clear, speakers and listeners can end up with totally different images. To construct a clear message you must know exactly, not approximately, what you want to communicate. Consider who the revivers of your message are an what the words are likely to mean to the,
4 things to appropriate language
1. Suit the formality of the situation
2. Use jargon or slang carefully
3. Avoid substandard usage
4. Use language that is respectful and inclusive
Why is vivid and varied language desirable?
– You can keep your listeners attentive and interested by avoiding generic, bland and predictable language. Your audience is must more likely to remember your message if it filled with vivid imagery.
– Use imagery
– Use stylistic devices: simile and metaphor, personification, hyperbole, repetitive language or structure
Speaking “in sync” with your listeners
– This involves listening and engaging in audience dialogue to reveal the terms and categories that organize their reality. Matching words or phrases is important because paying attention to the audience words gives you clues about how they see the world.
Attention getter techniques
-Activity or movement
-Reality- references to actual people, events, places
-Proximity-referring to what is close at hand
-Familiarity
-Suspense
-Conflict
4 principles to follow in your attention getter
1. Be specific and use real life examples- examples are always more interesting when they are specific and real.
2. Keep your audience involved- use something “closer to home” like the names of people in the audience, refer to details in the immediate setting, ask for a show of hands
3. Use variety and movement to energize your speech- by changing your vocal tone, your stance, or body positions, your gestures and eye gaze you can attract and maintain attention.
4. Use humor when appropriate- infusion of humor can ease tension, deflate opponents, enhance speakers image, and make points memorable.
What are the ways you can convert attention to interest?
– Link your topic to your listeners’ self interest
– Incorporate storytelling
– Doing this is important because when audience members become more than merely attentive, but actually interested, they begin to take a more active role. Pushing distractions aside, they put forth the effort to stay with you, even though complicated lines of thought
Attention getter pitfalls
-Don’t let a story or joke take over your speech
-Don’t tell jokes you can’t tell well
-Don’t let audience participation cause you to lose control
Credibility
the combination of perceived qualities that makes listeners predisposed to believe you
4 components of speaker credibility
1. Are you perceived as competent
2. Are you percepived as concerned about your audience welfare
3. Are you perceived as trustworthy
4. Are you perceived as dynamic
Build your credibility through your words
-Present your credentials
-Demonstrate a thorough understanding of your topic
-Be sure material is clearly organized
-Present a balanced, objective analysis
-Express your concern for the audience
Build your credibility with your delivery
Eye contact, confidence, natural gestures, dynamic tone, etc.
– When implemented ethically, appeals to emotion can have powerful effects on audience members understand and motivation to act.
– When implemented ethically, appeals to emotion can have powerful effects on audience members understand and motivation to act.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
the lower-level needs have to be met or satisfied before an individual can become concerned with the needs on the next higher level.
Relate your speech to listeners’ values
– Use universal dimensions that capture common values affecting human behavior.
– Striver: values power, status, ambition, health, and fitness
– Fun seeker: excitement, leisure, individuality
– Creative
– Devour
– Intimate
– Altruist
Keep in touch with contemporary values by
paying attention to editorial writers and news commentators can help you get a clearer picture of the national mood.
– A speech with too much emphasis on feelings can embarrass and offend the audience. If listeners perceive that the speaker is playing on their emotions
to the exclusion of sense of logic, they can become infuriated.