Public Policy

The largest source of federal revenue is
income tax
one of the formal tools used by the Congress for oversight of the bureaucracy is
authorization of spending
A president attempting to influence Congress to pass a legislative program might employ all of the following EXCEPT
denying campaign re-election funds to legislators who oppose the President’s policy stand
Diversity of public policy throughout the United States is primarily a consequence of
All of the following have contributed to an increase in presidential power in the post-1945 era EXCEPT
Legislation granting the President power to impound funds appropriated by Congress
All of the following are consequences of the federal system in the United States EXCEP
a strict division of power among levels of government
A tax whereby poor citizens pay a higher percentage of their incomes compared with wealthier citizens is known as a
Regressive tax
In general, Congress is most likely to defer to the President:
in the area of foreign policy
Fiscal policies refer to the government’s power to
tax and spend
Which of the following policies involves more state spending than federal spending?
Which of the following statements can be supported from the information in the table above?
Federal grants to state and local governments have increased substantially in total dollar amount since 1950.
In 1994, the federal government devoted a larger percentage of outlays to grants in 1980.
Between 1980 and 1990, grants decreased as a percentage of federal outlays
In 1994, states were more dependent on federal grants for revenue in 1990, 1970, or 1960.
I, III, and IV only
Since 1970’s, Presidents have made use of executive orders at an increasing rate because executive orders
Do not need to be passed by Congress
The terms “fiscal federalism” and “cooperative federalism” refer to situations in which
Federal, state, and local governments work together to complete a project, with the federal government providing much of the project funding
A prominent example of the process of returning more of the responsibilities of governing from the national level to the state level is
Welfare reform
Federal benefits that must be funded by Congress and must be paid to all citizens are called
Individual entitlements
Which of the following explains why any attempt to reduce Social Security benefits is difficult?
There are many voters who support social security.
Much of the steady increase in federal government expenditures since 1960 has been caused by
Increases in entitlements programs
The most significant trend in federal-state relations during the 1980s was
Shifting the responsibilities and costs for many programs to state governments
1. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service will spend money appropriated by Congress to maintain wildlife refuges. This action is an example of
Bureaucratic implementation of law
Policy that describes the impact of the federal budget (including taxes, spending, and borrowing) on the economy is referred to as which of the following
Fiscal Policy
The primary responsibility for determining monetary policy in the United States rests with the
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
All of the following are examples of a linkage institutions influencing the policy process EXCEPT
The president delivering the State of the Union Speech
Which of the following stages comes first in the policy-making process
Agenda Setting
In contrast to revenue sharing, categorical grants-in-aid provide states and local governments with
Funds to administer programs clearly specified by the federal government
Which of the following actions by the federal government best illustrates the concept of unfunded mandates
Requiring states and municipalities to provide certain services for their citizens without providing resources to pay for those services
The largest portion of “uncontrollable spending” in the federal budget is designed for which of the following
Entitlement spending
An example of discretionary item in the federal budget is
Spending on national parks
Which of the following forms of financial aid from the national government gives the states the broadest discretion in the spending of money?
Block Grants
a.) Describe what the figure above demonstrates about the distribution of government
benefits over time
b.) identify two politically relevant factors that have affected the changing
distribution of government benefits between children and elderly
c.) explain how each of the 2 factors identified in (b.) has affected the changing
distribution of government benefits
a) Social Welfare has been distributed unequally, Giving the elderly more
Welfare than children. Children originally received a larger percentage but over the years, the percentage started to lean in favor of the elderly.
b) increasing elderly population vs. low birth rates and increasing life expectancy
c) increasing elderly population: increasing number of elderly people receiving benefits
increasing life expectancy: put pressure on the interest groups such as AARP, require
more funding for each year considering health risks.