True or false. Some cancers are caused by viruses.
True or false. Most cancers are the result of mutations.
True or false. Different kinds of cancer have different risk factors.
True or False. Chemical carcinogens have the same effect in all species of animals.
what diseases increase with age?
Type 2 diabetes
True or False. Reducing the prevalence of smoking could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
True or False. Reducing salt in the American diet could reduce the risk of hypertension.
True or False. Rabbits can be given atherosclerosis by feeding them a typical American diet.
True or False. In Americans, atherosclerosis typically begins at about age 50.
False. It occurs at an early age. Diet plays a roll in formation of plaque in arteries.
What agents are included in carcinogens?
Dietary salt is believed to be a factor in causing what diseases?
True or False. Diabetes increases the risk of cancer.
True or false. Many people with diabetes are unaware that they have it.
True or false. Diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
True or false. Obesity increases the risk of diabetes.
Which is better, high LDL or high HDL?
Diet has been implicated as a cause of what diseases?
type 2 diabetes
The main sources of cholesterol in the American diet are what?
eggs, meat, and milk
True or false. Chronic usually have multiple causes.
True or False. Most biomedical research on chronic diseases requires animal models.
True or False. Chronic diseases usually develop over a long period of time.
True or false. Chronic diseases only affects old people.
True or false. Infectious diseases are treatable and preventable.
True or false. Infectious diseases have a greater effect in higher income populations.
True or false. Infectious diseases have a person-to-person mode of transmission.
True or false. Infectious diseases have the potential for bioterrorism.
True or false. Vaccination recommendation in 2013 recommends all person, regardless of age, should be vaccinated annually.
True or false. Vaccination has eliminated malaria in the U.S.
True or false. It is safe to refuse vaccinations because of protection from herd immunity.
True or false. Measles vaccination can occasionally cause autism.
True or false. Polio vaccination can occasionally cause polio.
True or false. AIDS is spread by a vector.
True or false. Syphilis is spread by sexual contact.
True or false. Typhoid fever is spread by the fecal-oral route.
True or false. Tuberculosis is spread by aerosol.
Typhoid is caused by what?
True or false. The Bubonic Plague is an emerging virus.
What are methods of interrupting the chain of infection?
True or false. Infectious diseases cannot be transmitted from animals to humans.
True or false. All infectious diseases can be cured by antibiotics.
True or false. Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death in the US
False. Chronic degenerative diseases is.
True or false. Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens.
What diseases are considered eradicable?
Measles, Smallpox, Polio
True or false. Blinding is not generally used in community trial.
True or false. Efficacy and effectiveness have the same meaning.
True or false. All clinical trials are required by law to be registered at an outset in a public database
True or false. Clinical trials detect all harmful side effects of new drugs.
True or false. The best method of testing a new drug in a clinical trial is to compare it to a placebo.
True or false. The FDA conducts clinical trials of all new drugs.
How long does FDA usually take to approve a drug?
True or false. Randomization makes the treatment and control groups more comparable.
True or false. In the Tuskegee syphilis study, the scientists deliberately infected the subjects with the syphilis bacteria.
True or false. In the Tuskegee syphilis study, the scientists conducted the study because they wanted to help the men.
True or false. In the Tuskegee syphilis study, the subjects were treated with penicillin as soon as the antibiotic was discovered.
True or false. In the Tuskegee syphilis study, the subjects were deceived about the purpose of the study.
When epidemiologists are called on to investigate an outbreak of an infectious disease, what is the first thing they must do?
agree on a case definition.
True or false. An epidemiologist investigating an outbreak of encephalitis in New York City reports that there have been 17 new cases this week. Incidence of encephalitis is the best term that best describes the number he reports.
True or false. International comparisons of cancer mortality suggest that reckless behavior primarily accounts for differences among countries in colon and rectum cancer.
True or false. A distribution of disease is comprised of the answers to the “who” “when” and “where”, as covered in chapters 4 and 5.
True or false. Is smoking the only determinant of lung cancer?
The Nurses’ Health Study is what kind of study?
If you want to compare death rates in two cities with populations that are different from one another with respect to age, you should compare:
age adjusted death rates
What type of study usually uses a placebo, are often double blind, and usually include randomization?
What were the findings of the British Doctors Study?
-deaths from heart attacks were higher in heavy smokers
-death rates from lung cancer were lower in ex-smokers than current smokers
-death rates from lung cancer increased with the amount smoked.
The Framingham Heart Study identified what risk factors for heart disease?
high cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure.
Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome is caused by what?
a contaminated food supplement
Why is John Snow called the father of epidemiology?
He was the first to use epidemiology to study and control a disease
What is the man purpose of epidemiologic surveillance?
To recognize when an outbreak is occurring so that control measures may be instituted.
Smoking is a(n)______ for lung cancer.
The New York State Health Dept. reported in 1997 that the death rate for AIDS in the state had fallen over the past year due to the efficacy of the new drugs. The incidence of HIV remained constant. What happened to the prevalence of HIV infections?
International comparisons of cancer mortality suggest that what factor accounts for differences among countries in colon and rectum cancer
True or false. Primary prevention refers to early diagnosis and prompt treatment.
What aspects of the medical system are considered part of health policy and management?
Access, Quality, Cost
NOT Risk Factors
True or false. Public health assessments include collection and analysis of information.
True or false. Most data collected by the government is used for political purposes.
True or false. Statistics can be used to calculate health risks.
True or false. The population of the US is less healthy than many other countries.
True or false. The government collects extensive data on births and deaths of its people.
What measures to limit the freedom of adults in the name of pubic health has been taken by the US or state governments?
-laws against requiring the use of seat belts in cars
-laws against using addictive drugs
-laws against drinking alcohol
True or false. Restricting individual freedoms for public health purpose is NEVER constitutional.
True or false. The sentiment that every adult individual is responsible for his or her own life best expresses the market justice view.
True or false. The NIH controls the spread of infectious diseases.
True or false. Public health law is determined by all of the following bodies, including the legislature, the executive, the courts, and nongovernmental agencies.
False. All except nongovernmental agencies.
True or false. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation providing grants to states to test strategies for providing health insurance to the poor is an example of a non-governmental agency role in public health.
True or false. Monitoring the effectiveness of intervention is an important part of the public health approach to health problems in the community
The sentiment that every adult individual is responsible for his or her own lot in life best expresses what view?
Market justice view
True or false. The CDC conducts research on the basic physiology of diseases
The U.S. constitution specifically authorizes the federal government to do what to benefit public health?
Tax and spend
True or false. Data collected by the British government helped Snow to recognize the cause of cholera
What is not true of hepatitis A? It is spread through contaminated food or water, it is usually fatal, it is caused by a virus, it is a notifiable disease?
It is usually fatal
Which of the following is not true of intervention studies: they include clinical trials, they are often double blind, they usually use a placebo, or subjects choose for themselves what their exposure is?
Subjects choose for themselves what their exposure is
If you want to compare death rates in 2 cities with populations that are different from one another with respect to age, you should compare:
Age-adjusted death rates
Scientists at the NIH are collaborating with the government of Thailand to test the effectiveness of a new vaccine in preventing HIV infection among sex workers. The women were randomly assigned to receive the experimental vaccine or an injection of salt water, and the women are then monitored for development of HIV infection. What kind of epidemiologic study is this?
International comparisons of cancer mortality suggest that ____ accounts for the differences among countries in colon and rectum cancer?
What kind of study does not use a placebo?