Psychology test #1

Introspection refers to a process by which someone examines __________ as objectively as possible.
another person’s consciousness
Which of the following is an example of an objective measure used by functionalist?
examination of anatomy and physiology
Penelope studies how the structure and function of the nervous system is related to behavior. She is a ________.
biopsychologist
According to the biopsychosocial model, what determines health? *
interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors
The empirical method of study is based on _________.
observation
What should be changed to make the following statement true? Jean Piaget is famous for his theories regarding changes in emotional ability that occur as we move from infancy to adulthood.
The word “emotional” should be changed to the word “cognitive.”
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Psychology refers to the
study of the mind
I provide Ralph with the positive reinforcerment of a candy bar when he does something I like. I punish him by squirting him with a squirt gun when he does something I don’t like. I am applying the principles of ________ in an attempt to modify Ralph’s behavior.
operant conditioning
cognitive psychology focuses on studying
thoughts and their relationship to our experiences
Which of the following exemplifies the unconditional positive regard component of client-centered therapy?
Abby tells her therapist that she tripped a small child who got in her way, and her therapist accepts this information without judgment.
Which of the following is a criticism of evolutionary psychology?
It ignores non-genetic factors in determining human behavior.
What do industrial and organizational psychology, health psychology, sport and exercise psychology, forensic psychology, and clinical psychology all have in common?
they are all examples of applied psychology
A series of dots arranged in the shape of a face will be perceived as a face, not a series of dots. A psychologist studying this phenomenon is applying the principals of
Gestalt Psychology
Dr. Bogdarian noticed that one of her students addresses her with the word mother instead of the word professor or doctor. Dr. Bogdarian applies the Principles of_________, and hypothesizes the misspeaks because he is unconsciously associating her with his mother.
psychoanalytic theory
Which of the following is a criticism of structuralism?
The process was highly subjective
Which kind of psychologist would be consulted in jury selection and witness preperation?
forensic
Guillermo spends some time each day applying the principles of structuralism to examine his own conscious experience as carefully as possible. Guillermo is engaged in ___________.
introspection
Susan wants to study prejudice, attraction, how we explain our own behavior versus how we explain the behavior of others, and how we resolve interpersonal conflicts. Susan should conduct research in the area of ________.
social psychology
___ is the tendency to ignore evidence that disproves ideas or beliefs
confirmation bias
___ can be used to assess ___
reliability; validity
A(n) ___ case study is conducted by gathering detailed information about participants who are psychological patients.
clinical
Researchers are conducting a study where they have concerns that the participant’s beliefs and/or the experimenter’s beliefs may skew the results. Therefore, they chose to conduct a ________ study.
double-blind
Which of the following represents a strong negative correlation?
-.09
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a good hypothesis?
it is complex
an upper-level psychology class is conducting an experiment on racial prejudice that involves having participants rate the likeability of faces ***SUPER LONG PARAGRAPH***
debrief participants; deception
(IRB) stands for
Institutional review board
in order to maximize the chances that experimental groups represent the population of interest, researchers should conduct _____ and _____.
benefits;cost
Harrison e al ***SUPER LONG PARAGRAPH***
dependent variable
means that there is a relationship between two or more variable
correlational research
is controlled by the experimenter
independent variable
Patwardhan et al. report data
naturalistic observation
A(n) ____ is a well-developed set of ideas that proposes an explanation for observed phenomnea
theory
___ is a reduction in the number of research participants at some drop out of the study over time
attrition
The ___ is the deep groove that seperates the brain into two halves
longtudinal fissure
which of the following is not a limbic system structure?
substantia nigra
which of the following senses is not routed through the thalmus
smell
rosemary had a stroke about a year ago and now cannot understand what people are saying to her
Wernicke’s area
a particular electrical signal being transmitted to a neuron is sufficient to generate an action potential. if the magnitude of the incoming electrical signal is doubles, the action potential will ____
undergo no changes in strength, speed, or duration
Jeremy has Parkinson’s disease, a progressive neudengerative disease
substantia nigra;acetylcholine
the somatosensory contex is responsible for processing
sensory information
which of the following senses is associated with the temporal lobe?
audition
the ___ is involved in our experience of emotion
amygdala
the ___ extends through the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
The ___ nervous system is responsible for stimulating digestion and causing the bladder to contract
parasympathic
agonist bind to ___ and antagonist bind to ___
receptors;receptorss
Which two neurotransmitters have roles in appetite suppression?
dopamine; norepinephrine
Broca’s area is located in which lobe of the brain?
frontal
Which of the following areas is located in the frontal lobe of the brain?
Broca’s lobe
Sensory and motor neurons of the ___ nervous system are associate with activities traditionally thought of as conscious or voluntary
somatic
The myelin sheath consists of a(n)
glial cell
Which psychological perspective might advance the argument that our sleep patterns evolved as an adaptive response to predatory risks, which are higher during periods of darkness?
evolutionary
Which of the following would be experienced during a euphoric high?
feeling of intense elation and pleasure
When Brady is hot he sweats. When Brady is cold, he gets goose bumps and his skin will warm up more quickly. This is an example of how the body tries to achieve ____
Homeostasis
The social cognitive theory of hypnosis suggests that ___
People in hypnotic states are performing the social role of a hypnotized person
Morphine is considered a(n) ___ drug because it decreases pain
opioid
Marlowe wakes up from a dream about his teeth falling out. He looks in a dream dictionary and finds losing teeth is usually dream symbolism for anxiety. Marlowe is focused on the ____ content.
latent
In a ___ dream, people become aware that they are dreaming and can control the dream’s content
lucid
Mona lives in North Carolina. She takes an overnight flight to California to visit with family for a month; when she arrives she is fatigued, sluggish, and irritable. For the next week or so she has trouble sleeping. Mona is probably suffering from ___
jet lag
Which of the following is an example of wakefulness?
Jemma, competing in a marathon
Mohammed is sleeping. His eyelids are quivering because his eyes are darting around. Mohammed is probably experiencing ____ sleep.
REM
What can you do to realign your biological clock with the external world when you work a rotating shift?
Expose yourself to bright light while working
The ___ rhythm is the biological rhythm that occurs over approximately 24 hours.
Circadian
The sleep debt is the result of ___
insufficient sleep on a chronic basis
Tayla smokes marijuana. At first, a few inhalations were enough to cloud her mind. Over time, she needs to smoke more and more to achieve the same affect. This is an example of ____
tolerance
NREM sleep is a period of sleep ___
outside periods of REM sleep
Alcohol is considered a ___ because it tends to suppress central nervous system activity
Depressant
After Omar falls asleep he feels a sense of panic, screams, and attempts to escape from his room. Which parasomnia does Omar have?
night terrors
The hidden meaning of a dream is called the ___ content
latent
Mescaline is considered a ___ drug because it results in profound alterations in sensory and perceptual experiences.
hallucinogenic
Sleepwalking is also referred to as ____
somnambulism
Behaviorists study
learned behavior
Peter is interested in pursuing a ___ training program with Center for Disease Control and Prevention after he receives his PhD.
postdoctoral
Lucy wants to study change in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, and social behavior across the lifespan. Lucy should specialize in ___ psychology
Cognitive
Behaviorism focuses on making psychology an objective science by *
studying how emotional responses influence behavior while deemphasizing the importance of the subconscious
___ assesses the consistency of observations by different observers.
interrate reliability
Which of the following is a scientific way of determining facts?
Empirical studies
___ research studies the same groups of participants over time
longitudinal
Stan and Jenny are in a psychology course that requires them to repeat an experiment that researchers have conducted in the past, in order to determine whether they produce the same results. This is called ___ *
replication
Ainsley is participating in a study that aims to determine whether the occipital cortex becomes more active in response to moving versus stationary stimuli. When she arrives at the lab, she ingests a “tracer” and then enters the scanning machine. What type of brain imaging is most likely being conducted in this study?
(PET)
The ___ nervous system is responsible for responses such as pupil dilation, increased heart rate, and increased respiration
sympathetic
Who was the first person referred to as a psychologist?
William Wundt
Which kind of psychological area does the work of Jean Piaget exemplify?
developmental psychology
In order to maximize the chances that experimental groups represent the population of interest, researchers should conduct _____
random sampling; random group assignment
Magali and Jean-Gabriel have been asked to design a study investigating happiness across the lifespan. They decide their study will involve going to the mall and asking people of a variety of ages if they are happy or unhappy. What is the most serious flaw of this design?
They have not defined happiness or how it will be measured.
A(n) is a variable that affects both variables of interest and may falsely give the impression of a cause-and-effect relationship
confounding variable
Sensory and motor neurons of the ________ nervous system are associated with activities traditionally thought of as conscious or voluntary.
somatic
The central nervous system consists of the brain and the ____
spinal cord
The electrical signal that typically moves from the cell body down the axon to the axon terminals.
action potential
Jennifer has been depressed for several months, and she decided to take an overdose of sleeping pills. After taking the pills, her breathing rate decreased dramatically, her heart slowed down, and her blood pressure decreased. Which brain structure is the drug acting on?
medulla
Randolf is walking down the street of his hometown, after being away for several years, when he smells the scent of freshly baked pie coming from a local baker. He suddenly has vivid memories of walking down this street as a child, holding both of his parents’ hands, and swinging between them, feeling relaxed and happy. This is because the sense of smell projects directly to the ________, which is responsible for ________ memories.
limbic; emotional
The ___ is the difference in charge between the intracellular and extracellular space of a neuron
resting potential
is a neurotransmitter with roles in pleasure and pain modulation
norepinephrine
Which researcher believed that dreams simply reflect life events that are important to the dreamer?
Rosalind Cartwright
Which of the following is an example of a synthetic
meth
A state of ___, as shown by EEG recordings of new practitioners, is not an altered state of consciousness; however, patterns of brain waves exhibited by expert practitioners may represent a unique state of consciousness.
meditation
In which state of sleep do sleep spindles appear
2
A theta wave is a type of ___
Which theorist suggested that dreaming may represent a state of protoconsciousness
John Hobson
Sandra strongly believes that attending daycare is detrimental to children’s development so she decides to write her psychology term paper on this topic. She does a literature search and finds several sources supporting her opinion, but she finds that the majority of research indicates that children attending daycare experience healthy development. She writes a paper using the sources that find negative associations with daycare attendance. This is an example. of ___________.
confirmation bias
Dmitris is in a car accident and his parietal lobe is injured. Which of the following is the most likely behavioral effect of his accident?
no sensation in his legs and feet
The ___ connects the brain and the spinal cord
medulla
The ___ is located deep within the brain, and it includes structures such as the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area
midbrain
____ is a neurotransmitter involved in mood, reward, addiction, and motor behavior.
dopamine
Which of the following is not in a forebrain structure?
hippocampus
Psychotropic medications are drugs that treat psychiatric symptoms by restoring __ balance
neurotransmitter
Of adoptees whose biological mothers had schizophrenia and who were raised in disturbed family environments, 36.8% were likely to develop schizophrenia; of adoptees whose mothers did not have schizophrenia and who were raised in disturbed family environments, 5.3% were likely to develop schizophrenia. What is the most appropriate conclusion of these results?
Environmental factors and genetic factors interact to determine whether a person is likely to develop schizophrenia.
Cataplexy is a symptom associated with
narcolepsy
Melatonin release is stimulated by ____ and inhibited by ____
darkness;light
___________ theory suggests that when people are hypnotized they have voluntarily divided their conscious: one half aware of reality and the other half tuned in to the hypnotist
dissociatve