Psychology Paper Parenting Styles
Parenting Styles, Discipline, and Behavioral Outcomes Many psychologists throughout history have indulged in studies related to parenting behavior and how children are affected from such behavior.The work of Diana Baumrind, which is considered to be one of the most influential and well-studied theories of parenting behavior, was the first to identify three styles of parenting (Sclafani 44).These styles of parenting are called authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive.
This paper will further explain descriptions of these styles and the typical behaviors of children as a result of each style.
This paper will also provide insight on the parenting style I was raised on along with my thoughts on types of discipline I might use in the future with my own child. As discussed in the introduction, there are three different styles of parenting, authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Each style has different characteristics and outcomes of behavior from a child, both negative and positive. Authoritative parenting is considered most effective. Authoritative parents provide direction and clear rules but not for the sake of blind obedience (Kimball 44).
Authoritative parents are willing to discipline the child if misbehavior occurs and rewards behavior that is considered accomplished. Authoritative parenting also provides the nurture and acceptance and enforces independence a child needs as they grow older. This parenting style is associated with high achieving children. These children are typically well-mannered, well- behaved, and goal- oriented. These children also have self- confidence and are excellent in engaging in group activities with peers.
Through research it has also been found that fewest numbers of drug issues and problems when the children reach adolescence are associated with this parenting style (Sclafani 46). Another parenting style to discuss is the authoritarian parenting style. With this parenting style, parents provide little nurture and acceptance but are extremely controlling and demanding. These parents strongly believe in rule enforcement and order. Authoritarian parents normally do not interact with their children in positive ways and usually install fear into the child. Punishment is usually harsh and given without explanation.
Children with authoritarian parents are often anxiety- ridden. Studies have shown that these children have lower self- esteem, show high aggressiveness and typically do less well in school. Permissive parenting consists of high nurture and acceptance, but these parents lack structure and control. These parents look at their children as “free spirits” who need space to learn and grow. Permissive parents are usually inconsistent with discipline. Children with permissive parents normally are impulsive and irresponsible. These children also lack any self- control since none was expected (Sclafani 47).
What exactly causes a teenager to rebel? This question is asked by millions of parents across the nation. Adolescents are in the formal operational thought stage. Parents must realize that their teenage children will have the desire to make their own decisions and challenge any inconsistent discipline. In the broadcast video, Teens: What makes them tick, when questioned why they choose to rebel, the majority of teenagers had one main reason, they are pulling away from their parents. With authoritarian parents, teenagers feel trapped and unloved.
These parents are constantly nagging, lecturing and focusing on the negative aspects along with being punitive. The teenager begins to believe the negativity and ultimately has identity foreclosure. Normally, these teenagers lack self- confidence and find ways to deal with these internal issues. Teenagers can partake in unhealthy habits such as substance abuse, becoming promiscuous, or engaging in activities outside of the room to stay away. Teenagers of permissive parents normally rebel in similar ways but have different reasoning. With permissive parents, no boundaries are set and the adolescent has total freedom to do as he or she chooses.
These adolescents are normally aggressive as well, especially if parents “cave in” to the aggressiveness to avoid confrontation. When I was an adolescent, I was raised by my father since my mother did not play an active role in my life. I would classify my father’s style of parenting as authoritative. Sure, my father had his days when the other styles were apparent but for the most part he was consistent. There was plenty of love and nurture along with clear boundaries set. My father listened and sympathized with me, providing guidance as I grew older.
My father’s techniques were very effective although it took a while to set in along with my character. It is because of my father, I strive to better myself every day. Discipline plays a huge role in shaping a child’s personality and behavior. In the future, I plan on taking the authoritative approach with my child. I want my child to be involved and able to make their own decisions. I plan on giving responsibilities that is age appropriate. When my child misbehaves, I will not resort to physical and verbal punishment. I rather give “time- outs” and later explain why that behavior is not allowed and inappropriate.
I want to set clear boundaries and rules and explain them not in a negative aspect, but how these boundaries and rules will benefit my child. Last but not least, I will give praise when deserved and encourage my child to continue accomplishments. As discussed in my paper, different parenting styles can make a world of difference in a child’s behavior. Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive all have different outcomes. These styles also depend on the parent’s state of mind and past experiences. These parenting styles can shape a child’s future and create an image of how that child views itself. 914