Psychology of Learning Chapter 10

According to the author of your text, observational learning involves observing
events and their consequences.
Jill is an impressionable 17-year-old college freshman with average academic skills. She lives in the
college dorms with two roommates. One of them, Martha, is bright, attractive, popular, rich, and a
local celebrity because of her singing; she seldom studies. Jill’s other roommate, Ann, is also bright,
but has only a few friends, wears inexpensive clothes, and plays the tuba poorly; she studies all the
time. On the basis of what you know about observational learning, you predict that Jill will ______.
flunk out
Keith and Catherine Hayes found that their adoptee, Viki, learned more from observing models than some children of about the same age. This was surprising because Viki was a _________.
chimpanzee
Whether children imitate an aggressive model depends largely on ________.
whether the model’s behavior is reinforced or punished
Learning is a change in behavior due to experience. In observational learning, the experience consists of _______.
observing events and their consequences
The learning history of observers has a powerful influence on what they learn from models. This is illustrated by the fact that chimpanzees that have had __________ training get more from observing a model than those that have not.
language
Social observational learning may be defined as _________.
events and their consequences
The earliest experiments on observational learning were performed by ______.
observing events and their consequences
Lyons, Young, and Keil actively encouraged children not to imitate the acts of a model that were irrelevant to solving a problem. The result was that the children _________.
imitated the irrelevant acts
The operant learning model of observational learning takes the _________.
natural science approach
Ellen Levy and her colleagues found that children would imitate a model’s reinforced preferences for _______.
pictures
Fisher and Harris found that observers learned more when a model _______.
frowned and shook her head
In Bandura’s theory of observational learning, steps taken during observation to improve later recall of a model’s behavior are called ________.
retentional processes
The influence of literary models on behavior was seen in the 18th century with the publication of _________.
The Sorrows of Young Werther
If an observer looks on as a model’s behavior is reinforced, we speak of _______.
vicarious reinforcement
Judith Fisher and Mary Harris found that if a model wore an eye patch, observers learned _______.
more from the model’s behavior
Of the following terms, the one most associated with Bandura’s theory is ________.
retentional processes
In a study by Hopper and colleagues, some observers watched a model slide a door and retrieve a desired item. Other observers saw the door slide in the absence of a model, revealing the desired item. The latter procedure is called the __________ condition.
ghost
Those who are most likely to learn from observing a model are probably _______.
adults
In the Thompson and Russell two-mat study, children who observed a model __________.
did better than those who did not observe the model
Learning is a change in behavior due to experience. In observational learning, the experience consists of _______.
observing events and their consequences
You hear on the radio that Smash, the most popular rock music performer in Germany, has killed
himself. He left a note (“Goodbye, cruel world”). You predict that _______.
there will be a rash of suicides or suicidal gestures among German rock music fans
Kanfer and Marston found that college students imitated the reinforced word choices of models. In their study, the observers _______.
listened to models on a tape
The tendency to imitate modeled behavior even when doing so is not reinforced is called _______.
generalized imitation
Herbert and Harsh compared the behavior of cats that had observed a model perform an act 30 times with cats that had observed only 15 performances. They found that _________.
cats that observed 30 performances did substantially better than those that observed 15