Psychology – Exam 1 – Study Guide

psychology
the study of the mind, brain, and behavior
4
there are ___ levels of analysis
biological
the level of analysis dealing with cells, connections between cells, neurochemicals, hormones, the genome, and the epigenome
individual
the level of analysis dealing with thoughts, feelings, beliefs, ideas, desires, and personality
social
the leve l of analysis that deals with relationships between people, influence groups of people, and culture
environment
the level of analysis dealing with nature, buildings without windows, lighting, noises, weather, and seasons
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43%
____ (percentage) of subjects in the moffitt & caspi study who had the “short” serotonin transporter gene and who had experienced 4+ stressfull events were clinically depressed
17%
____ (percentage) of the subjects in the moffitt & caspi study who had the “long” serotonin transporter gene and had experienced 4+ stressful events were clinically depressed
17%
the average rate of depression
17%
___ (percentage) of people in the moffitt & caspi study with the “short” serotonin transporter gene and no stressful experiences
operational definition
specifying what you will measure
descriptive
aka naturalistic observation: see patterns in real world through simple observation as they are.
there isn’t any researcher influence on the participant’s behavior
strengths of descriptive studies
you can’t determine causality
weaknesses of descriptive studies
correlational
studies where relationships between two or more variables are measured but not manipulated
can study variables that can’t or don’t need to be manipulated
strengths of correlational studies
you can’t determine causality
weaknesses of correlational studies
experimental
studies that involve the random assignment of both experimental and control groups
ability to determine causality
strengths of experimental studies
you can’t always manipulate a variable (ethically, realistically, etc.)
weaknesses of experimental studies
confound
a third, unaccounted for variable that could also explain the link between two other studied variables
correlation
an apparent link between two variables being studied; not cause and effect necessarily
+1
the numerical value for a strong/positive correlation
-1
the numerical value for a strong/negative correlation
independent variable
the variable that is intentionally changed while another variable is measured. This is the treatment or the condition
dependent variable
the variable that is measured while another variable is changed. This is the outcome
drug x
“Drug x impairs short-term memory in a word-recall task.” Which is the independent variable?
short-term memory
“Drug x impairs short-term memory in a word-recall task.” Which is the dependent variable?
visualization
“athletic performance is improved by visualization.” Which is the independent variable?
athletic performance
“athletic performance is improved by visualization.” Which is the dependent variable?
reliability
if we can replicate the results of a study, it has ______
validity
if we are measuring what we set out to measure, the study has _____
response bias
the tendency of participants to respond in a particular way, generally aiming to please
sampling bias
what happens when participants aren’t chosen at random
cohort effects
a bias that comes as a result of different generations and their respective experiences
experimenter expectancy effect
a term that’s used for a researcher unknowingly cueing the participant in a study to respond a certain way
double blind design
the “cure” for the experimenter expectancy effect; researches don’t know which participant is control and which is experimental
true
socioeconomic status and education level are examples of biases, too
neuron
a cell in the nervous system specialized to receive, process, and/or transmit information to other cells
dendrite
the part of the neuron that receives incoming messages
resting potential
the stage of neuron firing that involves a negative charge inside the neuron, relative to the outside
stimulation
___________ causes neurons to move away from their resting potential
action potential
when neurons move away from their resting potential, they move into their ______
positive
during the action potential, particles with a ______ charge enter the neuron
depolarized
during action potential, after the new particles enter the neuron, the neuron becomes __________
some positively charged particles leave
how does a neuron return to its resting potential?
3
how many different classes of neurons are there?
sensory
a class of neurons that receives information from the world and sends it to the brain via the spinal cord
afferent
another name for the sensory neuron
motor
the class of neurons that carries signals from the spinal cord to the muscles and glands
efferent
another name for the motor neuron
interneurons
the class of neurons that connect all three types of neurons, and account for most of the neurons in the brain
acetylcholine
the neurotransmitter that enables muscle contraction and memory
alzheimer’s
the result of a malfunction in acetylcholine in the body
delusions
the result of a shortage of acetylcholine in the body
tremors
the result of an excess of acetylcholine in the body
dopamine
the neurotransmitter that deals with motivation, reward, movement, thought, and learning
parkinson’s
the result of a malfunction of dopamine in the body
ADHD
the result of a shortage of dopamine in the body
schizophrenia
the result of an excess of dopamine in the body
glutamate
the neurotransmitter that enhances action potentials, learning, and memory
learning disorders
the result of a malfunction of glutamate in the body
lethargy
the result of a shortage of glutamate in the body
serotonin
the neurotransmitter that regulates mood and sleep
OCD
the result of a malfunction of serotonin in the body
depression
the result of a shortage of serotonin in the body
lack of motivation
the result of an excess of serotonin in the body
GABA
the neurotransmitter that inhibits the sending neuron; basically, it ensures that there won’t be over-firing.
anxiety
the result of a malfunction of GABA in the body
epilepsy
the result of a shortage of GABA in the body
lack of motivation
the result of an excess of GABA in the body
myelin sheath
the part of the neuron that insulates the axon and allors for the rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
prozac, soloft, and paxil
block the reuptake of serotonin
how do SSRIs work?
AMPA receptor modulators
drugs that act on glutamate
enhance glutamate transmission between neurons
how do AMPA receptor modulators work?
increases the sensitivity of the neurons so they communicate more rapidly
how do calcium channel receptor modulators work?
blocks the reuptake of dopamine
how cocaine works
binds to GABA receptors and allows more negatively charged ions to go through
how alcohol works
increase the flow of dopamine
how opiates work
epilepsy
penfield’s surgeries were on patients suffering from this disorder
electric current
what penfield used to deactivate a certain area of brain tissue
reactivated
more distant brain regions were _____ as a result of penfield’s surgery
specific memory recollection
the effect penfield’s surgeries had on patients
central nervous system & peripheral nervous system
the two main divisions of the nervous system
sensory-somatic nervous system & autonomic nervous system
the two subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system
sympathetic & parasympathetic
the two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system
brain & spinal cord
what is included in the central nervous system?
brain
the center of control for the body
spinal cord
the information pipeline for the body
false
true/false: the spinal cord always acts dependently on the brain
interneuron
if the brain is going to interfere with a “knee jerk reaction,” where will the interference take place?
sensory-somatic
the nervous system that deals with the skin, eyes, ears, skeletal muscles; it accounts for things like hunger and pain, and it pays attention to both the internal and external environments
voluntary
the sensory-somatic nervous system deals with ______ (voluntary/involuntary) movements mostly
autonomic
the nervous system that includes the heart, lungs, etc.
involuntary
the autonomic nervous system mostly deals with _____ (voluntary/involuntary) movements
sympathetic
the part of the autonomic system that occurs during stressful situations
symptoms of an active sympathetic nervous system
dilated pupils, relaxed lungs, accelerated heartbeat, inhibited activity in the stomach, and contracted blood vessels are all:
parasympathetic
the part of the autonomic system that occurs during non-stressful situations
symptoms of an active parasympathetic nervous system
contracted pupils, constricted lungs, slow heartbeat, stimulated stomach activity, and dilated blood vessels are all:
4
there are ___ lobes in the cerebral cortex
frontal
the lobe located behind the eyes/forehead
parietal
the lobe located in the top/back of the head
occipital
the lobe located in the lower/back of the skull
temporal
the lobe located right above and to the sides of the ear
vision
the occipital lobe is primarily devoted to _____
occipital
the secondary functions of the _____ lobe are the processing of spacial information, color, some motion, and form
sound, language, & the storage of new information in the memory
the three primary functions of the temporal lobe
temporal
the secondary function of the _______ lobe is the storage of visual memory
sense of touch
the parietal lobe is largely responsible for our _____
parietal
other functions of the ______ lobe are attention and the representation of spacial relationships of ourselves and the world
frontal
functions of the _____ lobe include speech, planning, searching memory, motor processing, reasoning, and the control of emotions
key
the frontal lobe is known as the ____ part of the brain
primary somatosensory cortex
the “strip” in the cerebral cortex located in front of the parietal lobe
controls & sends messages
the main function of the somatosensory cortex
primary motor cortex
the “strip” in the cerebral cortex located just behind the frontal lobe
controls & initiates movement
the main function of the primary motor cortex
phineas gage
the name of the guy who got a pole rammed through his frontal lobe