psychology chapter

Dr. Joan Goodman is studying how memory changes as people get older. She is most likely a(n) psychologist.
developmental
In Piaget’s stage of concrete operational intelligence, the child acquires an understanding of the principle of:
conservation
Piaget held that egocentrism is characteristic of the
preoperational stage
During which stage of cognitive development do children acquire object permanence?
sensorimotor
The rooting reflex occurs when a:
newborn’s cheek is touched.
Harlow’s studies of attachment in monkeys showed that
a cloth mother produced the greatest attach-ment response
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When psychologists discuss maturation, they a rereferring to stages of growth that are
notinfluenced by:
nurture.
he developmental theorist who suggested that securely attached children develop an attitude of basic trust is
Erikson
Research findings on infant motor development care consistent with the idea that
maturation of physical skills is relatively unaf-fected by experience
According to Erikson, the central psychological challenges pertaining to adolescence, young adulthood, and middle age, respectively, are
identity formation; intimacy; generativity.
In preconventional morality, the person:
obeys to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.
Which of the following is correct?
Early maturing boys are more popular andself-assured than boys who mature late
A person’s general ability to think abstractly iscalled intelligence. This ability generally with age
fluid; decreases
Among the hallmarks of growing up are a boy’s first ejaculation and a girl’s first menstrual period, which also is called
menarche.
An elderly person who can look back on life with satisfaction and reminisce with a sense of completion has attained Erikson’s stage of
integrity
According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about abstract propositions is indicative of the stage of
formal operations.
The cognitive ability that has been shown to decline during adulthood is the ability to
recall new information.
Which of the following statements concerning the effects of aging is true?
The aging process can be significantly affected by the individual’s activity patterns.
Longitudinal tests:
study the same people at different times.
The average age at which puberty begins is in boys; in girls, it is
13; 11
After puberty, the self-concept usually becomes:
more positive in both boys and girls.
Adolescence is marked by the onset of:
puberty.
Of the following, which is a possible cause of dementia?
stroke
brain tumor
alcoholism
All of the above are possible causes
The end of menstruation is called:
menopause.
The popular idea that terminally ill and bereaved people go through predictable stages, such as denial, anger, and so forth:
is not supported by research studies
Stranger anxiety develops soon after:
the concept of object permanence.
Before Piaget, people were more likely to believe that
the child’s mind is a miniature model of theadult’s.
Which is the correct sequence of stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete opera-tional, formal operation
A child can be born a drug addict because:
drugs used by the mother will pass into thechild’s bloodstream.
A child whose mother drank heavily when shew as pregnant is at heightened risk of
being born with the physical and cognitive abnormalities of fetal alcohol syndrome
Which is the correct order of stages of prenatal development?
zygote, embryo, fetus
The term critical period refers to
a restricted time for learning.
Which of the following was not
found by Harlow in socially deprived monkeys?
They showed abnormal physical develop-ment.
Most people’s earliest memories do not predate of age.
6 months
Insecurely attached infants who are left by their mothers in an unfamiliar setting often will
be indifferent toward their mothers on theirreturn.
Whose stage theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about ethical dilemmas?
is more appropriate than the longitudinalmethod for studying intellectual change overthe life span
The social clock refers to:
typical ages for starting a career, marrying,and so on.
To which of Kohlberg’s levels would moral reasoning based on the existence of fundamental human rights pertain?
postconventional morality
In Erikson’s theory, individuals generally focus on developing during adolescence and then during young adulthood
identity; intimacy
After menopause, most women:
feel a new sense of freedom.
Notable achievements in fields such a sare often made by younger adults in their late twenties or early thirties, when intelligence is at its peak
mathematics; fluid
After their grown children have left home, most couples experience:
greater happiness and enjoyment in their relationship
Underlying Alzheimer’s disease is a deterioration in neurons that produce
acetylcholine
A person’s accumulation of stored information,called intelligence, generally with age.
crystallized; increases
In terms of incidence, susceptibility to short-term illnesses with age and susceptibility to long-term ailments with ag
decreases; increases
Stage theories have been criticized because they fail to consider that development may be significantly affected by
variations in the social clock.
each individual’s experiences.
each individual’s historical and cultural set-ting.
all of the above
Research on the American family indicates that:
fewer than 23 percent of unmarried adults, but nearly 40 percent of married adults, report being “very happy” with life.
the divorce rate is now one-half the marriagerate.
of those who divorce, 75 percent remarry.
Compared to when he was younger, 4-year-oldAntonio is better able to empathize with his friend’s feelings. This growing ability to take another’s perspective indicates that Antonio is acquiring a
theory of mind.
Calvin, who is trying to impress his psychology professor with his knowledge of infant motor development, asks why some infants learn to rollover before they lift their heads from a prone position, while others develop these skills in the opposite order. What should Calvin’s professor conclude from this question
Calvin doesn’t know what he’s talking about.Although some infants reach these develop-mental milestones ahead of others, the order is the same for all infants
Deborah is a mathematician and Willie is a philosopher. Considering their professions
Deborah will make her most significant career accomplishments at an earlier age than Williewill.
Based on the text discussion of maturation and popularity, who among the following is probably the most popular sixth grader
Rob, the tallest, most physically mature boy inthe class
As a child observes, liquid is transferred from a tall, thin tube into a short, wide jar. The child is asked if there is now less liquid in order to deter-mine if she has mastered
the concept of conservation.
I am 14 months old and fearful of strangers. I am in Piaget’s stage of cognitive development
sensorimotor
I am 3 years old, can use language, and have trouble taking another person’s perspective. I am in Piaget’s stage of cognitive development
preoperational
In Piaget’s theory, conservation is to egocentrism as the stage is to the stage
concrete operational; preoperational
Four-year-old Jamail has a younger sister. When asked if he has a sister, he is likely to answer; when asked if his sister has a brother, Jamail is likely to answer
yes; no
In a 1998 movie, a young girl finds that a gaggle of geese follow her wherever she goes because she was the first “object” they saw after they were born. This is an example of
imprinting.
Joshua and Ann Bishop have a 13-month-old boy.According to Erikson, the Bishops’ sensitive, loving care of their child contributes to
the child’s sense of basic trust.
Fourteen-year-old Cassandra feels freer and more open with her friends than with her family Knowing this is the case, Cassandra’s parents should
be concerned, because deteriorating parent-teen relationships, such as this one, are oftenfollowed by a range of problem behaviors
Thirteen-year-old Irene has no trouble defeating her 11-year-old brother at a detective game that requires following clues in order to deduce the perpetrator of a crime. How might Piaget explain Irene’s superiority at the game
Being an adolescent, Irene is beginning todevelop abstract reasoning skills.
Which of the following was
not mentioned in the text as a criticism of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
t does not account for the fact that the devel-opment of moral reasoning is culture-specific.
Sixty-five-year-old Calvin cannot reason as well as he could when he was younger. More than likely, Calvin’s intelligence has declined
they compare people who are not only differ-ent in age, but of different eras, education lev-els, and affluence
Which statement illustrates cognitive development during the course of adult life?
Adults in their forties have better recall mem-ory than adults in their seventies.
Given the text discussion of life satisfaction pat-terns, which of the following people is likely to report the greatest life satisfaction?
too little information to tell
Which of the following statements is consistent with the current thinking of developmental psychologists?
The consistency of personality in most peopletends to increase over the life span
Sam, a junior in high school, regularly attends church because his family and friends think he should. Which stage of moral reasoning is Sam in
conventional
Research on social relationships between parents and their adolescent children shows that
high school girls who have the most affection-ate relationships with their mothers tend toenjoy the most intimate friendships with girl-friends.
Most contemporary developmental psychologists believe that
the shaping of personality continues during adolescence and well beyond
After a series of unfulfilling relationships, 30-year-old Carlos tells a friend that he doesn’t want to marry because he is afraid of losing his freedom and independence. Erikson would say that Carlos is having difficulty with the psychosocial task of:
intimacy versus isolation.
Research on the relationship between self-reported happiness and employment in American women has revealed that:
the quality of a woman’s experience in her various roles is more predictive of happiness than the presence or absence of a given role